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philosophical education, the course of which lasts two years ; two are at Milan, one at Venice, and the others in the chief provincial towns: there are also fifteen royal gymnasia in the chief towns, twelve communal gymnasia in the smaller towns, fourteen colleges for boarders, besides eighteen diocesan gymnasia for candidates for holy orders, which are under the direction of the respective bishops. All the other gymnasia and lycea are under two Directors General of Studies,' one of whom resides at Venice, and the other at Milan. For the education given in the gymnasia, see No. VI. of this Journal. There are also thirty-eight private houses of education in the different towns of the kingdom, approved of by the Directors General. There are in all 114 establishments of secondary education for males, for a population of 4,279,000, while the old continental states of the King of Sardinia have 222 similar establishments for a population of 3,250,000. This in some degree proves that information is more generally spread among the upper and middle classes of the latter kingdom. In fact, property is more distributed in Piedmont than in Lombardy; and there is a much greater number of families in easy circumstances, and fewer enormous landed proprietors than at Milan or in Lombardy in general.

In the important branch of primary education for the humbler classes, the proportions are reversed and all in favour of Lombardy. There is in every provincial town an upper elementary school of three or four classes for boys, and one for the girls, of three classes ; those of Milan and Venice have five classes, and have assumed the title of normal schools. In every commune of the kingdom there must be at least one minor elementary school for boys, and one for girls between the ages of six and twelve. These schools consist at least of two classes, and often of three The following authentic list for the year 1832, published in the Bollettino Statistico of Milan, of September, 1833, shows how successfully the system bas become established in the Lombard provinces of the kingdom.

Male Pupils. 20,898 17,381 20,656 6,983

2,196 7,239 3,411 8,173 3,938 19,165 6,125 6,954 3,271 4,678 2,275


Do. 18,668 11,797 2,959

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Number of

Boys' Provinces. Communes. Population. Schools. Bergamo 359 392,000 487 Brescia 235 329,000

346 Como

528 347,000 489 Cremona 80 180,000 146 Lodi e Crema 197 202,000 135 Mantova 74 224,000 156 Milano

388 471,000 290 Pavia


Men Do. Teachers. 452



59 162
97 184
89 317
74 149
63 183


Do. 496 267 41 45 68 102 97 68 31

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193 151,000 131 Sondrio 79 85,000 156

Total 2,233 2,381,000 2,336 1,199 2,669 1,215 112,127


To this number of 166,767 children thus gratuitously taught, must be added 4566 also gratuitously taught in the Sundayschools, 1434 educated in charitable establishments, 721 boys and 1641 girls brought up in private colleges and seminaries, and 5119 boys and 8631 girls educated in private elementary schools, forming altogether 188,879 children of both sexes, between six and twelve years of age, receiving elementary education out of a population of 2,379,000 inhabitants. Of all the provinces of the Austrian monarchy, Tyrol and Bohemia alone present a greater proportion of children instructed relative to the population, the number in these being as 1:11. In Lower Austria the proportion is equal to that in Lombardy. The expense of the elementary schools in the Lombard provinces amounted, in 1830, to 3,825,000 Italian livres, of which 2,550,000 were defrayed by the Treasury, and 1,275,000 by the Communes. Such has been in twelve years the working of this institution, by which the Austrian administration has conferred an inestimable benefit on the rising and future generations. The upper elementary schools of Lombardy were first opened in 1821, and the minor schools in the following year. In the Venetian provinces the system, although the same, has spread more slowly, owing to local and national diversity of circumstances. We have no recent statistics of the elementary schools of those provinces; but we know from those published in 1826, that there were then in the Venetian States 1402 schools, attended by 62,341 children; while, in 1822, the Lombard provinces had 2630 schools, frequented by 107,756 pupils. The population of the Venetian provinces is 1,900,000.

Of the method pursued in the various classes of the elementary schools in Austrian Italy, we have already given a detailed account in Nos. V. and VI. of this Journal. They are under a general board of inspection in each of the two capitals, Milan and Venice, which has under it provincial inspectors, and inspectors of districts. In every commune the parish clergyman is the inspector of the local school.

The higher female education is supplied in both divisions of the kingdom by thirty-four female colleges, some of which are under the direction of religious communities, such as the Salesiane, and the Ursulines, expressly established for this purpose. No other convents, either of monks, friars, or nuns, exist in the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, except those exclusively devoted either to education or to the assistance of the sick; the total number of both amounts to nineteen in the whole kingdom. We ought to mention among the colleges for females, that of Delle Grazie, founded

at Lodi by Mrs. Cosway, an Italian lady, the widow of the English painter of that name.

The Sunday schools, which we have already mentioned, and which are rapidly increasing in number, supply instruction also to boys after they have left the elementary schools, and likewise to adults who have not had the advantage of elementary education. In the province of Cremona alone, there were last year fifty-nine Sunday schools. Schools of industry have also been opened in various towns.

Some philanthropic individuals have lately opened infant schools for children of both sexes under six



age. The experiment has been approved of by the government, and is likely to be followed up.


