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18th Congress,

2d SESSION.

On the Slave Traile.

{H. of R.

The report and resolution were referred to a coinmit It was not misconceived by the House of Repretee of the whole, and never further considered.

sentatives, when ratified with almost unprecedented After a delay till the 20th of the succeeding Februa. unanimity. ry, a resolution was submitted to the House, which was An unfounded suggestion has been heard, that the evidently a part of the same system of measures, for the abortive attempt to amend the resolution, indicated that suppression of the slave tracle, which had been bepun it was not considered as involving the right of search. by the act of the 3d of March, 1819, and followed up by the opposite conclusion is the more rational, if not, inthe connected series of reports and resolutions which deed, irresistible ; that, having, by the denomination of the committee have reviewed, aird which breathe the the crime, provided for the detection, trial, and punishsame spirit.

ment of the criminal, an amendment, designing to add This resolution, in proposing to make the slave trade what was already included in the main proposition, piracy, by the consent of mankind, sought to supplant, would be superfluous, if not absurd. But no such amend. by a measure of greater rigor, the qualified international ment was rejected. The House of Representatives, exchange of the right of search for the apprehension of very near the constitutional close of the session of 1923, the African slave dealer, and the British system of mis. desirous of economizing time, threatened to be consume ed tribunals created for his trial and punishment ; a sys- ed by a protracted debate, entertained the previous questem of which experience and the recent extension of tion, while an amendment, the only one offered to the the traffic, which it sought to limit, had disclosed the en- resolution, was depending. The effect of the previous tire inefficacy:

question was to bring on ản immediate decision upon The United States had already established the true the resolution itself, which was adopted by a vote of 131 denomination and grade of this offence, by a municipal members to nine. law. The resolution contemplated, as did the report It is alike untrue, that the resolution was regarded which accompanied and expounded that law, the exten- with indifference. The House had been prepared to sion of its principle, by negotiation, to the code of all pass it without debate, by a series of measures, having nations.

their origin in 1819, and steadily advancing to maturity. It denounced the authors of this stupendous iniquity, Before the resolution did pass, motions had been sub. as the enemies of the human race, and armed all men mitted to lay it on the table, and to postpone it to a fuwith authority to detect, pursue, arrest, and punish ture day. The former was resisted by an ascertained them.

majority of 104 to 25; the latter without a division. Such a measure, to succeed to its fullest extent, must Is the House now ready to retrace its steps ? have a beginning somewhere. Commencing with the The Committee believe not. Neither the people of consent of any two states, to regard it as binding on America, nor their representatives, will sully the glory themselves only, it would, by the gradual accession of they have earned by their early labor, and stearly perse. others, enlarge the sphere of its operation, until it em- verance, in sustaining, by their federal and state govern. braced, as the resolution conteniplated, all the maritime me:ts, the cause of humanity at home and abroad. powers of the civilized worlu.

The calamity inflicted upon them, by the introduction While it involved of necessity the visit and search of of slavery, in a form, and to an extent forbidding its haspiratical vessels, as belligerant rights against the common ty alleviation by intemperate zeal, is imputable to a forenemies of man, it avoided all complexity, difficulty, eign cause, for which the past is responsible to the preand delay, in the seizure, condemnation, and punish- sent age. They will not deny to themselves, and to ment of the pirate himself. It made no distinction in mankind, a generous co-operation in the only efficient favor of those pirates who prey upon the property, measure of retributive justice, to an insulted and afflict. against those who seize, torture, and kill, or consign to ed continent, and to an injured and degraded race. interminable and hereditary slavery, the persons of their In the independence of Spanish and Portuguese Amer. enemies.

ica, the Committee behold a speedy termination of the Your committee are at a loss for the foundation of any few remaining obstacles to the extention of the policy such discrimination. It is believed, that the most an- of the resolution of May, 1823. cient piracies consisted in converting innocent captives Brazil cannot intend to resist the voice of the residue into slaves; and those were not attended with the de- of the continent of America : and Portugal, (leprived of struction of one third of their victims, by loathsome con- her great market for slaves, will no longer have a mo. fineinent and mortal disease.

