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common sense.


} Commercial Relations between the U. States and the Netherlands. [H. of R. In the Baron de Nagell's note mention is made of three encourage the building of national ships, and not the laws of the Netherlands, in relation to this subject, of trade in such ships after they are built, is, of course, ne the 12th of June, and 12th of July, 1821, and of the 10th violation of the equalizing system. I have thought, of August, 1822 I will thank you to send me copies of since this decree made its appearance, that a bounty ce all these acts in French, and also of the law of the 26th this kind must have been intended by the Baron de X of Angust, 1822, and of the new tariff.

in his note of May 27; as the distinction betweet I am, with great respect, sir,

the effect of a bounty on transportation in national slipa Your very humble and obedient servant,

and a formal discrimination in the duties, seems to be JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. really too absurd to be taken in earnest by any mundi ALEX. H. EVERETT, Esq.

If the Baron meant by his prime des Charge d'Affuires, U. S. to the Netherlands.

couragement, a bounty on ship building, it is crue, as he

says, that such a b unty would form no subject of com Mr. Everett to Mr. Adams-No. 107.

plaint: but this fact does not strengthen his arguities, BRUSSELS, November 11, 1823.

because, such a bounty has no analogy whatever to ta.

drawback on goods imported in national ships. Ishoc. Sır: Your despatches of the 8th and 9th of August, perhaps, have introduced this idea in my note of the it, which came under the same cover, were received on the but I had written and transmitted it before the decret first of November. Agreeably to your instructions, I was in print. immediately addressed notes to the Baron de Nagell up- I have the honor to he, with high respect, sir, on the subjects of both, copies of which are enclosed. Your most obedient, and very humble servant, I have requested an early answer respecting the dis

A. H. EVERETT criminating duty; but there is very little chance of ob. Hon. John QUINCY ADAMS, taining it in time for it to be known at Washington be

Secretary of State. fore the new law is passed. The laws of July 12, 1821, and August 26, 1822, are

Jr. Everett to Baron de Nagell. the only ones quoted by the Baron de Nagell in his note

BRUSSELS, November 5, 16 of May 27. The appearance of a different date in one Sir: I have the honor to inform your Excellencs et of the passages, in which they are alluded to, arose from I have just received the instructiosis of my Goverzeko an accidental error of the clerk in the original note, in regard to the subjects treated of in my note of the it which, it seems, was retained in the hurry of writing, of last March. I am directed to communicate top in my copies. The beginning of the fifth paragraph tor the information of Ilis Majesty, the President's vers should read, D'apres les loix du 12 Juillet, 1821, et 26 respecting that affair. Aout, dernier, instead of D'apres les loix du 12 Juin, 1821, My object in the note just mentioned, was to res? of 10 Aout dernier. The law of the 12th of July, and strate against certain parts of the new financal be the tariff of the 26th of August, were transmitted to the which appeared to me to infringe the system on Department about the time of their adoption, viz: the tiality, that has formed for some time past the bes former with my despatch, No. 80, and the latter with of the commercial relations between the United S* my letter, marked "private No. 18.” The general law and the Netherlands; and, I specified particularis, of the 26th of August was not sent with the tariff, not tenth article of the law of the 20th of August

, . being then in print. I have now the honor of sending which establishes a drawback of ten per cent of <*> you copies of bot?, bound together in a volume. I have whole amount of duties in favor of goods imported made inquiry for the law of July 12, but have not yet Dutch vessels. Your Excellency did me the hori? been able to procure it; and the copy I have on hand, is state in reply, in your note of the 27th of May, that the bound up in a volume with several other documents, distinctions were justifiable on the ground of tners which would be useless at the Department. As soon as triotic design, which was no other than lo afford: : I can obtain a copy, I shall certainly transmit it to you. able encouragement to the shipping of the couns In the mean time, if you should have occasion to consult You remarked, that a drawback in favor of the this law, you may, perhaps, find upon the files the copy was not equivalent in principle, to a formal discro which was sent before. It is, however, a mere state- tion against foreigners, but rather to a bounty –3 ment of general principles, preliminary to the laws of sure not inconsistent, in the view of His Majesty': * August 26, 1822, and contains no regulations whatever, vernment, with a system of perfect impartiality betaintended for immediate practical effect.

