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seclusion, during which they are condemned to a rigid fast, they are introduced with certain ceremonies as qualified persons to the tribe at large.-(Spix and Martius's Brazils, vol. iii.)

Manilla.—(From a private letter.*)- This is one of the finest countries in the world, and I am more than half inclined to give it the preference over the Brazils. The vicinity of the sea, combined with large inland lakes, a profusion of high lands and the prevalence of refreshing winds, render the climate very agreeable in spite of the proximity of this part of the world to the Equator. The bamboo and calamus, the beauty of its palms and ferns, the latter of which grow to the height of tall shrubs, and the general luxuriance which characterizes its vegetable kingdom, impart a most delightful aspect to surrounding nature. In those quarters, where human industry has triumphed over native vegetation, fields of rice alternate with sugar plantations. Neither the Brazils, nor the banks of the Orinoco, rich as they are, have been so lavishly gifted by nature as Manilla. Of the Pisang (plantanus) alone there are upwards of seventy different species, each distinguished by its particular name; and we found none so sweet and spicy as those we met with on this spot. The finest of mangoes—and it is the choicest fruit the Indian possesses,-are as common here as apples in Europe; and a quality of sago, which is far superior to any known in our own market, is an article of everyday consumption in Manilla. I visited several districts in the neighbourhood of the great Languna which yield four crops a year. Rice is commonly planted twice and melons once, on the same soil, in the course of the twelvemonth. The animal kingdom is gifted with equal profusion: game, a small species of stag, hogs (which, by the way, we hunted by scores), birds, large hedgehogs, and bats of an unusual size, both of which are eaten here and are of excellent flavour, independently of an inexhaustible supply of fish, the produce of the coast as well as the rivers and lakes, make this region a land of positive plenty. In fact, I may affirm with a safe conscience that, during the whole of our extended voyage, we have sojourned amongst no people who lead so enviable a life of ease and prosperity as those of Manilla. On our visits to the inland villages, which are inhabited by the “ Tagals' or civilized Indians, where all the public functionaries, even the

Curas' or priests, are of native extraction, we observed a degree of order and cleanliness, as well as regularity in the construction of their bamboo dwellings, and taste in the disposition of their gardens and plantations, which excited both our admiration and astonishment. Yet there was one feature in these districts which had still greater attractions for us ; a more amiable race of beings cannot exist; they are as much distinguished by sweetness of temper and hospitality as integrity of principle; qualities, which I

* Received from Dr. Meyen, whilst on his late voyage round the world, of which the Prussian government are publishing the details, arranged under two distinct heads, the historical and scientific portions. Que volume of the • Historical' has just been published.

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feel warranted in ascribing to the judicious mode in which their conversion to Christianity has been accomplished. The Tagals are an uncommonly fine race of men; they are a branch of the South Sea Islanders, and in bygone times brought the Philippines under subjection. Their residences are spacious, their mode of life is patriarchal, and their deportment towards the female sex kind and attentive.'

ASIA. Medical Literature. -Dietz, one of the medical professors at the University of Königsberg, who has spent five years of his life in visiting the principal libraries of Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, France, and England, in search of manuscripts of ancient Greek, Roman, and Oriental writers on medicine, is now engaged in publishing his · Analecta Medica ;' the work contains several interesting papers on the subject of physical science among the Indians and Arabians, and communicates several introductory notices and illustrations from native Eastern writers. Dietz proves that the later Greek physicians were acquainted with the medical works of the Hindus, and availed themselves of their medicaments; but he more particularly shows, that the Arabians were familiar with them, and extolled the healing art, as practised by the Indians, quite as much as that in use among the Greeks. It appears from Ibn Osaibia's testimony, (from whose biographical work Dietz has given a long abstract on the lives of Indian physicians,) that a variety of treatises on medical science were translated from the Sanscrit into Persian and Arabic, particularly the more important compilations of Charaka and Susruta, which are still held in estimation in India; and that Manka and Saleh, the former of whom translated a special treatise on poison into Persia, even held appointmerits as body-physicians at the court of Harun-al-Rashid. The second part of the Analecta' contains a catalogue of eighty-six medical MSS. which are preserved in the East India Company's library in London. Independently of a variety of insignificant discussions on the Elixir of Life, Aphrodisiaca, and the method of dyeing the hair and rendering the colour of the eye-lids black, by application of a collyrium prepared from antimony (Kohol), they afford information which is not unworthy of attention.