live to resist the common feelings of Europe. While the modern, therefore, accords with the ancient while, from the Rio de la Plata, to the Amazon, and denomination of this crime, its punishment is not dis- through the American Archipelago, the importation of proportionate to its guilt. It has robbery and murder slaves covertly continues, if i: be not openly countefor its mere accessories, and moistens onc continent nanced, the impolicy is obvious, of denying to the Amerwith blood and tears, in order to curse another, by slow ican shore the protective vigilance of the only adequate consuming ruin, pbysical and moral.

check upon this traffic. One high consolation attends upon the new remedy Your committee forbear to enter upon an investiga. for this frightful and prolific evil. If once successful, it tion of the particular provisions of a depending negotiawill forever remain so, until, being unexerted, its very tion, nor do they consider the message referred to them application will be found in history alone.

as inviting any such inquiry. Can it be doubted, that, if ever legitimate commerce They will no: regard a negotiation to be dissolved, shall supplant the source of this evil in Africa, and a re- which has approached so near consummation, nor a con. liance on other supplies of labor its use elsewhere, a vention, as absolutely void, which bas been executed by revival of the slave trade will be as impracticable, as a one party, and wbich the United States, having first tenreversion to barbarism ?-that, after the lapse of a cendered, should be the last to reject. tury from its extinction, except where the consequences of the crime shall survive, the stories of the African slave

REPORT trade will become as improbable among the unlearned, Of the Committee on Roads and Canals, upon the as the expeditions of the heroes of Homer?

subject of internal Improvements, accompanied The principle of the law of 1820, making the slave

by a bill" concerning Internal Improvements." trade a statutory piracy, and of the resolution of the House of Representatives of May, 1823, which sought

#. of R. Feb. 6, 1825. to render this denunciation of that offence universal, The Committee on Roads and Canals beg leave, there. annot, therefore, be misunderstood.

with, to report a bill “ concerning Internal Improve.

And yet,

18th CONGRESS, ?

On Internal Improvements. 20 SESSION.

[H. of R. ments." This bill proposes to authorize the President nies incorporated in the respective states, for internal of the United States to borrow, on the best terms he can, improvements. any sums of money, not exceeding, in the whole, ten The plan proposed by the bill, after much reflection, millions of dollars; which sums are to be borrowed at has been deemed to be the most judicious of any that such times as may be necessary for the purposes con can be devised. It is a plan of encouragement, and in tained in the second section of the bill, and to be re- its operation, will not interfere with objects of the first deemable at the end of - years.

class. It will excite the states to incorporate companies The second section authorizes the Secretary of the for such objects as will be, in a degree, national, and Treasury to make subscriptions, on the part of the sufficiently so as to induce Congress to countenance United States, in such companies for internal improve them; it leaves Congress to decide in each case, when ments, as may be ir.corporated by the respective states, presented upon its own circumstances and merits

. and as Congress may approve from time to time.

Congress, on all occasions, is to act for the good The third section contains a provision, that each state of the whole; and there must be many instances where may, under certain restrictions, purchase the stock sub- the public interest of the Union will require larger scribed in such state, and take a transfer of the same expenditures in one portion of the country than in 20from the “ecretary of the Treasury.

other. The fourth section directs the Secretary of the Trea States, which have important natural advantages for sury, as long as any stock belongs to the United States, improvements, will not be willing 10 yield them to the to receive the dividends on the same, and to vote for General Government, although they may stand in need the officers of each company, according to the shares of its aid in the beginning-for instance, Pennsylvania

, subscribed.

from her interest and pride, never could be disposed to The committee have directed their attention, mainly, permit the contemplated canal from the Susquehannah to such considerations of the subject as may lead to the io Pittsburg, to go into any other bands than her own. actual execution of internal improvements.

