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TO THE REGISTER OF DEBATES IN CONGRESS
18th CONGRESS-SECOND SESSION.
List of Members of the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States.
PENNSYLVANIA- James Allison, Samuel Breck
John Brown, James Buchanan, Samuel Edwards, William MAINE-John Chandler, John Holmes.
Cox Ellis, Patrick Farrelly, John Findlay, Walter ForNEW HAMPSHIRE-Samuel Bell, John F. Parrott. ward, Robert Harris, Joseph Hemphill, Samuel D. Ing. MASSACHUSETTS_James Lloyd, Elijah Hunt Mills. ham, George Kremer, Samuel M‘Kean, Philip S. Mark. CONNECTICUT-Henry W. Edwards, James Lan-ley, Daniel H. Miller, James S. Mitchell, Thomas Patter
son, George Plumer, George Wulfe, Andrew Stewart, RHODE ISLAND–James D'Wolf, Nehemiah R. Alexander Thompson, Daniel Udree, Isaac Wayne, Knight.
Jaines Wilson, Henry Wilson.---26.:.
MARYLAND-William Hayward, Jr. Joseph Kent,
VIRGINIA—Mark Alexander, William S. Archer, VIRGINIA- James Barbour, Littletou W. Tazewell. Philip P. Barbour, John S. Barbour, Burwell Bassett, NORTH CAROLINA-Nathaniel Macun, John Branch. John Floyd, Robert S. Garnett, Joseph Tohnson, Jabez SOUTH CAROLINA-John Gaillard, Rob't Y: Hayne. Leftwich, William M'Coy, Charles ř. Mercer, Thomas GEORGIA- John Elliott, Thomas W. Cobb
Newton, John Randolph, William C. Rives, Arthur KENTUCKY-Richard M. Johnson, Isham Talbot. Smith, William Smith. Alexander Smyth, Andrew Ste. "TENNESSEE--Andrew Jackson, John Henry Eaton. venson, James Stephenson, George Tucker, John Talia OHIO—Benjamin Ruggles, Ethan' A. Brown. ferro, Jared Williams.-22 LOUISIANA- JosiahS.Johnston, DominiqueBouligny.
NORTH CAROLINA Henry Conner, John CulpeINDIANA James Noble, Waller Taylor.
per, Weldon N. Edwards, Alfred M. Gatlin, Thomas H. MISSISSIPPI— Thomas H.* Williams, David Holmes. Hall, Charles Hooks, John Long, Willie P. Mangum, Ro. ILLINOIS- Jesse B. Thomas, John Mclean.
mulus Mi Saunders, Richard D. Spaight, Robert B. ALABAMA-William R. King, William Kelly. Vance, Lewis Williams.-12. One vacant. MISSOURI-David Barton, Thomas H. Benton.
SOUTH CAROLINA-Robert Campbell, John Car
ter, Joseph Gist, Andrew R. Govan, James Hamilton, Ir. House of Representatives.
George M'Duffie, Joel R. Poinsett, Starling Tucker,
John, Wilson.-9 MAINE-William Burleigh, Joshua Cushman, Ebe
GEORGIA -Joel Abbot, George Cary, Alfred Cuthrezer Herrick, David Kidder, Enoch Lincoln, Stephen bert, John Forsyth, Edward F. Tattnall, Wiley ThompLongfellow, Jeremiah 'O'Brien.-7.
One vacant. NEW HAMPSHIRE-Ichabod Bartlett, Matthew Har.