citizens and foreigners; and you added in concise You will observe, that, beside the general drawback of that, supposing the article in question to be rea? ten per cent. in favor of national vessels, there are dis- consistent with such a system, the Government of La criminations to a similar effect upon seve al sepa. United States would still possess no right to det rate articles. The principal of these are tea, coffee, their repeal, inasmuch as they had already, by these and sugar. The duty on teas is raised by the present of March 3, 1819, revoked their own foriner lawn. tariff; but the discrimination has existed since the year vor of the commerce of the Netherlands. 1817, and does not appear to have been considered as As your Excellency insisted a good deal upon this a inconsistent with the equalizing system, probably be point, and expressed some surprise that I had not cause the article is not of the growth of the United States. ed in my note to this act of 1819, I thought it mj The discrimination in regard to coffee, established by to inform you ai the cime, by my answer of May 31, the general law, article 5, sec. 9, is new; but being in the law in question was intended merely to defera favor of the national colonial trade, is not, perhaps, a fair the period at which the subject should be iaken up a subject of complaint. The additional duty on sugar, im- in Congress, and that the Government of the ! ported in foreign vessels, is, however, à direct violation States had no design of abandoning the established of the equalizing systein; as are, also, those upon one I added, that the distinction pointed out by ! or two other articles of less iniportance, such as salt, mo- Excllency between the different modes of favoris lasses, and wood for building, which, with the three shipping of a country, did not appear to me to be sure mentioned above, are the only ones in which I have no just, and that, if foreigners really paid ten per cent

. ticed any special discrimination.

than subjects, it was of little importance to thein, A decree has lately been published, offering a bounty er they did it' in one form or another. Confining 55 of eight forins per ton, on all ships of above three hun. to these remarks, I referred the matter to my dred tons burden, built within the country for three ment for decision, and transmitted to Washington years to come. This regulation, which is intended to correspondence that had passed.


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APPENDIX-To Gales & Seaton's Register. 18 Sessiosss} Commercial Relations between the U. States and the Netherlands.

[H. O. R.

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I have now the honor of informing your Excellency, part of your note of the 27th of May, I am directed to by direction of the President, that he has learned with remark further, that the President is disposed to believe much regret, the intention of His Majesty's Government and to hope that the change of system which has taken

to alter the liberal system which has been in force for place, has been owing, chiefly, to a misunderstanding of -x: : *

some time past, and which was considered as beneficial the object of the act of March 3, 1819. In regard to to both parties, and conformable to their general princi- this point, I am now authorized to assure you, explicitly, ples of administration.

in the name of my Government, as I have done before As to the reasoning, by which your Excellency justi. in my own, that the object of the act was, simply to fix a fies this change, in your note of the 27th of May, my time when the subject should be re-considered in ConGovernment confirms in general, the remarks which I gress, and that the Government bas no intention, what. had made in reply to it, in my communication of the 31st ever, to abandon the system. The acts and negotiations of the same month. The President cannot admit the that have taken place, since its adoption, and the mes. correctness of the distinction between the effect of a sages addressed, by the President, to Congress, in partibounty or a drawback, and that of a formal discrimina- cular that of December, 1821, attest the steady disposition. He thinks, on the contrary, that impartiality is at tion of the administration, in all its branches, to mainan end whenever the foreigner finds himself in any way tain this course. The laws, which expire at the end of less advantageously situated than the native ; and is ra- the year, will be doubtless re-enacted, with such modi. ther surprised, that the Government of the Netherlands fications as may appear expedient: and if one of these should question a principle which appears so perfectly wodifications should be the omission of the name of the evident. And, as your Excellency seems to have taken it Netherlands from the list of privileged nations, the for granted, that the Government of the U. States would change will be owing, entirely, to the new regulations not have considered a bounty on the transportation of contained in the Dutch law, of August 26, 1822. goods in Dutch vessels, as any violation of the equaliz The American Government is, however, inclined to ing system, I am authorized to assure you explicitly, hope, that this retaliatory measure will not be necessary; that, in the view of the American Government, such a and that, if the act of March 3, 1819, has been explained measure would be entirely inadmissible, being equiva- to the satisfaction of His Majesty, he will re-consider the lent in principle, as it is in effect, to a forrnal discrimina. provisional decision, announced in your Excellency's tion.