This plan contains the advantage of receiving aid from The construction of the Federal Government, as a the General Government, while it retains to the stales general head, and the existence of many states as sepa- the right of purchasing the interest of the United States rale parts of the whole, create obstacles against the at pleasure. execution of many important works, but none, it is be Congress can act, in any case, after receiving the ne lieved, which may not be overcome, and, in a manner, cessary information, without waiting for information from that will be reconcileable to the pretensions of the other places. diflerent governments.

The object of introducing the bill this session, is to As to the objects of improvements, whether they be. lay the subject generally before the public; it is not delong to the General Government or to a state, the exe- signed to act on it until the next session of Congress cution of them will be, in a degree, beneficial to the when its details, if the principles of the bill are sanewhole. An object of improvement may be entirely tioned, can be revised and improved. within a state, and still be of a Federal character, as a The committee cannot conceive how the General Goroad to a fortification. The object may embrace parts vernment can aid in the internal improvements of the of two states, as a bridge over å river, ihat divides the country, in most cases, with greater propriety than by two states; yet the states may erect the bridge, if Con- subscriptions to companies incorporated by the respec gress gives its consent, otherwise, any agreement or tive states. Congress will have the opinion of the Unit compact between the states will not be binding; in ed States' Engineers, who will make the necessary $0.such a case, Congress could either give conseni, veys, plans, and estimates; and it will have the opinion

Cause the bridge to be erected by the United of a state in each case, and of intelligent stockholders as States, if it was necessary to answer any national to the importance and probable profits of each wart; purpose; or it might be erected by a company incor. and, finally, Congress will exercise its own judgment on porated by the two states. If the object of improve the utility and national character of the work. The ment has a wide range, and is to pass through many prosecution of the works, besides, will be conducted by states, there the General Government can act alone, as interested individuals, with less expense and delay than in the case of the improvements of the Ohio and Missis. perbaps it could be done by the public. sippi rivers. These improvements cannot be distinguish. As Congress will probably make other expenditures ed from any other of the same importance, that passes in specific cases, froni time to time, the sum is here f through a number of states.

mited 10 ten millions of dollars; yet, Congress can adopt It is unnecessary, at the present, to make any effort the principle that no subscription shall be made to any to ascertain where the true line on this subject lies, incorporated company, until a certain proportion of the between the General and State Governments ; Congress estimated expense shall have been subscribed for, either must decide on each case as it arises, and it is believed by the state or individuals; and this may augment the that there never can be any collision. Congress will actual expenditures for public improvements to more never be disposed to act without the co-operation of the than double the sum mentioned in the bill. Several of states, except in a national work, passing through differ- the states have executed many important works, and ent states, and where the states through which it passes with a judicions management from the General Goveriare not interested in a degree sufficient to induce them ment, a great deal more may be anticipated on their parts. to undertake the perfection of the work, or any con. The aid of the General Governinent will seldom be siderable part of it; such cases, in the opinion of the required in the construction of roads. The roads which committee, may be considered as of the first national will be necessary for the accommodation of the states class, and cannot be included in any general and speci- will

, in most cases, answer the purposes of the General fic systems; for, although the mountains, streams, and Government. Attention will

, perhaps, have to be paid the variety of our climate and soil will not change, still to parts of leading mail routes where the interest of the it would be rash to adopt a system designating where states is not sufficient to induce them to keep such pari roads, canals, and bridges, should be located, ten or in good repair. In the late report of the Secretary of twenty years hence ; cach case must depend on the War, the extension of the Cumberland road from Wheels course of trade, and the circumstances that may exist, at ing to St. Louis, and the construction of a durable road the moment it is to be carried into execution.

from the seat of Government to New Orleans, are cogiThe committee, however, are of opinoil, that there is sidered as objects of national importance. a secondary class of cases, on which the General Govern. By the

report of the Postmaster General, of the 15th ment and the states can act conjointly by the subscrip- December, 1824, it appears that the route on which the tion of stock on the part of the United Slates, in compa- mail is carried from the seat of Government to New

or

1816 CONGRESS, 2 So}

On Internal Improvements. 2 Session.