KENTUCKY- Henry Clay, (Speaker) Richard A. vey, Arthur Livermore, Aaron Matson, Wm. Plumer; Jr. Buckner, Robert P. Henry, Francis Johnson, John T. Thomas Whipple, Jr.-6
Johnson, Robert Letcher, Thomas Metcalfe, Thomas P. MASSACHUSETTS-Samuel C. Allen, John Bailey, Moore, Philip Thompson, David Trimble, David White, Francis Baylies, Benjamin w Crowninshield, Henry W. Charles A. Wickliffe.12. Dwight, Timothy Fuiler, Aaron Hobart, Samuel Lathrop,
TENNESSEE -- Adam R. Alexander, Robert Allen, John Locke, Jeremiah Nelson, John Reed, Jonas Sibley, John Blair, John Cocke, Samuel Houston, Jacob c. Daniel Webster.-13 ;
Isaacks, James B. Reynolds, James T. Sandford, James RHODE ISLAND-Job Durfee, Samuel Eddy.-2
Standeter.-9. CONNECTICUT-Noyes Barber, Samuel A. Foot,
OMO Mordecai Bartley, Philemon Beecher, John Ansel Sterling, Ebenezer Stoddard, Gideon Tomlinson, W. Campbell, James W. Gazlay, Duncan M'Arthur, Samuel Whitman-6
William MʻLean), Jobn Patterson, Thomas R. Ross, Jolin VERMONT-William C. Bradley, Daniel A. A. Buck, Sloane, Joseph Vance, Samuel F. Vinton, Elisha WhitSamuel C. Crafts, Rollin C. Mallary, Henry Olin.-5.
tlesev, William Wilson, John C Wright.--- 14 NEW YORK-John W. Cady, Churchill C. Cambre
LOUISIANA-William L. Brent, Henry H. Gurley, leng, Lot Clark, Ela Collins, Hector Craig, Rowland Edward Livingston.-3 Day, Justin Dwinell, Lewis Eaton, Charles A. Foote, Jo
MISSISSIPPI-Christopher Rankin.-1 el Frost, Moses Hayden, John Herkimer, James L. Iloge.
INDIANA- Jacob Call, Jonathan Jennings, John boom, Lemuel Jenkins, Samuel Lawrence, Elisha Litch. Test.-3 field, Dudley Marvin, Henry C. Martindale, John J. Mor.
ILLINOIS—Daniel P. Cook.-1 gan, John Richards, Robert R. Rose, Peter Sharpe, Hen.
ALABAMA--John Mckee, Gabriel Moore, George sy R. Storrs, James Strong, John W. Tavlor, Egbert W. Owen.-3 Ten Eyck, Albert H. Tracy, Jacob Tyson, William Van
MISSOURI-John Scott. -1 Wyck, Stephen Van Rensselaer, Isaac Williams, Parme
Delegates. nio Adams, Silas Wood, William Woods.-34 NEW JERSEY-George Cassedy, Lewis Condict, Da
MICHIGAN TERRITORY-Gabriel Richard. piel Garrison, George Holcumbe, Jaines Matlack, Sa ARKANSAS TERRITORY-Henry W. Conway. anuekSwan.-6
FLORIDA TERRITORY- Richard K. Call. NOTE:- Whatever changes, if any, lake place during the Session, will be found noted on the last page of the Appendix.
APPENDIX-To Gales & Sealon's Register. 18th CONGRESS,
(Sen. and H. of R. Message of the President, at the opening of the Session. 20 Session. MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT, reciprocity; to settle with each, in a spirit of candor and,
liberaliiy, all existing differences, and to anticipate anl TO BOTH HOUSES OF CONGRESS,
remove, so far as it might be practicable, all causes o At the commencement of the Second Session of the firture variance. Eighteenth Congress.
It having been stipulated by the seventh article of the
convention of navigation and commerce, which was cosDECEMBER 7, 1824.
