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150,000 inhabitants, has seven public schools, established by the rectors of as many parishes, assisted by the commission of charitable subsidies, and in which about 500 poor boys, between the ages of five and twelve, are instructed gratis ; and seven kept by regular congregations, namely, two by the Scolopj, two by the Fathers of the Christian Doctrine, and three by the Brothers of the Christian Schools, vulgarly called Ignorantelli. These are a sort of middle, or town schools, in which there are from two to four teachers of grammar, arithmetic, calligraphy, and the elements of history and geography; the Ignorantelli teach also outline drawing. Some of them are gratuitous, in others the pupils pay a trifling remuneration ; but, generally speaking, in all the schools kept by the clergy in Italy poverty is no obstacle to admission. These seven schools kept by regular congregations teach about 2,000 pupils. There are besides sixty private schools, called regionarie, in which 2,000 more children are taught reading, writing, and arithmetic; in some also the elements of Latin and of French, of history and geography, by paying from half a dollar to one dollar a month each. These schools are subject to the inspection of a deputation of clergymen, who visit them occasionally and report to the Cardinal Vicario, who is the acting Bishop of Rome. These regionary schools must be two hundred yards distant from each other. Several charitable foundations, such as the Orphan and Foundling Asylums, &c., give elementary education to about 500 more boys. The handsome and well-regulated charitable establishment of San Michele, which is supported by Government, is provided with excellent instructors of both sexes, who teach 220 boys and about 200 girls, all boarders, various trades and professions, including the art of drawing. It is a real school of industry, which has produced several distinguished artists. It is calculated that there is yet at Rome one-fourth part of the boys between five and twelve years of age in want of elementary instruction. Rome has fifty-four parishes, and if they were all to imitate the example of the seven which have established parish-schools, there would be ample accommodation for the education of all. The elementary education for a certain number of
poor girls is afforded by the Conservatorj, where they are boarded, lodged, and instructed, and, as soon as they are able, work at different trades, spin, weave, make gloves, ribbons, &c. The produce of their labour often supplies the greater part of the expense of the establishment: the rest is made up by legacies and other charities. All the service of the house is performed by the girls themselves. The discipline of these houses is much less austere than that of convents. In the country towns and villages there are masters paid out of the communal fund to instruct gratis the poor boys; and mistresses, called maestre pie, who teach the girls. The rector or curate of each parish explains the catechism every Sunday afternoon to the children of both sexes.
An evening school has been lately opened at Rome by some benevolent clergymen for the children of the working classes, who, after their daily occupations are over, are instructed gratis, and supplied with paper, pens, &c. This is an example which deserves to be imitated.
Upon the whole, much remains to be done at Rome, and especially in the provinces, for the elementary education of the poor classes.
KINGDOM OF THE TWO SICILIES.
This most important part of Italy, with a population of seven millions and a half, by far the largest and most populous state of the Peninsula, is yet the one upon which our statistical information is most scanty. As, however, the Neapolitans have begun to publish their statistical journals, we may soon expect to have some authentic details upon the present state of education. We know that in the continental part of the kingdom there is a junta of instruction sitting at Naples, having under its direction provincial commissions of three individuals in each province. In Sicily there is, for the same object, a commission residing at Palermo.
There are three Universities : Naples, which is frequented by about 1500 students; Palermo, frequented by about 600; and Catania, frequented by about 500. The Caroline Academy at Messina also confers doctors' degrees in law or medicine. There are also four lycea, Salerno, Catanzaro, Aquila, and Bari, which confer the minor degrees, but not the laurea.
The secondary instruction is supplied by twelve royal colleges and thirty-three secondary schools in the continental provinces, and by twenty-one colleges in Sicily. For the female education there are two public establishments, educandati, at Naples, and one at Palermo. The rest is supplied by the convents.
For the essentary, or primary instruction, there is, or ought to be. jy law, in every commune of the Continental States, a buys' school for reading, writing, arithmetic, and the catechism. In Sicily there is yet no general system for the same object: nor is there any general public system of female elementary education in either division of the kingdom.
