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of many

and the skin more vulnerable. We eat made up a moft motley maquea

the flesh was good, and not The ship was found to thoal betw unlike the taste of beef. We lent two coutinually, to even thirteen fast of the pilots to the nearest higher land and now no hope was left of fafety, to try to find a passage or an opening; by trying the chance of an expez, but all was ice as far as ever the eye over the ice; for which the prope could range. The Bip drove bodily 4. p.m. on Sunday, Aug. 8, ne: with the ice N. w, and S. E. as the prepared, and with uncommon tides or winds affected. We altered our left their ships frozen up. joundings from 33 to 23 fathoms of wa In this situation we remained to: 4 ter, though the ground was much the all which time we were in the fame.

fpirits, and promifed ourselves in We dispatched now another party of voyage in the boats to the soutte people to the weiternmost island, They Happily, upon the gih of Auget.. were gone about iwenty hours, being ice began to break, the people retz twenty miles distant from the ships. and we forced the thips through They inet with nothing on their journey clear water: in pressing the lip but bears and their cubs, a number of fail, one large piece of ice fire which were killed from the velleis, Our Thank of the best bower anchor, situation beginning now to grow rather broke it short ofi. fixed and serious, a council of officers The following day at noon, sich was assembled, at which the pilots as- vered Brandy island, N. E. fixa fifted, to consult about the fate of the and soon after we faw a fhip in the thips; when it was unanimoully agreed, quarter. On the 12th of August : zhat there was no peflibility of saving chored in Smeringburg harbour, E. ihem, as the ice prelied them together we found some Dutch ships. Intes very much, unless it feparated; which we erected tents for the contenica could only be at the gracious interpe- baking our bread; and Capt. Phippin fition of Providence. The next confi- some of the officers carried on the deration was self-prefervation. The fea- astronomical instrument to tiy that i son being vow far advanced, and we at periments which the climate and on a great distance froin any, vessels, it was {uatioa afforded. After a stay oica resolved to prepare the boats, and fit days, we failed from hence to the 17 them with coverings, so that we might ward, being about N. N. We drag them over the ice, until wę ob- leagues off Haçluit's head-land. 11.. jaived clear water, when they were to remained among the ice, being a be lanched; and in them we were to three miles to the southward of tber endeavour to obtain the northermoft body; and about two in the more harbour of Spitibergen, in hopes of join- Aug. 21. we stood for the southward, ing fome of the late thips which might the Carcase in company. From this not be failed to the fouthward. Our to the 12th of September, we feel people in this dilemma were all in the the fouthward. When in the latita

. highett spirits ; 1o we got out our lanch- 56 d. 57 m. we met with a very best cs and boats, and prepared them for gale of wind, and thipped several ikating over the ice, Every man had a which stove our boats, washed away canvas bag given him, which contained booms, and many provision-calks

, i wenty pounds of bread, without, dif- obliged us to heave some of our ga tinction of persons; each man being verboard. The weather continued obliged to prepare for his own safety. ny days variable, blowing very har It was now one entire scene of confulion times, and being very thick, we lotos in all our cabins : for the officers had pany with the Carcafe. In the mez clothed themselves in fuch things as they of Sept. 24. we made Orford- Nels; best approved; the reft were given to the four days afterwards arrived ! fuamen to fit themselves as they liked Woolwich with our confort the Cam bei, and to take any thing which was having been out three monthsandtag more acceptable than their own. The four days; in which time we accomp Failors, who, amidst every dittreis, never e a most difficult voyage, with the lose their jokes or their spirits, clad thens- of only one man, and penetrated fz(clves in what appeared the most valu- to the northward than any navigator able; so that the two thins companies done lefore.

cannot conclude narrative either fuchs odeials, the public receive benéfie of Capt. Phipps, who is not less distin- doubt, but Capt. Phipps will honour the guished as a fea-officer than as a fenator: world with a perufal of his expedition ; for to the calmest temper, the foundeft of which this is but a small sketch, and judgement, and the cleareft head, is add- done with a design rather to excite the ed the bravest and most generous heart. desires of the public than minutely 10 To the principles of a patriot and a hero gratify: -- Dr Irwine, a moft ingenious is annexed the milk of human kindness; philosopher, who attended this expedifor with Terence we may fay of him, tion, made many trials on the salt water " That he is 'a man--and all calamities to frethen it; and from the experiments which touch Humanity come bome to made, there is no doubt of the success of him.”