[H. of R.

Orleans, is estimated at 1,380 miles, and requires a tra- cester, by Squam, into Ipswich Bay, and thence to Newvel of 24 days in the winter and spring seasons of the buryport, Portsmouth, Portland, &c. and are saved the year. The mail on this route is sometimes entirely ob- difficulty and risk of doubling Cape Ann. structed by high waters; and, when this is not the case, No improvements of which the country is capable, it is frequently much injured by the nail horses swim- would conduce more to internal commerce and military ming creeks and through swamps, by which newspapers defence, than this chain of inland water communication are frequently destroyed, and letters obliterated. In along the Atlantic, and its extension to the Mississippi. the report, it is further remarked, that the route, by the As to commerce, the communication by this canal way of Warrenton, Abington, and Knoxville, affords route, is from North to South about fifteen degrees, and great facilities for the construction of a muil road. the produce of the South, cotton, rice, tobacco, sugars, Through Virginia and 'Tennessee, the materials are and the fruits of the climate, could be taken to the landabundant for the formation of a Turnpike, and through ings and towns, as far as the extreme point of the North, the states of Alabama and Mississippi, it is believed, in a short time, and the boats could return with the mafrom information which has been obtained, that, in no nufactures of the North and Middle states. This canal part of the Union, can an artificial road, of the same route, in its course, would connect itself with all the valength, be constructed at less expense. On thi. part of luable streams from the Mississippi to the North, and the route, the face of the country is level, and the soil would save from wrecks large amounts of property. It well adapted for the formation of a solid road. If a sub- is estimated that, on the Keys and Shoals of the Florida stantial road were made in this direction to New Or- coast alone, 500,000 dollars worth of property is wreckleans, the mail could be transported to that place from ed annually. this city, in eleven days. If the road were to PASS As to military defence, these improvements would be through the capitals of Virginia, North Carolina, and equally valuable: as the extent of our coast gives to an Georgia, it could be conveyed in less than twelve days. enemy possessing a powerful naval force, the advantage The Department now pays at the rate of $52 76 a mile of selecting the place of attack ; but, by means of such for the transportation of the mail three times in each a water conveyance, one army could defend a great disweek to New Orleans; wlien, on a good turnpike road, tance of the seaboard, as it could be transported to any it could be conveyed in a stage as often, and in less than point in a short period. half the time, at the same expense, with the utmost With such a line of defence, no discreet General security, and with a considerable increase to the re-would venture far into the interior of the country, when ceipts of the Department.

his retreat would be so easily cut off, and his defeat renT'he committee are of opinion, that it would result to dered almost certain. the public benefit to make experiments, in this District, In the other extreme of the country, the Lakes can be of a rail road, and of a road, constructed on M'Adam's connected with the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi plan, for short distances, and in places where they would rivers. The falls of Niagara, it is believed, can be avoid. be useful, as well as for inspection.

ed by a canal of about ten miles, and on such a scale as On the subject of the inland navigation of the coun. 10 admit vessels which navigate both Lakes; and at an try, a mass of information is contained in the reports of expense not exceeding a million of dollars. Lake Michthe Secretary of the Treasury, of the 4th of April, 1808; igan can be connected by a canal with the waters of the of the Secretary of War, on the 3ıl of December, 1824; Illinois river, which empties into the Mississippi. And of the United States' Board of Engineers; and of Canalto effect this communication, a law was passed in 1820, Commissioners in the States.