cluded on the twenty-fourth of June, one thousand eight
hundred and twenty-two, between the United States and Fellowe-Citizens of the Senate,
France, that the said convention should continue in force and of the House of Representatives:
for two years, from the first of October of that year, ani THE view which I have now to present to you, should declare its intention to renounce it, in which event
for an indefinite term afierwards, unless one of the parties of our affairs, Foreign and Domestic, realizes the it should cease to operate at the end of six months from most sanguine anticipations which have been en-such declaration; and no such intention having been antertained of the public prosperity. If we look to nounced, the convention having been found advantage. the whole, our growth, as a Nation, continues to ous to both parties, it has since remained, and still rebe rapid, beyond exainple; if to the States which mains, in force. At the time when that convention was compose it, the same gratifying spectacle is exhi- and particularly our claim to indemnity for spoliation bited. Our expansion over the vast territory which were committed on our commerce in the late within our limits, has been great, without indicating any wars. For these interests and claims, it was in the condecline in those sections from which the emigration templation of the parties, to make provision at a subsehas been most conspicuous. We have daily gained ! quent day, by a more coinprehensive and definitive trea. strength by a native population in every quarter--a po• ty. The object has been duly attended to since by the pulation devoted to our happy system of Government, Executive; but, as yet, it has not been accomplished. It and cherishing the bond of union with fraternal affec. is hoped that i favorable opportunity will present itself tion. Experience has already shewn, that the differ for opening a negotiation, which may embrace and are cnce of climate, and of industry, proceeding from that range all existing Jifferences, and every other concern is cause, inseparable from such vast domains, and which), which they have a common interest, upon the accession under other systems, might have a repulsive tendency, of the present king of France, an event which has occurcannot fail to produce, with us, under wise regulations, reid since the close of the last session of Congress. the opposite effect. What one portion wants, the other
With Great Britain our commercial intercourse rests may supply, and this will he most sensibly felt by the on the same footing that it did at the last session, By the parts most distant from each other, forining, thereby, a conrention of one thousand eight hundred and fifteen, domestic market, and an active intercourse between the the commerce between the United States and the Britisi extremnes and throughout every portion of our Union. dominions in Europe and the East Indies, was arranged! Thus, by a happy distribution of power between the on a principle of reciprocity. That convention was cosNational and State Governments, governments which firmed and continued in force, with slight exceptions, by rest exclusively on the sovereignty of the People, and a subsequent treaty, for the term of ten years, from the are fully adequate to the great purposes for which they twentieth
October, one thousand eight hundred an! were respectively instituted, causes which might other. eighteen, the date of the latter. The trade with the wise lead to dismemberment, operate powerfully to British colonies in the West Indies, has not, as yet, been drr si us closer together. In every other circumstance, arranged by treaty, or otherwise, to our satisfaction. An a correct view of the actual state of our Union must be approach to that result has been made by legislative acts, equally gratifying to our constituents. Our relations whereby many serious impediments, which had beea with foreign powers are of'a friendly character, although raised by the parties in defence of their respective claies, certain interesting differences remain lunsettled with were removed. An earnest desire exists, and has bees
Our revenue, under the mild system of impost manifested on the part of this Government, to place the and tonnage, continues to be adequate to all the pur commerce with the colonies, likewise, on a footing of reposes of the Government. Our agriculture, commerce, ciprocal advantage; and it is hoped that the British Go manufactures, and navigation, flourish. Our fortifications vernment, seeing the justice of the proposal, and its inare advancing in the degree authorized by existing ap- portance io the colonies, will, ere long, accede to it. propriations, to maturity, and due progress is made in the augmentation of the navy, to the limit prescribed for
The Commissioners who were appointed for the ad it by law. For these blessings, we owe to Almighty Gol, justment of the boundary, between the territories of the from whom we derive them, and with proforind reve.
United States and those of Great Britain, specified in rence, our most grateful and unceasing acknowledg- the fifth article of the Treaty of Ghent, having disagree!
in their decision, and both governments having agree! ments. In adverting to our relations with foreign powers,
to establish that boundary by amicable negotiation be which are always an object of the highest importance, 1 tween them, it is hoped that it may be satisiactorilyahave to remark, that, of the subjects which have been justed in that mode.' The boundary specified by te brought into discussion with them during the present sixth article has been established by the decision of the administration, some have been satisfactorily terminated; commissioners. From the progress made in that provi others have been suspended, to be resumed hereafter, ed for by the seventh, according to a report recently re under circumstances more favorable to success; and ceived, there is good cause to presume that it will be se others are still in negotiation, with the hope that they thed in the course of the ensuing year. may be adjusteil, with mutual accommodation to the in.
It is a cause of serious regret that no arrangement ha: terests, and to the satisfaction, of the respective parties. yet been finally concluded between the two gover: It has been the invariable object of this Government, to ments, to secure, by joint co-operation, the suppressi. cherish the most friendly relations with every power, of the slave tråde. It was the object of the Birish and on principles and conditions which might make them vernment, in the early stages of the negotiation, to ad permanent. A systematic effort has been made to place 2 play for the suppression, which should include the cos our commerce with each power on a footing of perfect Icession of the mutual right of search by the ships of
1 sua Sesstoess,} Message of the President, at the opening of the Session.