Heramdasena (Hiranyasena ?), for instance, considers water as the most valuable of medicaments, and Susruta, even in his early days, not only recommends the use of leeches, but classes metals in his list of medicines. The most prominent disease on which the writers dwell is fever; and next in succession, follow coughs, gout, epilepsy, stone, hæmorrhoids, diseases of children, particularly teething, &c. Numbers of chapters are devoted to digestion and symptoms of diet ; and books on cookery form no despicable ‘part and parcel' of the science of physic. Diagnosis is discussed with all due form and sobriety; and the practitioner is directed what species of questions to put, how to feel the pulse, and what appearances about the face, eyes, tongues, and urine serve to indicate the nature of the disease,


UNIVERSITY INTELLIGENCE. OXFORD, March 21st. - In a very full Convocation holden this day, it was agreed, with one dissentient only, that the University seal should be affixed to a petition to his Majesty, praying that he would withhold his royal sanction from the proposed form of a charter of incorporation for a literary and scientific institution, lately established, under the title of The University of London.'

OXFORD, MAY 13. Nomina Candidatorum Termino Paschatis, 1834, qui honore digni

sunt habiti in unaquaque classe, secundum ordinem alphabeticum disposita. IN LITERIS HUMANIORIBUS.-Classis I.-Barnes, Ricardus G., e Coll. Reg.; Blackburn, Robertus, e Coll. Ball. ; Elder, Edvardus, e Coll. Ball. ; Palmer, Roundell, e Coll. Trin.; Spranger, Robertus J., e Coll. Exon. ; Thompson, Ri. cardus, e Coll. Æn. Nas.; Thornton, Edvardus, ex Æde Christi ; Wood, Guliel. mus Collins, e Coll. Magd.

Classis 11.- Abraham, Thomas E., e Coll. Ball. ; Chambers, Edvardus E., e Coll. D. Jo. Bapt. ; Chapman, Thomas, e Coll. Exon.; Foster, Arturus F., e Coll. Trin.; Fox, Octavius, e Coll. Linc. ; Hoskyns, Chandos, e Coll. Ball. ; Kingdon, Thomas K., e Coll. Exon.; Lloyd, Thomas, ex Æde Christi; Renaud, Georgius, e Coll. C. C.; Snowden, Ricardus, e Coll. Reg. ; Talmage, Joannes M., ex Æde Christi.

Classis III.- Austen, Georgius, e Coll. D. Jo. Bapt. ; Bishop, Alfredus C., e Coll. Reg. ; Brereton, Joannes, e Coll. Nov. ; Bush, Josephus, e Coll. Wadh. ; Edwards, Joannes W., e Coll. Æn. Nas.; Goodlake, Thomas G., e Coll. Pemb.; Gough, Henricus, e Coll. Reg.; Hall, Gulielmus, ex Aul. S. Edm. ; Hamer, Henricus, e Coll. Reg.; Levy, Thomas 3., e Coll. Reg.; Mac Dougall, Jacobus, e Coll. Æn. Nas.; Thomas, Ricardus J. F., ex Æde Christi; Wood, Georgius N., ex Coll. Wadh.

Classis V1.-Barnwell, Edvardus I., e Coll. Ball.; Bateman, Jacobus, e Coll. Magd.; Burrow, Thomas C., e Coll

. Reg. ; Carey. Hewett, e Coll. Oriel. ; Carter, Eccles I., e Coll. Exon.; Davies, Ebenezer G., e Coll. Jesi.; Escott, Gulielmus I. B., e Coll. Ball. ; Eyre, Henricus R., e Coll. Univ.; Floud, Thomas, e Coll. W'adh. ; Hayes, Carolus, ex Aul. Magd.; Heming, Henricus, e Coll. D. Jo. Bapt.; Lamotte, Georgius T., e Coll. Ball. ; Lewin, ÀÈmilius, e Coll. Trin.; Maddison, Ricardus, e Coll. Univ.; Ormsby, Gulielmus, e Coll. Univ.; Oswald, Alexander, ex Æde Christi; Phelps, Edvardus Spencer, e Coll. Wadh.; Stackhonse, Alfredus, e Coll. Linc. ; Trollope, Thomas A., ex Anl. Magd. ; Twining, Aldred, e Coll. Oriel. ; Ward, Ricardus, e Coll. Oriel. ; Winthorp, Benjaininus E., e Coll. Wadh.

Augustus Short,
Georgius Moberly,
Franciscus Jeune,

Examinatores in Literis Humanioribus.
Edmund W. Head,
Summa Quintæ Classis sive cæterorum omnium qui Examinatoribus satis-
fecerunt XCVIII.