by Congress, authorizing the state of Illinois to open a Is is believed to be practicable, and by no means at an canal through the public lands. unreasonable expense, compured with ibe high import Already, steam boats of 450 tons, with full cargoes, ance of the subject, to make an inland water communi- have passed from Buffalo to the Southern extremities of cation from Boston to St. Mary's, and to connect the Lake Michigan, a distance of 800 or 900 miles. The waters of the Atlantic with those of the Gulf of Mexico. whole of this navigation is on the Lakes, except the In 1808, the Secretary of the Treasury indicated a canal passage through the strait between Lakes Michigan and to be opened 550 miles in length, at an expense of Huron, of ten miles; the strait between Huron and St. $30,000,000, and ten year's labor; and as great as the Clair, of thirty-five miles; and the strait between St. expense would be, he thought the advantages of dis- Clair and Lake Eric, of twenty-eight miles: making, in charging the Mississippi into the Atlantic ocean, through the whole, seventy-three miles; but through each of these the territory of the state of Georgia, worth it all. But, straits there is sufficient depth of water for sloops and since the acquisition of Florida, a new route presents it. steam boats of the burthen just mentioned. With imself, to commence on the Mississippi, at the mouth of provements of no extraordinary magnitude, there can be the river Iberville, and terminate at the mouth of St. a water communication from New Orleans to Quebec; John's river, on the coast of Florida. The whole dis- and inland navigations from the Atlantic, across to this tance is 700 miles; but the distance to be canalled, extensive line, may be effected from various points. In would not exceed 120 miles, and would save a distance New England. the Penobscot, Kennebec, and Connecti. of navigation cf 1,500 miles. The cost of this undertak- cut rivers, approach the waters of the St. Lawrence ; and ing, from the information received, would be about six a project is said to be in contemplation to connect the millions of dollars.

waters of Lake Memphramagog with the Connecticut By virtue of an appropriation, made in March, 1823, river, through the Barton and Willoughby rivers, Wilthe obstruction between the harbor of Gloucester, and loughby Lake and Pasamsick river, to the Connecticut the harbor of Squam, in the state of Massachusetts, has river, opposite the town of Lyman, in the state of New been removed. "It consisted of a narrow isthmus of sand, Hampshire. It is also expected, that the Government which had been thrown into a passage that formerly ex. of Canada will undertake to open a water communicaisted there, and, by the constant action of the waves, in tion for boats, from Memphramagog Lake, Ithrough Rio heavy gales of wind, had been filled up for, perbaps, a St. Francois, to Lake St. Peter's, in the river St. Lawhundred years, and had completely connected the island rence, and thence to Quebec : And thus, to give an inof Cape Ann with the main land. By this improvement, land water communication froin Quebec to Portsmouth, which was perfected under the auspices of the General Boston, Hartford, and New York. And it is believed Government, the coasting trade, from a!! parts of Boston that a direct water communication may be opened from Bay, enjoys the great advantage, in particular seasons of the state of Permont, through the interior of the state the year, and circumstances of weather, but especially of New Hampshire, to Dover, Portsmouth and Boston ir: winter, of passing through, from the harbor of Glou. Navy Yards, which will facilitate the transportation of

18th CONGRESS,}

On Internal Improvement.

[H. of R.

1

merchandise into the country, and the produce of the furnishing a vent for the produce of several others. The country to a market, together with timber to the Navy shortness of the canal, by this route, connecting the AlYards. This route would also open a free intercourse lantic tides with the steam boat navigation of the West, with Canada and Quebec, either by water to the St. at Pittsburg, being less than 350, and to Lake Erie, less Lawrence river, or Craig's road to Quebec.

than 450 miles. Companies have been incorporated to connect the These considerations, together with the general and waters of Connecticut river with the waters of the Mer-diffusive nature of the benefits to result from this work, rimack, and to cut a canal from the Winnepisiogee Lake offering great advantages to all the states, yet pecular to the Piscataqua river, and from Pemigwasset river, to none, as well as the magnitude of the undertaking: through Squam ponds, to Winnepisiogee Lake. These, point it out as a work peculiarly national in its character, when effected, will connect the waters of the Connecti- and cannot fail to secure for it the prompt and efficies cut river with Portsmouth and Boston harbors.