[Sen, and H. of R. of each party, of the vessels of the other, for suspected will immediately be laid before the Senate for the exer offenders. This was objected to by this government, on cise of the constitutional authority of that body, with the principle, that, as the right of search was a right of reference to its ratification. It is proper to add, that the war of a belligerent towards a neutral power, it might manner in which this negotiation was invited and conhave an ill effect to extend it by treaty to an offence ducted on the part of the Emperor, has been very satis· which had been made comparatively mild, to a time of factory. peace.. Anxious, however, for the suppression of this The great and extraordinary changes which have haptrade, it was thought adviseable, in compliance with a pened in the government of Spain and Portugal, within resolution of the House of Representatives, founded on the last two years, without seriously affecting the friendly an act of Congress, to propose to the British Government relations which, under all of them, have beeh maintained an expediert which should be free from that objection, with those powers by the United States, have been oband more effectual for the object, by making it piratical stacles to the adjustment of the particular subjects of In that mode the enormity of ihe crime would place the discussion which have arisen with each. A resolution ofienders out of the protection of their government, and of the Senate, adopted at their last session, called for ininvolve no question of search, or other question between formation as to the effect produced upon our relations the parties, touching their respective rights. It was be- with Spain, by the recognition, on the part of the United lieved, also, that it would completely suppress the trade States, of the Independent South American Governin the vessels of both parties, and by their respective ments. The papers containing that information are now citizens and subjects in those of other powers with whom conimunicated to Congress. it was hoped that the odium which woull thereby be at. A Charge d'Affaires bas been received from the Inde. tached to it, would produce a corresponding arrange pendent Government of Brazil. That country, hereto. ment, and, by means thereof, its entire extirpation for fore a colonial possession of Portugal, bad, some years
A convention to this effect was concluded and since, been proclaimed by the Sovereign of Portugal signed in London on the 13th clay of March, by pleni. himself, an independen: kingrlom. Since his return to potentiaries duly authorized by both governments, to the Lisbon a revolution in Brazii has established a new goratification of which certain obstacles have arisen which vernment there, with an Imperial title, at the head of are not yet entirely removed. The difference between which is placed the Prince in whom the Regency had the parties still remaining, has been reduced to a point, been vested by the King, at the time of his departure. not of sufficient magnitude, as is presumed, to be per. There is reason to expect that, by amicable negotiation, mitted to defeat an object so near to the heart of both the independence of Brazil will, ere long, be recognized nations, and so desirable to the friends of humanity by Portugal herself. throughout the world. As objections, liowever, o the With the remaining Powers of Europe, with those principle recommended by the llouse of Representa on the coast of Barbary, and with all the new South lives, or at least to the consequences inseparable from American States, our relations are of a friendly chanc. it, and which are understood to apply to the law, have ter. We have Ministers Plenipotentiary residing with been raise !, which may deserve a reconsideration of the the Republics of Colombia and Chili
, and have received whole subj ct, I have thought it proper to suspend the Ministers, or the same rank, from Colombia, Guatimala, conclusion of a new convention until the defini'ive sen- Buenos Ayres, and Mexico. Our commercial relations timents of Congress may be ascertained. The docu- with all those States, are mutually beneficial and in ments relating to the negotiation, are, with that intent, creasing. With the Republic of Colombia, a Treaty of submitted to your consideration.
Commerce has been formed, of which a copy is received, Our commerce with Sweden has been placed on a and the original daily expected. A negotiation for a footing of perfect reciprocity by treaty, and, with Russia, like 'Treaty would have been commenced with Buenos the Netherlands, Prussia, the free Hanseatic Cities, the Ayres, had it not been prevented by the indisposition, Dukedom of Oldenburgh, and Sardinia, by internal re- and lamented decease, of Mr. Rodney, our Minister there, gulations on each side, founded on mutual agreement and to whose memory the most respectful attention has between the respective Governments.