his invention. In this expedition, Mir

Foxon's perpetual logg was tried with The intention of this voyage to the great success in blowing weather, and northward, 'was meant only as a preface when a sea followed the thip; but in to a greater undertaking, to try at a dif- light breezes and smooth water, the old coverty of the North-Weft paffage, and logg was found to be equally accurate : to prove the magnetic attradion of the great merit, however, is due to the inneedle. The various northern voyages vention of Foxon; and fo good an artist already written are so numerous, that it deferves encouragement at the hands of would be endless even to compare them the admiralty. The man was bred a with that of Capt. Phipps. A contention carpenter, and served in that capacity in has long fubfiited bçiween the Dutch, the India service, wherein 'for three voyDanish, Swedish, and English naviga- ages he tried the qualities of his inventors ? many attempts have been made by tion; and, upon an average, it was found the mariners of these countries to'excél to correct the ship's run between ten and in their discoveries, and many of them, feven 'miles every twenty-four hours, in consequence of this exertion, to bear Lord Sandwich has recommended the the victory from the others, have made machine to the navy-board, who have false reports of their latitudes gained. I ordered them into the ships of war. cannot; however, find out, from all the. We will now leave thele Polar Explomaps and voyages I have perused, that rers; and for the fake of the anxious any navigators have been farther to the public, we folicit from them a more full westward by the land than Capt. Phipps, and circumftantial account of this expewhofe extreme latitude was 80 d. 35 m. dition, particularly of Capt. Phipps, who N. the Table iNand then bearing N. N. had such fuperior advantages of observaE. four miles; and then they faw land tion, and wbo poffeffes such fuperior ato the N. N. E. twenty leagnes. It is bilities to the author of this journal, difficult to determine whether thefe ships To take creoles and wrinkles out of parciacould have obtained a higher latitude by

T' keeping more in' with the western shore. Not that I believe they could; for it SMear lightly over the creafes and feems to be one unfrozen continent of wrinkles fome paste, such as is ned indiffoluble ice. But fuppofing in the by bookbinders. Then press the places height of the summer-inunths, a palage that are crumpled and creased, with a was free for a short time; even then it is fmoth folding tick, on the blank or back not to be fuppofed that any fhips could fide of the parchment; placing first fereattempt voyages through so uncertain a ral sheets of soft and footh paper unclime. Thefe voyages therefore can derneath. Then, with a linen clotki, a only produce fatisfaction to the altrono. little moistered with water, kripe thie mical mind'; they never can be made paste all off, and place two or three theets ureful to the merchant.

of the lite paper on the side that was No officer in his Majesty's ferrice was pasted, and pais a hot fiát iron, uted for so well calculated for such an underta- ironing linen, over the whole; presling it king as Capt. Phipps ; for, added to a flowiy and forcibly: When this is done, obust conftitution, he has a moft exccl- prefs the whole in a bookbinder's standent capacity and education. When men ing-press, or a napkin-press. of such fortunes and abilities undertake Fan. 20. 1774.

meul.

700 · A catalogue of New Books, with remarks and extracts, continned. 16543 A voyage to the ine of France, the ipe of horrors of the Mosambic ; but the

could induce a man to encountat: Bourbon, the Cape of Good Hope, &c. France is a miserable place. Weka with new observations on Nature and Man- need to inforin our readers, that iti. kind. By an officer in the French forvice. fame ifand which, in the pollcfcon French. 2 vols, 8vo. Amsterdam.

Dutch, was called Mauritius; and THefe Hefe volumes confift of a series of when they obtained a settlement :

letters written by the author to his Cape, they left it. France took the friends, during his refidence in the feve- fuse, and, in her genuine style, gat ral places of which he speaks. The ob- ragged portion the name of one or i fervations tbey contain, are natural and most beautiful domestic province, moral. The native plants and animals Isle of France, where stands the gler: of each island, with its prior and its pre- city of Paris, the fountain-head of pat fent state, and the genius and manners nels, of the Beaux Arts and the in. of its inhabitants, are respectively de- Lettres! fcribed : and what particularly recom It is not worth while to detair mends, we had almost said, endears the readers with a minute account of a: author to his readers, is the tingular hu- gion, of which Nature seems to have manity with which he protests against ken no account; for all her produc... the sufferings of the poor black Naves, here are of the soudaise Genie : ** I truft,” says he, “ I shall not be found No bird of long to chear the gloomy dec altogether useless to the interests of hu- No animals of gentle loves calives! man nature, if the imperfect picture I have drawn of the sufferings of the un

Our spirited traveller employs bis fortunate negroes may be a means of fa- letter entirely on the negroes. The ving them a lingle whipping !” He la- terests of humanity are concerned, i ments that the Europeans, who, in their we thall suffer him to plead them in own country, exclaim against despotism, own way: and write such fine treatises on morals, * Among the rest of the people of do not “ relax in their tyranny and bar. isand are the Indians and the negt barity to the Indians."