note, of the 31st of May, and restore to the American The patriotic intention of His Majesty's Government, trade the privileges which it has heretofore enjoyed. 9, the s'in adopting these measures, is highly honorable to the Should this be the case, I will thank your Excellency to

character of the king and his ministers; but cannot, cer- give me as early information of the fact as may be conentende tainly, be understood to reconcile contraries, or to prove venient, that I may transmit it immediately to Washing.

that discriminations in favor of native citizens are consis- ton. The subjeci will, probably, be taken up in Content with a system of impartiality between citizen and gress before the close of the year; and it is desirable foreigner. The encouragement of the national industry that the king's final decision should be known previous

is, doubtless, with enlightened governments, the princi- ly to the passage of the new law. eta o pal object of all commercial regulations; and, in seeking Your Excellency will permit me to remark, in conclu.

to effect this object, each government adopts the policy sion, that the privilege enjoyed by the Dutch Aag, of which appears to suit best with its particular position. covering the products of Germany and Switzerland, has,

Some nations attempt to include the competition of fo- also, been extended to the flags of Prussia and the Hanse He reigners, by [placing] them higher than citizens', and by Towns. As the ports of the Netherlands are more conGure granting bounties to the latter; while others, on the veniently situated for shipping these products to the

contrary, endeavor to make their dominion the marts United States, it is believed that the greater part of this
of general commerce, and hold out every possible in- commerce now takes that direction. If, however, the
ducement to foreigners to frequent their ports. This privilege in question, should be revoked, as respects the
latter policy was formerly preferred in the Netherlands, Netherlands, and continued to the other above mention-
at the time when Bourges, Antwerp, and Amsterdam, ed powers, there would then be an advantage of ten per
figured, in succession, with so much brilliancy, at the cent. in conveying the products of the interior of Europe
head of the industry and commerce in Europe : and it to the United States, through the ports of Prussia and
seems, in fact, to agree very well with the situation of a the Hanse Towns, rather than those of this country: and
country of limited extent and dense population—water. this difference, in the present state of commerce, would
ed by numerous rivers, that connect it with the more decide the preference. The subjects of the Netherlands
productive parts of Europe, and embosomed in seas that will, therefore, lose, by the effects of the new system,
afford an easy intercourse with all the rest of the world. not only a considerable advantage in the carriage of their
Both these systems, however, have their peculiar ad- own products, but the profits of a pretty important and
vantages; and each supposes alike, on the part of the lucrative branch of trade which they must now nearly
administration, the intention to encourage national indus- monopolize.
try, and promote the public good. But, were it even I have the honor to be, with high respect, sir,
admitted that the exclusive policy were more advantage.

Your Excellency's very obedient servant, ous, and, consequently, more patriotic than the liberal

one, it would still be not the less certain that the two
are essentially different; ard that partial measures, how-

Mr. Everett to Mr. Adams.-(No. 110.)
ever patriotic they may be, can never be impartial. -
Your Excellency re:narks, in your note of the 27th of

BRUSSELS, February 21, 1824. May, that the bounties and drawbacks allowed to the Sin: I learn from the public papers that a new law subjects of the Netherlands, furnish the American Go- has been enacted on the subject of the discriminating vernment with no just ground of complaint, because duties, and presume that I shall receive a copy of it from these measures are intencked to protect and encourage the you, with instructions to communicate it to this Governshipping of the country, But however just and laudablement. But, as the time of my departure is now pretty this design may be, in itself, the partial measures adopt near, I thought it advisable, in order to give them an oped in pursuance of it are, unquestionably, fair subjects portunity to deliberate upon the matter before I go, not of complaint with any foreign nation which has a valid to wait for this, but to address a note at once to the claim to be treated on a footing of impartiality. Minister of Foreign Affairs. I bave accordingly sent

Having submitted to your Excellency, by order of my one, of which I have the honor to enclose a copy. if I
Government, these additional observations upon the first should hereafter receive any orders from you upon the

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18th Cesebess, Commercial Relations between the U. States and the Netherlands. [H. of R.

subject. I shall give them, of course, the most punctual i merce of the Netherlands, from that of the 20th April, attention, and take any further measures that they may 1818, expired on the 31st December last, except the prescribe.

modification, in what concerns the navigation of the ReI have the honor to be, with high respect,

public, of articles of the new system of impositions in Sir, your very obedient humble servant, the Netherlands, which establish discriminations against

A. H, EVERETT. strangers. Hon. Joun Quincy Adams,

I bave likewise informed flis Majesty, as well of the Secretary of State.

course which you are about to pursue, as of the conse

February 24. quence which I have provisionally given to it, and I shall Postscript.-Since writing the above, I have received not fail, sir, to inform you of the determination which from Mr. Reinhold a preliminary answer to my note, of shall be taken in that regard, as soon as I shall be inwhich I have the honor to add a copy.

formed of it.