aid of the General Government. In New York, much has already been done by the Many of the above remarks will likewise apply to the energetic measures and sound policy which that state Pennsylvania Canal, which will pass through a rich and has pursued. The great canal of New York unites populous country, and connect the greatest manufactur the Atlantic with the regions of the Lakes. Still, many ing city on the Western waters with one of the riches other important objects of improvement remain to be and most manufacturing cities on the Atlantic, at a da effected in the state of New York, as appears in the tance of about 370 miles; and will bring New York ad message of the Governor of that state, lately addressed Pittsburg nearer together than by any other route to the General Assembly.

from New York to Brunswick 40 miles, from there to Another connection may be effected through the Philadelpbia 60, and from there to Pittsburg 370; mak states of Jersey and Pennsylvania. A law has been late-ing, in the whole, 470 miles, instead of 790 by Lake ly passed by the Legislature of the state of New Jersey, Frie. to construct a canal from the Raritan to the Delaware. James River, in the state of Virginia, it is belesed And in Pennsylvania, the river Schuylkill has been con- can be connected with the Kenhawa, which empties verted into a slack water navigation, by canals and dams, to the Ohio. This will afford that valuable sectioss from tide water at Philadelphia, to Mount Carbon, near the country a water communication to the Lakes the its source, being a distance of one hundred and nine the canal intended to be cut from the Ohio River to Lab miles. The cost of this work, now finished, was one Erie; on which subject, the Canal Commissioners, million eight hundred thousand dollars. Connected obedience to an act of the General Assembly of with it, is the Union Canal, which branches off at Read state of Ohio, have recently written a very able repos ing, fifty-two miles above Philadelphia, and intersects The sources of the Roanoke rise in the mountains the Susquehannah at Middletown, ten miles below Har. Virginia, and it empties itself into the Albemarie Son risburg. This work, now in rapid progress, and which and is navigable to the Great Falls, seventy miles will be finished in eighteen months, is seventy-eight its mouth. Around the Great Falls, locks bare beds miles long, and will cost about eleven hundred thousand made, and the branches of this river hare been po dollars. Both these canals lead to inexhaustible mines improved by jetty dams. It is proposed to read of coal, of the very best quality, and complete the water Roanoke Inlet, or to make a new one near its ste, si communication between the Susquehannah and Phila. to close up the communication between Albemars * delphia, the distance being about one hundred and fifty Pamtico Sounds, by running a dam of stone or of miles. The majestic river of Susquehannah is the only and earth across Cronton and Roanoke Sounds next one of the Atlantic rivers whose sources approach both South end of Roanoke Island. The estimated costs the Western waters, and those of the St. Lawrence. Its this improvement, if made of stone, is $2,000,000, Tioga branch affords a communication with the rivers if made of wood and earth, $1,000,000. This is Seneca and Gennessee, which empty into Lake Ontario, ment would diminish the distance from any gives p and its Western branch approaches the waters of the on the Sound nearly one ball, and would accoroD Alleghany. The river Susquehannah, it is believed, the country on both sides of the Sound, and sloeg affords two communications to the Western waters ; one rivers emptying into it, which is as fertile a tract of by the Western branch, and the other by connecting try as any in the Southern states, and sustains as the Juviatta river with the river Coneniaugh, which emp- population. ties into the Alleghany.

The head waters of the Great Pedee River, The Canal Commissioners of the state of Pennsylvania, falls into the ocean at Wingan Bay, take their risesti who examined this last route, partly in conjunction with Blue Ridge; and the Yadkin, a bold strear, with two of the United States' Engineers, have lately report. one formidable, but not insurmountable, obstruction ed in favor of its practicability.