The former are the Malabars, of a gre This traveller poffeffes one quality, and tractable disposition. These are which no writer of travels ought to want, from Pondicherry, and let themselves - abilities for description. It is in pro- hire for a number of years. Ther: portion to thefe that a book of travels almoft all artificers. They live in zi: will always be found good or bad; and urb called Blacks Field [Camp des Nr from these Mr Brydone's account of They are of a deeper tinct than Atna, and, indeed, his whole book, de. ifanders of Madagascar, who are the e rives its principal excellence.

nuine negroes; but their features ar Our author's account of the storm in regular as those of the Europeame, The Mosambic channel, is most tremen- their hair is not frizzled. They are 7e* dous! It is horrible, beyond expreffion! sober, good ceconomists, and remarkas We see it ; we are in the ftoim; thun- fond of the women *. They wear a ti ders that more than fun the ear, - that ban on their heads, and long me. fun the soul ! the dark depth of night gowns, large gold rings in their ears, a admitting dreadfulavenues of day through silver bracelets on their wrists. Some the almost incessant lightning ! 'the mor- them let themselves to people of fafh tal wave, seen advancing through this in quality of piosis, a kind of domí infernal medium, in shape and bulk a like our running footmen, except that monstrous mountain, its head in the does all his offices with great gravity a kies, scaled on its heaving sides by smaller fobriety. By way of distinction, he car hills, - seen ftill advancing; 'tis - death * By our traveller's leave, we have knor and horror! 'tis upon us! -- We want in England, fervants from Malabar, wher: fea-terms to give the minutice of the voy- their perfons, indeed, perfedly anfwered ager's description, but such are the ideas defcription he gives, but in manbers were et it excites in us.

reverfe; for they were neither remarkab: One would naturally suppose that it for fobriety, economy, por fondnes of must be some very desirable port that men.

a cane in his hand, and a "poniard at his bout the mother through fear. The girdle. It were to be withed that some planter examines the whole, and purchafes confiderable number of Malabars were fuch as suit him. Brothers, faiters, friends, fettled on the island, particularly in the lovers, are separated. They take leave labouring department, but I never faw of each other with tears, and depart for one that would apply himself to agricul- the plantation. Sometimes they are seiture.

zed with defpair, and imagine that the The blacks that are employed in culti- whites are going to eat thein, that they vation are chiefly from Madagascar. You intend to make red wine of their blood, may purchase a man for a barrel of gun- and gunpowder of their bones. powder, firelocks, nets, and especially In this manner they are treated,: At for pialtres. The highest price is never day-break, three cracks of the whip are more than fifty crowns.

the fignal that calls them to work. Each The negroes of Madagascar have nei man appears in the plantation with his ther fuch hat nofes, nor such dark com- mattock, where he works áhnost naked plexions, as the Guinea negroes. There in the heat of the fun. Their food is are some of them mere brunets; others, ground maize boiled in water, or bread the Balamboos particularly, have long of the manioc. Their cioathing is.., a hair. I have seen whites and reds. They scrap of linen. For the least neglect they are adroit, intelligent, senlible of honour are bound hand and foot on a ladder. and gratitude. The greatest intult you Their commander, armed with a postican exercise upon a black, is to do an in- lion's whip, itands over them, and gives jury to his family, they are not very fen- them, on their naked pofteriors, fifty, an lible of personal injuries. In their own hundred, or two hundred lashes. Every country they apply themfelves to many laih brings off a portion of the skin. The little handicrafts with great industry. poor wretch, covered with his blood, is Their zagaye, or half-pike, is very well then let loote. An iron chain is put forged, though they have nothing but round his neck, and he is dragged back ftones for their anvil and their hammer. to his work. Some of these miserable Their linen, which their women weave, creatures are not able to fit down for a is fine, and well coloured. They throw month after. The women are punished it over their shoulders in a graceful man. in the same manner. ner. Their heads are in a very orderly When they return at evening to their and regular frifure, disposed in curls and huts, they are made to pray to God for treffes with great art; and this is the talk the prosperity of their masters; and, beof the women. They are pallionately fore they go to rest, they with them a fond of dancing and inutic. Their in- good night. itrument is the samtam, a kind of bow, There is a law made in their favour, to which a calibath is fitted. They draw called the Black C.de. This law ordains, from it a foft kind of harmony, accom- that at each punishment they shall receive panied with songs of their own compo- no more than thirty lashes; that they fition. Love is always the subject. The Mall not be obliged to work on Sundays; girls dance to the fongs of their lovers. that they hall have their provisions weekThe (pectators beat time, and applaud ly, their fhirts yearly. "But this law is the performance.