In the mean time, I take this occasion, sir, to rener Mr. Everett to the Chevalier de Reinhold.

to you the assurance of my very distinguished consider

alion. Brussels, February 20, 1824.

J. G. REINHOLD. Sir: I have the honor to inform your Excellency that

Hague, 20th February, 1824. the privileges granted to the Dutch flag, in the ports of the United States, by the act of the 20th of April, 1818, Extract of a letter from Mr. Everett to Mr. Adams, (No. which expired at the close of the last year, have been

111,) dated renewed by the late law of January 9. As soon as I re

BRUSSELS, 230 March, 1894. ceive an authentic copy of the new act, I shall take the

"A file of the Intelligencer came to band a few days liberty of sending it to you. You will find in the Brus. ago, which contained the new law respecting the dissels Journal of the 16th inst. a French translation, which criminating duties, I immediately transmitted a copy appears to be correct. The passage of this law confirms the assurances which a short note, of which I have the honor to enclose a

of it to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, accompanied by I gave to your predecessor, the Baron de Nagell, that the act of March 3, 1819, repealing that of April 20, 1818,

copy." was merely formal, and that the Government had no in.

Mr. Everett to the Chevalier de Reinhold. tention to abandon the system. The new act extends the privileges, granted by the former one, to all such

BRUSSELS, March 22, 1824 foreign powers as may allow the same privileges to us Sm: I have the honor to transmit herewith to your in their ports, and for the same length of time. If any Excellency, a copy of the new law mentioned in my note foreign power sball revoke these privileges, our law of the 20th of February. You will perceive that it sewill cease to have its effect, in regard to such power. cures all the privileges granted to the Dutch flag by the Hence, if the Government of the Netherlands shall so act of April 20, 1818, and particularly that of transport. modify its new regulations as to make them inapplicable ing to the United States, upon a footing of equality, the to the American trade, they will thereby retain the ad- products of the interior of Europe. This provision was, vanlages they now enjoy in the ports of the Republic. I believe, omitted in the French translation of the act, If, on the contrary, they persist in putting these regula- published by the Brussels Journal. tions in force against us, the President of the United I have had occasion, in several preceding notes, to States is authorized by the law to withdraw these pri- offer to the consideration of His Majesty's Government vileges imu.ediately, and to place the Dutch flag upon such remarks as I thought would place the subject in the footing of that of the least favored nations, by sub. its proper light: and I deem it unnecessary to renew jccting it to the additional duties that are levied upon the discussion at present. Requesting your Excellencs foreigners.

to communicate the enclosed law to His Majesty the As the principal cause, which appears to have occa- King, sioned the application of the new rules to the trade of I have the bonor to be, with high respect, sir, the United States, no longer exists, the American Go.

Your Excellency's very obedient servant, vernment have, perhaps, some right to fatter themselves

A H. EVERETT. that the effect will cease with it, and that the king will be disposed to continue, or rather to restore the equaliz

REPORT ing system. Without entering now into the train of rear of the Committee of Ways and Means on the state soning upon this subject, which I have already pursued of the Public Debt, accompanied with a bill a. at sufficient length in my former notes, I shall content

thorizing the Secretary of the Treasury to bor. myself upon the present occasion with remarking, that the answer with I may carry to my Government, upon

row a sum not exceeding twelve millions of my return to the United States, will probably be regard. dollars, 8c. &c.Januuary 12, 1825. ed as final; and that it would give me great pleasure to The Committee of Ways and Means, to whom has been be the bearer of one that should tend, by its character, referred the Report from the Secretary of the Trea. to strengthen the bonds of amity and good understand.

sury on the state of the Finances," of the 31st Deceming that now so happily unite the two countries.

ber last, Report : I have the honor to be, with high respect, Sir, your Excellency's very obed't. serv't.