By comparing the state of secondary instruction in the kingdom of the two Sicilies with that of the same instruction in the Sardinian monarchy and in the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, we perceive that the proportion of establishments of this class to the population is, in the Sardinian States, one for every 15,000 inhabitants; in the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, one for every 39,000; while in the kingdom of the two Sicilies the proportion is, for the continental territories, one for every 129,000 inhabitants; and in Sicily, one for every 80,000. This may serve as a test of the state of instruction among the higher and middle classes in each of the three kingdoms. It is remarkable that the proportion should be much more favourable in Sicily than in Naples, which may perhaps be accounted for by the political institutions which the Sicilians always enjoyed until lately; such as their parliaments, composed of three estates, baronial, ecclesiastical, and the representatives of the towns; and their municipalities, which gave a stimulus to instruction in the higher, and in a part of the middle classes,-a stimulus of which the kingdom of Naples has been deprived for ages past. At the same time the feudal system, which was abolished hardly a quarter of a century ago both in Naples and in Sicily, tended to keep the lower classes in both countries in a state of ignorance and degradation, which may account for the deficiency in elementary instruction, as compared with North Italy, and especially Lombardy. The state of female instruction, both high and low, is also more inferior in the kingdom of the two Sicilies than in any other Italian country, the Papal State not excepted; and the difference resulting from this is apparent to those who are at all acquainted with the society of both countries. The general result then stands thus: for the secondary or collegiate education of the higher and middle classes, the Sardinian Continental States stand highest, next come Lombardy and Venice, then the Papal State, the kingdom of the two Sicilies, and the island of Sardinia last of all. For elementary education of the lower classes, Lombardy stands by far the highest; next come the Sardinian States, including the island, then the Papal State, and the two Sicilies last. With regard to the number of those who receive university education, the Papal State stands highest; but the university education received at Pavia is the best in quality.
Of Tuscany a full account has been given in No. III. of
this Journal. We may add, that since 1830 much has been done to forward elementary education among the people, although there is yet no general system established. In the towns there are very good gratuitous schools for primary. education. Lancasterian schools have been established in various parts of the country. The good Fathers Scolopj, who all over Italy stand foremost in their exertions for educating the people, have lately adopted the system of mutual instruction in some of their classes. Holiday schools (we cannot call them Sunday schools, for in Catholic countries there are many more holidays besides Sundays) begin also to be established, through the exertions of philanthropic individuals. The meritorious Abate Lambraschini, mentioned already in a former article, has established one at Figline in the Valdarno. But elementary education in Tuscany is still in a much inferior state to that of Lombardy.
Of the other three minor States of Italy, the duchy of Parma, with a population of 454,000, has two superior schools, one at Parma and the other at Piacenza, in lieu of the University of Parma, which was suppressed in 1831. The superior school of Parma has a complete course of medicine and surgery, besides philosophy and theology, with twenty-five professors. It is frequented by about 400 students, and has a library of 90,000 volumes. The school of Piacenza has a complete course of law, with thirteen professors : it is attended by about 200 students.
The secondary instruction is given in eight secondary schools, frequented by 530 pupils, besides two colleges for boarders ; one at Parma, under the direction of the Benedictines, with forty-eight boarders; and the College Alberoni at Piacenza, founded by the famous cardinal of that name, with fifty-four boarders, under the direction of the Fathers of the Missions.
There are four houses of education for females, three of which are under the direction of religious congregations, having altogether ninety-four boarders.
The elementary instruction is given in 110 communal schools, frequented by 3,930 boys, besides 70 licensed private schools, attended by 1,400 boys; and nine more primary schools, in seminaries, colleges, and charitable houses, which teach 320 boys, One-fourth of the communes are still without elementary schools. There are no regular elementary communal schools yet established for females ; but there are several schools in various convents and hospices, besides private schools, in all about 184, frequented by about 4,000 girls. The children instructed are therefore to the
population as one in forty-seven, while in the neighbouring Lombardy it is one in twelve.
The duchy of Modena and Massa, with a population of •350,000, has, instead of the university lately suppressed, four schools of law, one of medicine, and one lyceum. The number of students is not stated.
The secondary instruction is given in three schools of philosophy and five colleges for boarders, two of which are under the direction of the Jesuits. There are five houses of education for females.
For elementary education there are twelve to schools for boys, mostly under the direction of the Fathers San Filippo Neri, and about as many schools for girls under the direction of various nuns. The towns are well supplied with elementary schools, but not the rural districts. In general, education in the duchy of Modena is in the hands of the monastic clergy, more than in any other Italian state.
The duchy of Lucca, with 150,000 inhabitants, has a lyceum with twenty-eight professors, with a complete academical course of studies, frequented by 180 students; a college with sixty boarders; sixteen Latin schools, attended by 427 pupils; and 102 elementary schools, one-third of which are gratuitous, attended by 2310 boys. There are two superior houses of education for females, besides a charitable foundation with 450 boarders. In the country districts many of the parish priests keep elementary schools; but still elementary education is far from being in a flourishing state in the Duchy of Lucca.
The rights of women, as they are termed, is a subject which has been much discussed and has led to some evil, since many of the arguments employed have created a false ambition in female minds, rendered them discontented with their true position in society, and confounded the boundaries which separate their province from that of the male. What these rights are is seldom really understood; they have been exaggerated by some and depreciated by others; one party, by endeavouring to force women into an unnatural position in society, which it is impossible for them to maintain, have contributed to confirm the opinion that females are incapable of great intellectual acquirements; the other party, by confining them to a life of bodily and mental drudgery, have also encouraged the belief that they are incapable of