not observed. Sometimes, when they These poor people are extremely ho- grow old, they are turned adrift to get spitable. A black, when on his journey, their living as they can. One day I saw goes into the first bouse that fuits his exi- one of them, who was nothing but skin gency; and, though unknown, the fa- and bone, cutting some fiefh from a dead mily Phare their provisions with him. He horse to eat. It appeared to be one skeis neither asked whence he comes, nor leton devouring another. whither le goes. It is the cuftoin of their When the Europeans seemed affected, country.

the inhabitants told them, that they did With such arts and fuch manners they not know the blacks; that they were come to the life of France. They are fuch egregious gluttons, they would go fet on shore naked, except a rag that co- ont by night to iteal provisions from the vers their loins. The men are ranged on neighbouring plantations; so lazy, that one side, and the women on the other, they were totally regardless of the inte with their little children, who cling a- rests of their maiters; and that their VOL. XXXV.

wives were the most wretched mothers,

and

4 U

and sought rather tor have abortive than his neck. On a third he is hanged. But honeft births. ; oppiming this feldom happens, the masters being | The negroes are naturally of in joyous unwilling in general, on such a score, to temper, hat after some years of Navery lofe their propery. they grow melancholy. Love alone feem's * I have seen them hanged and broke 2to be the folace of their sufferings. They live. They went to their punishment will do any thing to get a woman. They with pleasure, and fupported it without generally prefer those that have passed complaint. I have seen a woman thru the first itage of female maturity. They herself voluntarily from the ladder. They say, elles font mieux la soupe. They give ery, that in another world they fhall find them every thing they have. If their a happier life, and that the PATHIE mistress is in the hands of another plant. OF MANKIND IS NOT SO UNJUST AS er, they will go three or four leagues by MEN ARE. night to visit her. When they are in i They have occasionally the confolalove, they regard neither fatigue nor pu- tions of religion propofed to them,

and nishment. They have, occasionally, their are, from time to time, baptized. They midnight-rendezvous. They dance be. are told, that they are made brethren of neath the shelter of fome rock, to the the whites, and thall go to heaven, Bet melancholy found of a gourd filled with they hardly know how to believe, that peale. But the glimpse of a white many, the Europeans (hoold conduct them to or the bark of a dog, puts an end to their heaven, whilst they are, they say, the nocturnal assemblies.

cause of all their sufferings on eartli.They have their dogs too. It is well « Before these Europeans came amongt known that these animals, even in the us,” fay they'; * we fought only with darkest night, know not only the whites, fticks, but they have taught us to küla but even the dogs of the whites. They a diftance with fire and balls; they have have the utmost fear of and aversion to introduced war and discord among us, them; and howl as they approach them. that they may buy Naves cheap. We Their attachments are exclufively to the followed without fear the inftinct of Nablacks and their abettors. On the other ture, but they have brought terrible mahand, the dogs belonging to the whites, ladies amongst us, which makes it now adopt the sentiments of their mafters, even dangerous' foto do. They free and, on the least fignal, fall with fury on quently refuse us neceffary meat and the slaves.

cloaths, and beat us cruelly without a In short, when these wretched negroes reason.” - Of this I hare feen many is. can no longer support their condition, stances. A Nave, almoft white, three they link into despair. Some of them herfelf one day at my feet. Her mifir put a period to their lives by poison or made her rise early and watch late. ! the halter. Others throw themfelves in- the chanced to sleep, fhe rubbed her to some petty boat, without fails, with mouth with ordure; and if she did ut out compass, without provisions. In this lick her lips, the commanded her to it manner they hazard a passage of 203 whipt. She begged of me to foliet her leagues, to return to Madagascar. I have pardon, which I obtained. Sometimes known them land, be retaken, and re- the mafters of these wretches grant such turned to their masters.

requests, and within two days double In general they take refuge in the their puniliment, reckoning in tale of woods, where they are hunted by de- lathes what they had protetiedly forgitachments of soldiers, negroes, and dogs. ven. A counfellor, of whom fome blacks Planters there are who make, on such had complained to the governor, atfored occafions, a party of pleasure. They are me, that though they were exempted attacked with the spear like wild beasts. from punishment that day, the next he When they cannot be reached this way, would have them flea'd from head ta they are shot. Their heads are cut off, foot. and they are carried in triumph to the I tare daily beheld men and women town on the end of a pole. This is what whipt for having broken a pot, or for I have seen almoft weekly.

gotten to fiut a gate, their bloodly limas Whep a fugitive negro is taken, he has afterwards rubbed with wnegar and falt one tar cut off, and is whipped. On a to heal them. I have féen them, in the second desertion, he is whipped, has one excess of their anguish, unable to cry ham ftrung, and a chain fatened about any longer. I have seen them bite the

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