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Under fru-or, to enjoy, the author gives fructed (a word we never saw before, and hope we shall never see again), fructify, fructification, &c.; but there is no hint given whence the c comes.
The author should have referred these words directly to fructus, and he should have done the same with fruit, and all its derivatives, explaining at the same time how this c disappears in the derived languages. For the mere English reader the reference to fruor is not so useful as that to fructus would be.
Though we think Mr. Oswald's design good, and to a considerable extent well executed, we hope that, in a second edition, he will attempt to improve the classification. Too many words are often placed under one head; for example, the present indicative of a verb; though many of such examples would be more satisfactorily explained by reference to some other form of the verb, and especially to the participle in tus. The Greek derivatives, and the mode of exhibiting them, are frequently unsatisfactory, and sometimes entirely wrong; the orthography of the Greek words is also sometimes incorrect, as λέψις (p. 272), λιτανία (p. 279),* νέβος (p. 332), &c.; and a few words are given as genuine words, which are not so.
* The author's explanations in the note seem sometimes ont of place. Thus p. 283, we have a note to explain what logarithms are; but the author has not explained (p. 279) the origin of the word liturgy, which would have been at least equally appropriate, and might be made much more intelligible in the compass of a note.
Toulouse.—THE • Académie des Jeux Floraux' hold their anniversary, with all due ceremony, in the beginning of May. It commences with a prescribed form of panegyric on the fair Clémence Isaure, its foundress; this being done, a deputation of the academicians walk in solemn procession to the church of La Daurade, for the purpose of bringing away the gold and silver which have been exhibited from the high-altar of the church from an early hour in the morning. Upon their return to the hall of the academy, the names of the successful competitors are proclaimed ; and the distribution of the five flowers annually given takes place: two of them are of gold, about eighteen or twenty pounds in value, one of them being awarded for the best ode, and the other for the best specimen of oratory. Competition is admitted in seven species of composition : lyric, didactic, epistolary, elegiac, and pastoral poetry, ballads, and sonnets or hymns in praise of the Holy Virgin. The King is patron of the institution, which is composed of • Mainteneurs' and · Maîtres des Jeux Floraux.' The Marquis de Latresne is at present dean of the academy; and on the list of • Maîtres' stand the names of Chateaubriand, Victor Hugo, BaourLormian, and Bignon. The prize poems, as well as such among the unsuccessful pieces as evince considerable talent, are published by the society.
University Budget. The following items constitute the grant made by the French Chambers on the 9th of May last, for the year's expenditure, under the head of Public Instruction:I. Central Administration
£25,830 II. General Service
20,280 III. Academical and Departmental Administration 32,790 IV. Section of superior Instruction-Faculties 77,560 V. Ditto secondary Instruction
66,220 VI. Ditto primary Instruction
184,000 VII. Scientific and Literary Institutions
This grant exceeds that of last year by nearly 180,0002.* The item of Secondary Instruction' appears in this estimate for the first time. In the debate which accompanied these votes, M. Guizot intimated that it was the intention of the University Council to institute chairs of Constitutional Law' in some of the French colleges; and in order to remove the impression under which the Committee on the Budget laboured, that professorships of Political Philosophy were the real object contemplated, he added, " c'est à dire, chaires de la Charte et de ses Commentaires. A small portion of the seventh vote-namely, 1601.—is to be applied in forming a collection of historical works on the Crusades; and another portion, 8001., in laying the groundwork for a cabinet of Chemistry. The latter was added to the original estimate, on the motion of M. Gay. Lussac.
The report of M. Guizot, the Minister of Public Instruction, has recently been presented to the King. The following is the substance:- -As soon as the law of the 29th of June, 1833, was passed, M. Guizot sent a circular letter to the schoolmasters, pointing out to them the nature of their duties. He requested them, individually, to acknowledge the receipt of this letter, and he received 13,850 answers, giving strong and encouraging proofs of their zeal and capacity. It is, however, to be regretted, that out of 39,000 schoolmasters no more than these 13,850 sent any reply. The success of primary instruction depends upon the normal schools, in which the teachers are formed; and with good teachers there cannot fail to be good schools. Of these schools, established by the decree of the 17th of March, 1808, there were, in 1928, no more than 3; in 1930 there were 13. At present there are 62 in full activity, and 15 more are in preparation. Seventy-three departments concur in the support of the 62 schools, and consequently 11 departments have joined with others for the maintenance of normal schools. It is expected that every department will soon have its own school. In 1832 there were 37 normal schools. The increase in 1833 was 25. The 62 existing schools have, together, 1944 pupils, of whom 1308 are bursars of the departments, 245 bursars of the state, 118 bursars of communes, and 273 at their own charges. A table gives a summary of the votes of the municipal councils for the organization of primary schools. Out of the 37,187 communes of France, 20,961 have voluntarily taxed themselves for the purpose of establishing primary schools. There remain nearly 20,000 communes which have paid no attention to primary instruction. The law authorises the union of two communes in maintaining one school; but hitherto there have been only 760 combinations of this nature. Besides the towns of 6000 souls, who are bound to tax themselves for this purpose, towns of minor extent are allowed, if they desire it, to establish primary schools. Six only have shown this dispo* See Journal of Education, vol. vi., p. 169.