OXFORD, May 30th.—The Prizes for 1534 have been adjudged as follows:

CHANCELLOR'S PRIZES. Latin Verse.—Cicero ab exilio redux Romam ingreditur. Arthur Kensington, Scholar of Trinity, APRIL.-July, 1834.


English Essay.The influence of the Roman conquests upon literature and the arts in Rome. Joseph Anstice, B.A., late Student of Christ Church.

Latin Essay.--De provinciarum Romanarum administrandarum ratione. Robert Scott, B.A., Student of Christ Church.

Newdigate, English Verse.—The Hospice of St. Bernard. Joseph Arnould, Scholar of Wadham.

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The following subjects are proposed for the prizes for the ensuing year:- viz.

CHANCELLOR'S PRIZES. Latin Verse.—Julianus Imperator Templum Hierosolymitanum instaurare aggreditur.

English Essay. The influence of ancient oracles on public and private life.

Latin Essay.De Jure Clientelæ apud Romanos.

The first of the above subjects is intended for those gentlemen who, on the day appointed for sending the exercises to the Registrar of the University, shall not have exceeded four years; and the other two, for such as shall have exceeded four, but not completed seven years, from the time of their matriculation.

Sir Roger NEWDIGATE'S PRIZE, For the best composition in English verse, not limited to fifty lines, by any undergraduate who, on the day above specified, shall not have exceeded four years from the time of his matriculation.• The Burning of Moscow.'

In every case, the time is to be computed by calendar, not academical

years, and strictly from the day of matriculation to the day on which the exercises are to be delivered to the Registrar of the University, without reference to any intervening circumstances whatever.

No person who has already obtained a prize will be deemed entitled to a second prize of the same description.

The exercises are all to be sent, under a sealed cover, to the Registrar of the University, on or before the 1st day of May next. None will be received after that time. The author is required to conceal his name, and to distinguish his composition by what motto he pleases ; sending, at the same time, his name and the date of his matriculation, sealed up under another cover, with the motto inscribed upon it.

The exercises to which the prizes shall have been adjudged will be repeated (after a previous rehearsal) in the Theatre, upon the commemoration-day, immediately after the Creweian Oration.

The Death of Christ was a Propitiatory Sacrifice and a Vicarious

Atonement for the Sins of Mankind.
The subject above stated, as appointed by the judges, for an
English Essay, is proposed to members of the University, on the
following conditions, viz.;


1. The candidate must have passed his examination for the degree of B.A. or B.C.L.

II. He must not on this day (May 29th) have exceeded his twenty-eighth term.

III. He must have commenced his sixteenth term eight weeks previous to the day appointed for sending in his essay to the Registrar of the University.

In every case the terms are to be computed from the Matriculation inclusively

The essays are to be sent under a sealed cover to the Registrar of the University, on or before the Wednesday in Easter week next ensuing. None will be received after that day.

The candidate is desired to conceal his name, and to distinguish his composition by what motto he pleases ; sending at the same time his name sealed up under another cover, with the motto inscribed

upon The essay to which the prize shall have been adjudged will be read before the University in the Divinity School, on some day in the week next before the Commemoration; and it is expected that no essay will be sent in, which exceeds in length the ordinary limits of recitation.

A declaration of members of the University of Oxford, immediately connected with the instruction and discipline of the place, was agreed to in April. It states, among other things, that in providing for a Christian education, they feel that uniformity of faith upon essential points is absolutely necessary; and that the admission of persons (to the University) who dissent from the Church of England, would lead to the most disastrous consequences; that it would unsettle the minds of the younger members of the University; would raise up and continue a spirit of controversy, which is at present unknown ; and would tend to reduce religion to an empty and unmeaning name, or to supplant it by scepticism and infidelity. This received the signatures of about one hundred persons; and upwards of nine hundred members of convocation and bachelors of civil law signed a concurrence of their feelings and opinions with this declaration. As a point of form prevented the heads of houses signing either of the above declarations, a separate paper was drawn up, stating that, in the opinion of the signers, the bill now before Parliament for removing the disabilities of Dissenters in taking degrees at the Universities, ' will, if it pass into a law, violate our legal and prescriptive rights, and subvert the system of religious instruction and discipline, so long and so beneficially exercised by us.' This received twenty-two signatures. Baden Powell, the Savilian Professor of Geometry, subsequently published • Reasons for not joining in a Declaration, &c.' of which the following is one.

I consider, that the University is, or ought to be, a national establishment; and if, by its ancient constitution, there be a pervading reference to religion, as it was originally a reference to the religion of the nation, when there was but one national religion; so it appears to me equitable, that when that religion has

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