been shewn by the Government of that Republic. An The principles upon which the commercia policy of advantageous alteration in our 'Treaty with Tunis bas the United Siates is founded, are to be traced to an early been obtained by our Consular-Agent residing there, period. They are essentially connected with those upon the ofhcial document of which, when received, will be which their independence was declared, and owe their laid before the Senate. origin to the enlightened men who took the lead in our The attention of the Government has been drawn with all'airs at that important epoch. They are :loveloped in greatsoliciturle to other subjects, and particularly to that their first treaty of commerce with France o'sixth Feb. relatng to a state of maritiine war, involving the relative ruary, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eiglit, riglts of neutral and belligerent in such wars. Most of and by a formal commission, which was instiuted imme. the difficulties which we have experienced, and of the diately after the conclusion of their Revolutionary strug- losses which we have sustained, since the establishment gle, for the purpose of negotiating treaties or commerce olour Independence, bave proceeded from the unset with every European power. The firs: traty of the ted state of those rights, and the extent to which the United States with Prussia, which was negothted by tha: Veltigerent claim has been carried against the neutral commission, affords a signal illustration of those princi- party. It is impossible to look back on the occurrences ples. The act of Congress of the third March, one thou. 'of the late wars in Europe, and to behold the disregard sand eight hundred and fifteen, adopted immediately, which was paid to our rights as a neutral power, and the after the return of a general peace, wo a new overture waste which was made of our Commerce by the parties to foreign nations to establish our conmercial relation to those wars, by various acts of their respective Gowith them on the basis of free and equal reciprocit'. vernments, and under the pretext, by each, that the That principle has peryaded all the acts of Congres, other had set the example, without great mortification, and all the negotiations of the Executive on the subjet and a fixed purpose never to submit to the like in fusince.
An attempt to remove those causes of possible A convention for the settlement of inportant qilesions variance by friendly negotiation, and on just princiin relation to the Northwest Coast of this Continen, and ples, which should be applicable to all parties, coukl, its ailjoining seas, was concluded and signed at st. Pe- it was presumed, be viewed by none other than as a tersburg on the fifth day of April last," by the Minis- proof of an earnest desire to preserve those relations ter Plenipotentiary of the United States, and Pleni- with every power. In the late war between France, potentiarics of the Imperial Government of Pussia. It / and Spain, a crisis occurred, in which it seemed proba
} Message of the President, at the opening of the Session. [ Sen. and fl. of R. 2 Session. ble that all the controvertible principles, involved in dollars of the loan aw borised by the act of the twentyslich wars, might be brought into discussion, and set sixth of May last. In this estimate is included a stock of tled to the satisfaction of all parties. Propositions, have sever million dollars, issued for the purchase of that ing this object in view, have been inade to the Govern- amount of the capital stock of the Bank of the United nients of Great Britain, France, Russia, and of other States; and which, as the stock of the Bank, still held Powers, which have been received in a friendly manner by the Government, will at least be fully equal to its reby all, but as yet no treaty has been formed with either imbursement, ought not to be considered as constituting for its accomplishment. The policy will. it is presumed, a part of the public debt. - Estimating, then, the whole be persevered in, and in the hope that it may be suc- / amount of the public debt at seventy-nine million dollars, cesyfirl,
and regarding the annual receipts and expenditures of the It will always be recollected that with one of the par. Government, a well-founded hope may be entertained, ties to those wars, and from whom we received those in that, should no unexpected event occur, the whole of the jur ", w: sought redress by, war. From the other, by public debt may be discharged in the course of ten years, whose then reigning Government our vessels were seized and the Government be left ut liberty thereafter, to apply in port as well as at sea, and their cargoes confiscated, such portion of the revelrue as may not be necessary for indemnitr' has been expected, but has not vet been ren. current expenses, to such other objects as may be most dered. It was under the influence of the latter, thal conducive to the public security and welfare. That our vessels were likewise seized by the Governments the sum applicable to these objects, will be very consiof Spain, Holland, Denmark, Sweden and Naples, and derable, may be fairly concluded, when it is recollected, from whom indemnity has been claimed and is still ex. that a large amount of the public revenue has been appected, with the exception of Spain, by whom it has plied since the late war, to the construction of the been remleved, With both parties we had abundant public buildings in this city ; to the erection of fortif, cause of war, but we had no alternative but to resist that cations along the coast, and of arsenals in different parts which was most powerful at sea, and pressed us nearest of the Union; to the augmentation of the navy; to the át home. With this, all differences were settled by a trea extinguishment of the Inelian ti:le to large tracts of ferty founded on conditions fair and honorable to both, and tile territory ; to the acquisition of Florida; to pensions which has been so far executed with perfect good faith. to revolutionary officers, atat! soldiers, and to invalids of It has been earnestly hoped, thit the other would, of the la:e war. On many of these objects the expense its ov'ii
. accord, and from a sentiment of justice and will amually diminish, and conse at no distant periodi on conciliation; make to our citizens the indemnity to which most o: all. On the first of january, one thousand eight they are entitled, and thereby remove from our relations bundral and seventeen, the public debt amounted to any just calise of discontent on our side.