That, in considering so much of the said report as r.

lates to the public debt of the United States, it appears, A. II. EVERETT.

that, on the first day of January, 1826, there will be re(TRANSLATION.]

deemable of the six per cent. stock of 1813, $19,000,000,

and that the ordinary revenues of the year will not be Mr. J. G. Reinhold to Mr. Everett.

adequate to the reimbursement of more than $7,000,000, Sın: Uhave taken care to communicate without de leaving an excess of $12,000,000 to be provided for. lay to the Department of Public Industry, the note which The whole amount of the public debt, including the you did me ihe honor to address to me on the 20th of loan of $5,000,000, at 4.5 per cent. authorized by the act this month, on the subject of the law of the 7th January, of the 26th of May last, is found to be $88,545,003 38. by which the Government of the United States has re of this sum, $2,500,000 of the last mentioned loan not newed the principal dispositions in favor of the com. having been actually paid to the United States, could


18th Sesseess;} On the Public Debt.- On the Slave Trade.

[H. of R. not be regularly included in the estimate of the Secre n'he convention was approved by the Senate, with tary of the Treasury at the close of the last year; but certain qualifications, to all of which, except one, Great must, nevertheless, be considered as part of the debt, Britain sub modo, acceded; her Government having inwith a view to future years.

structed its Minister in Washington to tender to the ac. This sum of $88,545,003 38, is redeemable as fol- ceptance of the United States a treaty agreeing, in eve. lows:

ry particular, except one, with the terms approved by In 1825, $7,654,570 93 of six per cent.

the Senate. This exception, the message of the Presi. 1826, 19,002,356 62 six per cent. of 1813. dent to the House of Representatives, presumies" not to 1827, 13,001,437 63 six per cent of 1814. be of sufficient magnituile to defeat an object so near to 1828, 9,490,099 10 six per cents.

the heart of both nations," as the abolition of the Afrin 1831, 00,018,901 59

can slave trade, “and so desirable to the friends of hue 1832, 6,673,900 72 of which $1,018,000 72 are manity throughout the world.” But the President fur

at 5 per cent. and $5,000,000 at 41 pr. ct. ther adds, "that, as objections to the principle recom: 1833, 6,673,055 31 all at 45 per cent. except mended by the House of Representatives, or, at least, to $18,901 59 at 5 per cent.

the consequences inseparable from it, and which are un1834, 1,654,153 73 at 45 per cent.

derstood to apply to the law, have been raised, which 1835, 4,735,296 30 at 5 per cent.

may deserve a reconsideration of the whole subject, he 7,000,000 00 at pleasure, being the sub has thought proper to suspend the conclusion of a new

scription to the capital of the Bank convention, until the definitive sentiments of Congress

of the United States, at 5 per cent. can be ascertained." 13,296,231 45 at pleasure, being the 3

per Your committee are therefore required to review the

grounds of the law of 1820, and the resolution of 1823,

to which the rejected, or, as they rather hope, the sus$88,545,003 38

pended convention, referred. The former was the joint

act of both branches of Congress, approved by the PreBy this statement it appears, that, in the years 1829 sident ; the latter, although adopted with extraordinary and 1830, no part of the public debt will be reimbursea- unanimity, was the single act of the House of Represen. ble, excepting the seven millions to the Bank, and the tatives. three per cents.; but, as these bear a less interest than Upon the principle or intention of the act of Congress that portion of the 6 per cents. of 1813, redeemable on of 1820, making the slave trade punishable as piracy, the 1st of January, 1826, and which cannot, for the want the history of the act may reflect some light. of means, be reimbursed before the years 1829 and A bill from the Senate, entitled “ An act to continue 1830, it is believed to be advisable to provide for that in force the act to protect the commerce of the United portion, by a new stock, at a reduced rate of interest, States, and punish the crime of piracy, and, also, to and payable at those periods.

make further provision to punish the crime of piracy," The committee, therefore, recommend a new loan, or came to the House of Representatives on the 27th of an exchange, to the amount of $12,000,000, at a rate of April, 1820, and was, on the same day, referred to a interest not exceeding 45 per cent. reimburseable in committee of the whole, to wirich had been referred a equal portions, in the years 1829 and 1830; and for that bill of similar purport and title, that had originated in purpose report a bill.

the House of Representatives.