Scientific instruction in the Papal State was in a state of confusion, and almost of dissolution, in consequence of the repeated military occupations of the country by the French, the several changes in the government, and the dilapidation of the treasury, when Leo XII. (Della Genga) ascended the Pontifical throne in September, 1823. He was himself a man of learning, and one of his first cares was to re-organize the studies in his dominions, according to a plan drawn out by the Prelate Cappellari, the present Pope Gregory XVI. To the three old Universities of Rome, Bologna, and Perugia, Leo, by his bull of 1824, added four more, namely, Ferrara, Urbino, Macerata, and Camerino. The people of Fermo wished to have the University of Macerata transferred to their town; but not succeeding in this, they proposed to set up a university for themselves, which was to be supported by the whole delegation or province. The country inhabitants, however, refused to tax themselves for this object, and the University of Fermo remained a dead letter.

The two Universities of Rome and Bologna are styled primarie, or of the first class; the other five are considered as inferior. The distinction consists in this, that the former universities alone support the chairs called libere, not obligatory,' such as mineralogy and zoology in the faculty of medicine, natural law, &c. Clinical instruction is also given only in the two first. In the minor universities several chairs are filled by one professor, for the sake of economy; and their accessory establishments of mute instruction, as they are called, such as libraries, botanical garden, &c., are of small value. No one can practise law in the city of Rome unless he has graduated at Rome.

Each, however, of the minor universities has its four faculties: theology, medicine, law, and philosophy. Every faculty has its college of doctors, who fill up vacancies in the professorships, examine candidates, award the prizes, &c.

There is at Rome a supreme board called Congregazione degli Studj, composed of several cardinals, who however seldom assemble, but leave the business to be managed by the president, called Cardinal Prefect, and his secretary, who corresponds with the chancellors of the various universities. The chancellor is the bishop of the town where the university is. The chancellor corresponds with the rector, who is the real acting superior of the establishment, and whose authority extends over the students within the limits of the university, to the exclusion of any other authority. With regard to money matters, the municipal council of the town, presided by its gonfaloniere, audits the accounts in conjunction with the chancellor.

The professors in the five minor universities receive only 200 scudi or dollars annual emolument, and in the two principal universities from 300 to 400. The remuneration is but small even in the latter, and the professors improve their income by practising in their respective professions, and giving private tuition. By a regulation which is remarkable under an ecclesiastical government, those professors who are priests or monks are paid less than the lay professors, on the ground that they cannot be burthened with the cares of a family.

The professors either write their own course of lectures, which they are expected to publish within three years from their accepting a chair, or to adopt a text-book which is not in the Index Expurgatorius. This index is by no means so formidable as foreigners might imagine, as it is extremely easy for students to obtain from the proper authorities a license for reading books registered in the index.

The University of Rome, called La Sapienza, is a fine spacious building, but unfavourably placed in the busiest part of the town, near the great markets, and very far from the hospitals, to the great inconvenience of the clinical professors and students. The medical course lasts four

years first year, anatomy, physiology, and chemistry; second year, anatomy, pathology, and botany; third year, theoreticopractical medicine and materia medica ; fourth year, theoretico-practical medicine, public hygiene, called polizia medica, and forensic medicine. Students of surgery follow for the first two years the above course; the third year, the surgical institutes and materia medica ; and the fourth,


surgical operations, obstetrics, public hygiene, and forensic medicine. It is remarkable that zoology and mineralogy are not among the obligatory studies, although the chairs exist. Here the theoretical course ends, after which students may be candidates for professorships. Two more years are required for practice, which are employed in the hospitals, attending clinical lectures, &c. Pius VII. first assigned two wards of the hospital of S. Spirito for medical students. Those of surgery attend the hospital of S. Giacomo. The whole course is required to obtain the laurea ad honorem, which is the highest degree. The fees on taking degrees are 10 scudi for each of the two minor degrees, 40 scudi for the common laurea, and 6 scudi for the license to practise. Those who obtain the laurea ad honorem do not pay any fees. In many cases, on account of poverty, the college remits the fees to graduates for the common laurea.

The oath administered to laureates contains, besides the profession of faith in the Roman Catholic Church, a clause by which they bind themselves, after the third visit to the bed of a patient, to exhort him to send for a confessor, and in case of refusal to discontinue their visits.

The cabinet of anatomy is very defective, but practical anatomy is taught in the great hospital of S. Spirito, by the able professor and surgeon Bucci, which all the students of practical medicine and surgery may attend gratis. Owing to mistaken delicacy, there is no clinical instruction on obstetrics, which is reserved to midwives. This appears to be the case in all the Italian universities, except those of the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom.

The cabinet of chemistry is very rich; the professor, Morichini, is one of the most distinguished men of Rome. The cabinet of mineralogy is also very good. The late and very able professor, Gismondi, has been succeeded by Carpi, a young man of great promise. Zoology is taught by Professor Metaxa, known as the author of a Treatise on the Serpents of the Campagna; he has begun to form a zoological museum. The professor of clinical surgery is Trasmondi, the first surgeon at Rome. The hospitals at Rome afford ample employment to surgeons, as the list of cases of wounds inflicted through passion, revenge, or jealousy, is still very heavy in the Roman calendar of crime. Professor Manni is forming at his expense an obstetric cabinet in wax for the use of the university. The medical clinical lecturers are Tagliabo and De Matteis, the latter of whom especially ranks very high in his profession. Botany was taught by Professor Mauro, author of the Flora Romana, who has

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