one hundred and twenty.three million four hundred and It is estimated that: the receipts into the Treasury ninety-one thousand nine frundred and sixty-five dollars during the current year, exclusive of loans, will exceed and sixteen cents; and no withstanding the large sums eigliteen million five hundred thousand dollars, which which have been applied to these objects, i: has been with the sum remaining in the Treasury at the end of reduced since that period, thirty-seven million four husthe last year, amounting to nine million four hundred dred and foriy-six thousand nine hundred and sixty-one sixty-three thousand nine hundred twenty-two dollars dollars, and seventy-eight cents. The last portion of eighty-one cents, will, after discharging the current dis- the public debt will be redeemable on the first of Ja. bursements of the year, the interest on the public debt, mary one thousand eight hundred and thirty-five; and and eleven inillion six hundred and thirty-three thousand while there is the best reason to believe, that the redollars fifty-two cents of the principal, leve a balance sources o'tle Government will be continually adequate of more than three million dollars in the Treasury on to such portions of it as may become due in the inter the first day of January next.
val, it is recommended to Congress to seize every opA larger amount of the debt contracted during the portunity, which may present itself, to reduce the rate late war, bearing an interest of six per cent. becoming of interest in every part thereof. The high state of redeemable in the course of the ensuing year, than the public credit, and the great abundance of money, could be discharged by the ordinary revenue, the act of are at this tme very favorable to such a result. It must the twenty-sixth of May, authorized a loan of five million be very graifying io our fellow.citizens, to witness this dollars, at four and a half per cent. to meet the same. By Aourishing itate of the public finances, when it is recol. this arrangement an annual saving will accrue to the lected, tha no burthen whatever has been imposed public of seventy-five thousand dollars.
Under the act of the twenty-foarth of May last, a ban The Miliary Establishment, in all its branches, in the of five millions dollars was authorizerl, in order to performanc: of the various duties assigned to each, jus. meet the awards, :under the Florida Treaty, which was tifies the favourable view which was presented, ofthe efñ. negotiated at par, with the Bank of the United States, it ciency of its organization, at the last session. All the four and a balf per cent. tbe limit of interest fixed by appropriatims have been regularly applied to the obthe act. Ky this provision the claims of our citizens, whejects intended by Congress ; and, so far as the disbursehad sustained so great a loss by.spoliations, and from ments have been made, the accounis have been render whom indemnity had been so long, withheld, were ed and settled, without loss to the public. The condi promptly paid. For these advances, the public will be htion of the Arny itself, as relates to the officers and amply repaiil, at no distant day, by the sale of the landsmen, in science and discipline, is highly respectable. in Florida: Of the great advantages resulting from the The Military Aadeny, on which the Army essentially acquisition of the territory in other respects, too high rists, and to wlich it is much indebted for this state of an estimale cannot be formed.
improvement, ha attained, in comparison with any other It is estimated that the receipts into the Treasury, inxitution of a like kind, a high degree of perfection. during the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty- Exerience, however, has shewn, that the dispersed five, will be safficient to mee the disbursements of the conlition of the Corps of Artillery is unfavourable to year, including the sum of ten million dollars, which is the liscipline of that important branch of the Military annually appropriated by the act, constituting the Sink. Establishment. To remedy this inconvenience, eleven ing Find, to the payment of the principal and interest companies have been assembled at the Fortification of the public debt.
erectedat, Old Point Comfort, as a school for Artillery The whole amount of the public debt on the first of instructon, with intention, as they shall be perfected in January next, may be estimated at eighty-six million the variots duties of that service, to order them to other dollars, inclusive of two millions five hundred thousand | pos!s, and to supply their places with other companies,