navigable to the foot of those mountains, in the se The next communication with the Western waters can North Carolina. The distance over them to the si be effected by the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. This ble waters of the Holstein, a branch of the Tennese object, regarded as the most important and national, not great. The head waters of the Santee, which was the first to claim the attention of the Executive in its outlet in the state of South Carolina, are the C332*, carrying into effect the provisions of the law oj' the last Broad, and Saluda rivers; the former takes its ris* session, to procure surveys, &c.; and the able board of the mountains in North Carolina, not far from the se Engineers, who have given the subject a full and care- waters of the French Broad; the ivo latter rise Wit! ful examination during the last summer, have pronoun- state of South Carolina; their sources are nearls eqs ced it perfectly practicable, at an expense small com- in the vicinity of the French Broad. The navigat pared with the magnitude and importance of the object. each of these three rivers has been so far imprevede This work, whether regarded in a military, commercial, render them fit for the transportation of produs or political point of view, is equally important. Passing within a few miles of the mountains. The Keosea through the centre of the Republic, from one extreme Sugatoo rivers, the head waters of the Savaaral, to the other, opening an internal communication of more form the boundary of the states of South Caroin than 2,500 miles; affording at once a powerful bond Georgia, liave their source in the same chain of of Union, with every commercial facility in time of tains, and might be rendered navigable to withis a perce-and, in war, the most efficient means of national short distance of the bead waters of the French se deience. Besides, 'its immediate connection with the It is to be observed of all these rivers, taat the seat of the National Government; its central position; Ridge presents obstacles to a junction between the the great extent of inland navigation which it opens ; ern and Western waters, by means of catalá touching, in its course, cleven states of the Union, and By a memorial from the Legislature of Alak

ised Sessbess; }
On Internal Improvements.

[H. of R. 2d Session. Congress, it appears that the Tuscaloosa river, a branch The inestimable invention of lock navigation was en. of the Tombecbe, may, at a reasonable expense, be con- tirely unknown to the ancients, who have furnished us nected with the Tennessee river. The memorial also with so many astonishing monuments of their greatness ; states, that the Alabama river commences and becomes it instructed mankind in the knowledge that water was capable of a water transportation within eight or eleven capable of producing the ascent of vessels to its own miles of a stream equally susceptible of being rendered level, and that, wherever there is water above, vessels navigable, and which empties into the Tennessee river; can go down and re-ascend by water; but the invention that the latter receives the tribute of several other in itself is not much mure wonderful than the prejudices streams which take their rise and become navigable in against adopting it in practice, which have existed in the state of Virginia, passing through some of the most many countries. productive lands, and watering, in their course, the whole In the construction of the canal of the two seas in Eastern Section of the state of Tennessee; that the di- France, all the science and art appertaining to the subviding ground separating these waters affords a favorable ject were displayed. Locks, 114 in number, were conopportunity of connecting the waters of the Alabama structeil, and rocks excavated for great distances ; tun. with those of the Tennessee river; and that the distance nels were cut through mountains, and a reservoir of 595 for the produce of Tennessee to reach a market on the acres was filled by waters from the adjacent elevated sea board, would be reduced from nearly two thousand places, and which were conveyed by aqueducts over miles, to New Orleans, to six or seven hundred iniles, to rivers and valleys. This canal, although greatly advanthe Mobile, which may be connected with the Pensacola tageous to the nation at large, would not have been good Bay.

property for private proprietors; but it was the origin The Cumberland river, in the state of Tennessee, it of innumerable canals in France and Holland, which exis believed, can be connected with the l'ennessee river, hibited, in the clearest light, their many and important which, when connected with the Tombecbe or Alabama public and private advantages; but, notwithstanding rivers, will open a direct water communication to Pen- the enterprising character of the people of England, and sacola, in Florida, for a large and important section of although they had the examples of Holland and France the Union.

so near at hand, still, near a century passed, before eith. Some of the Georgia rivers, it is believed, may be con er government or inhabitants attempted to make any nected with the Western waters.