Upon the 8th of May following, the Committee on the REPORT

Suppression of the Slave Trade reported an amend. of the Committee to whom was referred so much ment of two additional sections to the Senate's bill; also,

of the President's Message, of the 7th of De-a bill to incorporate the American Society for Colonizing cember last, as relates to the Suppression o the joint resolutions, two of which related to the objects of Slave Trade.- Feb. 16, 1825.

that Society ; but the first of which, in behalf of both The Committee on the Suppression of the Slave Trade, Houses of Congress, requested the President “ to con

to whom was referred so much of the President's mes. sult and negotiate with all the governments where minis. sage, of the 7th December last, as relates to that subters of the United States are, or shall be accredited, on ject, have, according to order, had the same under the means of effecting an entire and immediate abolition consideration, and respectfully

of the African Slave Trade.” The amendatory sections

denounced the guilt anı penalty of piracy against any REPORT:

citizen of the United States, of the crew or company of That, pursuant to the almost unanimous request of any foreign vessel, and any person whatever of the crew the House of Representatives, expressed by their reso- or company of any American vessel, who shall be engaglution of the 28th February, 1323, the President of the ed in this traffic. United States concluded a convention with Great Bri. The amendments, bill, and resolutions, along with the tain, on the 13th March, in the following year, by which explanatory report, which accompanied them, were rethe African slave trade was denounced to be piracy un- ferred to the committee of the whole abovementioned ; der the laws of both countries; the United States hav. and on the 11th of the same month, the flouse proceeding so declared it, by their antecedent act of the 15th ed to consider them. After a discussion in the commitof May, 1820, and it being understood batween the con- tee, the piracy bill, and its amendments having been tracting parties, as a preliminary to the ratification of the adopted, were reported, and both were concurred in by convention by the United States, that Great Britain the House. The following day, the bill, as amended, should, by an act of Parliament, concur in a similar de- being then on its passage, a motion was debated and neclaration.

gatived, to recommit the bill to a select committee, with With great promptitude, and in accordance with this an instruction to strike out the last section of the amend. agreement, such an act was passed, declaring the Afri- ment. The bill then passed, and was ordered to be recan slave trade to be piracy, and annexing to it the pen. turned, as amended, to the Senate. alty denounced against this crime by the common law On the same day, a motion prevailed to discharge the of nations. A copy of this act was transmitted, by the committee of the whole from the further consideration British Government, to the Executive of the United of the bill, and the resolutions which accompanied the States, and the convention submitted, by the President, report; and the particular resolution, already recited, to the Senate, for their advice and consent.

being under consideration, to try the sense of the House Vol. 1,-- 10.

18 Sesseess;}
On the Slave Trade.

[H. of R. 211 SESSION. on its merits, it was moved to lay it on the table. The pal maritime powers of Europe, in relation to the same yeas and nays having been ordered on this motion, it topic, the committee referred to the decision of Sir Wilwas rejected by a majority of 78 to 35 members. It hav: liam Scott, in the case of the French ship Le Louis, to ing been again proposed to postpone the resolution, till demonstrate that Great Britain claimed no right of search, the ensuing or second session of the same Congress, and in peace, but such as the consent of other nations should this proposal being also determined in the negative, the accord to ber by treaty; and sought it by a fair es. resolution was engrossed, read the third time, passed, change, in this tranquil mode, only for the beneficent and ordered to be transmitted to the Senate on the same purpose of a more enlarged humanity. day with the piracy bill.

Certain facts, disclosed by the diplomatic correspond. The amendments of this bill underwent like scrutiny, ence of France and England, during the pendency of and debate, in the Senate, and were finally concurred that case, in the British Court of Admiralty, were calcu. in, the day after they were received from the House of lated to guard the sympathies of America from being Representatives, without any division apparent on the misguided by the language of the former power. journal of that House.