sition. They are the following :-Aubusson (Creuse), with a population of 4847 souls; Manciet (Gers), 1742 souls ; La Châtre (Indre), 4343 souls; Lauzun (Lot-et-Garonne), 1309 souls ; Thionville (Moselle), 4944 souls; and Civray (Vienne), 2103 souls. The communes which have school-houses expended in purchases, buildings, and repairs for the purpose, within the year 1833, a sum of 3,000,000 francs. In the course of the present year there will be expended 2,350,577 francs, already voted by the municipal councils. The total expense necessary for furnishing all the communes with school-houses will, according to estimates made, amount to 72,679,908 francs. This sum is certainly very large; but can it be expected that primary instruction will spring up and increase spontaneously, and as if by a miracle, and that a law on paper is sufficient for the purpose? Let us not, however, be too much alarmed. Suppose that the state were to grant annually 1,000,000 francs, and the communes 4,000,000 francs, and the departments also something, in twelve or fifteen years every commune would have a school-house. The number of boys' schools, which in 1832 amounted to 31,420, increased in 1933 to 33,695. The number of boys attending these primary schools during the winter of 1832 was 1,200,715, and during the winter of 1833 it was augmented to 1,654,828.—Times, 19th May, 1834.
BELGIUM The Catholic clergy are using every exertion to instruct the rising generation, and have of late considerably increased the number of schools for the higher classes as well as the lower. it may be observed, that the Governor of East Flanders, in his official return, reports that there are at this time 27 seminaries for the secondary course of instruction, in the province, which are attended by 2039 pupils; whilst, in 1830, there were but 22 of the former, and 1599 of the latter. Equal progress has been made with respect to primary schools: in 1830 the province did not contain more than 234 district schools, and 139 private seminaries—to which 29,021 pupils resorted; whereas, in February Jast, the province contained 285 district schools, and 304 private ones--which were altogether attended by 43,601 pupils.
Orphans.— The number of children delivered over to the care of the several Orphan Asylums in the kingdom amounted last year to 9305. The average number of births, from 1815 to 1828, was 14,501; at present it is rather more.
Grants to the Universities, &c.—The budget voted for the Ministry of the Home Department, which amounts in all to 10,762,879 francs (430,5151.), fixes the expenses of the three universities of Louvain, Ghent, and Liege, at the sum of 361,300 francs (14,450l.), which is comprised in the general grant of 739,772 francs (29,5911.), for the promotion of education. It contains likewise an item of 185,440 francs (74171.), towards encouraging the Arts and Sciences; and another of 2540 francs (1021.), for publishing the Transactions of the Board of Statistics.-Brussels, 21st May, 1834.
GERMANY. The Animal Kingdom.---The fourth volume of Oken's Natural History, which has lately been published, gives a curious enumeration of the genera and various descriptions of animals, as estimated by different naturalists, from the days of Linnæus (in 1767) down to those of C. Buonaparte (in 1832). The number of various mammalia, according to Linnæus, was 221; Minding, in 1829, 1230; and C. Buonaparte, in 1832, 1149. Linnæus states the number of sorts of birds to be 904 ; Illiger, in 1812, 3779; and C. Buonaparte, 4100. The amphibia, according to Linnæus, were of 215 kinds; Humboldt, in 1821, states them at 700; and C. Buonaparte, 1270. Of fishes, the number of varieties, accord. ing to Linnæus, was 467 ; Cuvier estimated them, in 1827, at 5000; and C. Buonaparte sets them down at 3586. The insect tribe was estimated by Linnæus at 2981 varieties; whereas Fabricius, in 1805, states the varieties of flies alone, without hutterflies, to be 12,513. The different kinds of scaly or testaceous animals are computed by Linnæus to be 841; by Lamarck, in 1822, to be 3520; and by Schmidt of Gotha, in 1832, to be 4548. Of medusa, Escholtz, in 1829, estimated the varieties at 208. Of polypi, according to Lamarck, in 1816, we have 604 sorts ; and of infusoria, according to the same naturalist, we have 244; but according to Ehrenberg, in 1832, 410. The number of insects already existing in our cabinets, Oken estimates at upwards of 50,000 ; and he justly adds— Such multitudes of animals are yet to be found described in neglected journals, travels, and minor publications, that it would require years upon years merely to count them.'
Friesland Literature.--An individual of the name of Hansen, who was in earlier days a mariner, and is at present bailiff of the island of Sylt, * has lately published a comedy, several tales, and a collection of poems, in the dialect of North Friesland: they are considered a literary curiosity. The Friesic stands on the confines of the German and northern languages, forming the extreme connecting link between them-having survived the East Friesland dialect, and being spoken on no other spot but some of the islands and districts on the western coast of Schleswig.
HANOVER. • VERY great attention has been paid to the improvement of Elementary Schools in this country. The instruction given in them
* Included in the Danish bailiwick of Toudern, on the west coast of the duchy of Schleswig; about fifteen miles long, and from two to seven miles broad, with about 2700 inhabitants.