works of the kind in England. The success of the unThe cutting of a canal from Lake Pontchartrain, to dertaking of a spirited individual, at length roused the communicate with the Mississippi, at or near the city of people to enthusiasm, and awakened a general ardor for New Orleans, is considered of importance, both in a mi- similar improvements among the landholders, farmers, litary and commercial point of view.

merchants, and manufacturers of the kingdom. Since Pearl River, in the state of Mississippi, is also a valua. then, there has been no cessation in the prosecution of ble stream, and is capable of much improvement for the public works, and the capacity of the country has been public advantage.

entirely changed; old manufactures were rendered Besides the communications, already mentioned, with more flourishing, and new ones were established from the Lakes, it is considered as practicable, at a reasonable time to time, in places where the land before was of but expense, to connect the Wabash River with the Miami little value and thinly inhabited. The towns were ena. of Lake Erie.

bled to supply a much greater extent of inland country The importance of an early attention to the construc. with their own manufactures. The consu iners, in the tion of canals, round the Falls of Ohio, at Louisville, and interior of the country, imported at lower prices, and, as round the Muscle Shoal, in the l'ennessee River, will be producers, they exported with greater advantages.' readily conced ed.

The canals united the materials for manufactures that Whenever the contemplated water communication, lay dispersed, and, by lessening the expense of the transbetween Boston and the river Delaware, shall be com- portation of bulky articles, they brought stores of riches pleted, it will, it is supposed, leave but about thirty-eight from the bowels of the earth. They afforded to the inmiles of land, separated by water sources, to Lewis's Ri. habitants of the interior, in every direction, the advan. ver, a branch of the Columbia, which empties into the, tages of coasts which were safe from tempests and wars. Pacific ocean; as, froin the Talpahockin, a branch of England could never have sustained herself in her mighthe Schuylkill to the Quitepahilla, a branch of tie sus. ty struggles with the continent, hard it not been for her quehannah, four miles; from Poplar Run, a branch of unremitted attention to the domestic industry of the the Juniatta, to the little Conemaugh, a branch of the Al country; and nothing gave as much facility and animaleghany, 14 miles; from the Yellow Stone river, a branch tion to this industry, as her cheap, safe, and expeditious of the Missouri, to Lewis's River, a branch of the Colum- modes of transportation. Prejudices, even as to the bia, twenty miles; making, in the whole, thirty-eight practicability of executing great designs, existed in Engmiles. But what distance of canalling, and water imn. land for a long time; and, when the Duke of Bridgeprovements, would be necessary to complete this chain water's canal was finished as far as Barton, where the of communication, the committee possesses no means of Irwell is navigable for large vessels, Brindley, the engiascertaining. Parts of it, no doubt, will be accomplished neer, proposed to carry it over that river bý aqueducis, in a reasonable time; yet there can be no expectation the idea was ridiculed, and another eminent engineer that the whole will be effected for a very long period. was consulted, who replied, at once, what he had otten

If the survey system, which commenced the last suin- heard of castles in the air, but that he had never been mer, should be persevered in, the Union, and the seve shown before, where any of them were to be built. The ral States, will be put into the possession of invaluable Duke, however, took the advice of his own engineer, and information on these interesting subjects.

the work was commenced in September, 1760, and boats In viewing the prospects before us for improvements sailed over it in less than a year, to the astonishment of on a large scale, the mind is lost in amazement at the ex- those, who, a little before, thought it impossible. The tensiveness of the scenes which appear, for the perma. New York works had to encounter prejudices of every nent benefit and grandeur of the country.

description; some entertained opinions that the whole The inhabitants of the old countries were for a long scheme was romantic in the extreme; that it was totally time confined to the coasts; but the improvements in impracticable; and, if practicable, that it was far beyond navigation, gave an unlimited expansion to commercial any conception they had of the ability of the state to enterprise, and the discovery of canalling is an admirable carry it inio execution. A short period has, however, extension of the benefits of navigation, by which we can dispelled all such apprehensions; and it may be reasonsail over the globe by land, as well as hy sea,

ably hoped that these works will produce similar effects in

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