The painful truth was elicited, that France had evad. The resolution which had been received by the Sened the execution of her promise at Vienna, to Europe ate, at a different hour of the same day, was read a se. and mankind. Tbat she had, long after the date of that cond time on the 15th of May, was further taken up promise, tolerated, if she had not cherished, several and consideredl, as in committee of the whole, reported branches of a traffic, which she had concurred in deto the House without amendment, and ordered, without nouncing to be the opprobrium of Christendom, and debate, to pass to a third reading. But this being the which she had subsequently bound herself, by the highlast day of the session of Congress, and a single mem

er obligations of a solemn treaty, to abolish, as inconsistber objecting " that it was against one of the rules of ent with the laws of God and Nature. the Senate to read it a third time on the sune day, with

Succeeding events in the councils of the French na. out unanimous consent,” it remained on the table of that body, on its final adjournment

, after an ineffectual tion, have not impaired the force of this testimony. effort to suspend one of their rules, against which many of a Government which insults the humanity of a gene

What authority can be accorded to the moral influence of the friends of the resolution felt themselves compel. led, by their invariable usage, to vote in union with its rous and gallant people, by pleading, in apology for the

breach of its plighted faith, that its subjects required enemies.

One of the objections to the resolution, in the Senate, the indulgence of this guilty traffic ! was founded upon the peculiar relation of that branch of The Emperor Napoleon, who re-established this cortthe National Legislature to the Executive, in the ratifi. merce on the ruins of the French Republic, also aboishcation of treaties; which seemed, in the opinion of those ed it again, when he sought to conciliate the people of w bo urged this argument, to interdict their concurrence France, during that transient reign, which immediately in a request of the President to institute any negotia- preceded his final overthrow. tions whatever.

Congress adjourved without acting on this report. A cotemporary exposition of the object of the amend. By an instruction to the Committee on the suppres. ments of the piracy bill, and the resolution, which the sion of the Slave Trade, of the 15th of January, 1822, House of Representatives adopted, by so large a major- the same subject was a third time brought directly be. ity, will be found in the report, which accompanied fore the House of Representatives. The instruction them, from the committee on the suppression of the called the attention of the committee to the present conslave trade, on the 8th May, 1822. Those objects, it will dition of the African slave trade; to the defects of asy be seen, were in perfect accordance with each other. of the existing laws for its suppression, and to their ap: They were designed to introduce, by treaty, into the propriate remedies. In the report made in obedience code of international law, a principle, deemed by the to this instruction, on the 12th of April 1822, the comcommittee essential to the abolition of the African slave mittee state, that, after having consuited all the evidence trade, that it should be denounced and treated as pira- within their reach, they are brought to the mournful cy by the civilized world.

conclusion, that the traffic prevailed to a greater estent The resolution being joint, and having failed in the than ever, and with increased malignity; that its total Senate, for the reason already slated, the subject of it suppression, or even sensible diminution, cannot be er was revived in the House of skepresentatives, at a very pected from the separate and disunited efforts of one e early period of the succeeding session of Congress, by a more states, so long as a single flag remains to cover it call for information from the Executive, wbich, being re- from detection and punishment. They renew, therefore, ceived, was referred to a committee of the same tiile as the only practicable and efficient remedy, the conwith the last. Their report, after reviewing all the an.

currence of the United States with the maritime powers tecedent measures of the United States for the suppres of Europe, in a modified and reciprocal exercise of the sion of the slave trade, urgently recommended the co- right of search. operation of the American and British navy against this In closing their report, the committee add, in effect, traffic, under the guarded provisions of a common trea that they cannot doubt that the people of America ty, authorizing the practice of a qualified and reciprocal have the intelligence to distinguish between the right right of search.

“ of searching a neutral on the high seas, in time of war, This report closed with a resolution, requesting " the “ claimed by some belligerants, and that mutual, rePresident of the United States to enter into such ar stricted, and peaceful concession, by treaty, suggested rangements as he might deem suitable and proper, with" by your committee, and which is demanded in the one or more of the maritime powers of Europe, for the “ name of suffering humanity.” The committee had effectual abolition of the African slave trade."

before intimated, that the remedy which they recomThe United States had, by the treaty of Ghent, enter. mended to the House of Representatives, presupposed ed into a formal stipulation with Great Britain, “that the exercise of the authority of another department of both the contracting parties shall use their best endea- the Government, and that objections to the exercise of vors to accomplish the entire abolition of this traffic.” this authority, in the mode which they had presumed to

The failure of the only joint attempt which had been suggest, had hitherto existed in that department. Their made by England and America, at the date of this re- report closed with a resolution differing in no other report, to give effect to this provision, being ascribed, in spect from that of the preceding session, than that it did part, to a jealousy of the views of the former, corrobo- not require the cor.currence of the Senate, for the resrated by the language and conduct of one of the princi. son already suggested.

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