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sincerity, and an unaffected good nature, appear in all you . say; for a fine letter does not consist in saying fine things, but in expressing ordinary ones with elegance and propriety. Never be in pain about your style, for that very pain will make it awkward and stiff, in spite of all your endeavours to the contrary. Write freely, but not too hastily; and express your meaning with as much ease and conciseness as possible. Long periods may please the ear, but they perplex the understanding; a short and plain style, strikes the inind, and fixes the impression.

Before you begin, think of what you are going to write. It was a just observation of an honest Quaker, that, “ If a man think twice, before he speak, he will speak twice the better for it.” This, with great propriety, may be applied to all sorts of writing, particularly the epistolary. A man that begins a speech before he has determined what to say, will undoubtedly find himself bewildered before he gets to the end; not in sentiment only, but in grammar. To avoid this, Before you begin a sentence, have the whole of it in your head, and make use of the first words that offer themselves to express your meaning: for they are the most natural, and will, generally speaking, best answer your purpose. Never omit a careful perusal of what you have written: for by accustoming yourself to correct what is amiss, you will be Jess liable to future mistakes.

In letters from one relation to another, the different characters of the persons must be first considered : Thus, a father in writing to a son will use a gentle authority; a son to a father will express a filial duty. And again, in friendship, the heart will dilate itself with an honest freedom; it will applaud with sincerity, and censure with reluctance.

In letters concerning trade, the subject matter should be constantly kept in view, and the greatest perspicuity and brevity observed by the different correspondents; and in like manner, these rules may be applied to all other subjects, and conditions of life, viz. a comprehensive idea of the subject,

. In all your letters be careful to make the proper stops, otherwise no person will be able to understand your meaning; the neglect of which, often causes mistakes and misunderstandings. Also, observe to begin every new paragraph at nearly the same distance from the left hand margin, as when you began the subject.

With regard to the persons whom you mean to address, when you are writing to your superiours, let your letter be as short as the subject, or occasion you write on will permit; especially, when you are requesting a favour; and be particularly careful not to omit any letter belonging to the words you write, as, I've, can't, don't, shou'd, wou'd, &c. instead of I have, cannot, do not, should, would, &c. for such contractions appear disrespectful, and too familiar. Also, when you write to your superiours, never make a postscript; and, if possible, avoid it in letters to your equals : expecially complimentary postscripts to any of the person's family or relations to whom you write, as it shews disrespect, in your neglecting such persons in the body of your letter. When you write to your inferiours, take care that you are not too familiar, or free in your style, lest it should make you contemptible; always having the proverb in your mind, That too much familiarity commonly breeds contempt.

When the subject of your letter is finished, conclude with the same address as when you began, as, I am, Sir, &c. or Madain ; or, May it please your Excellency, &c. and subgcribe your name somewhat larger than the body of the letter.

After your letter is sealed, you must write the superscription in the following manner : Begin the title, or name of the person, some distance below, and almost in the middle of the centre of it, according to the length of the person's name, or Citle : and if to a tradesman or merchant, annex his occupa

tion, and write the place of his abode in a line by itself at the bottom, thus :

Mr. William Trusty,

Merchant,

Philadelphia.

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In directing your letters to persons who are well known, it is best not to be too particular; because it is lessening the person to whom you are writing, by supposing him obscure and not easily found. But where there are more towns or villages of the same name with that in which your correspondent resides, you must be careful to add the State or County in which the latter is situated.

Little more need be added : a constant attention to the aboye rules for a few months, will soon convince the learner, that his time has not been spent in vain. As an assiduous attention to the study of any art, even the most difficult, will enable the student to surmount every obstacle; so in coinposition,-writing, to his correspondents will soon become equally easy as speaking in company.

A careful attention to the plain and simple rules laid down in the preceding grammar, will enable you to write the language of the present times ;* and by carefully avoiding affectation your thoughts will be clear, your sentiments judicious, and your language plain, easy, sensible, elegant, and suited to the subject. As letters are in a measure, the copies of conversation, just consider what you would say to your friend if he were present, and write as you would speak, and your epistle will be unaffected and intelligible.

* A further and great advantage would be derived in the art of com. position, from a careful perusal of such works as Murray's large Grammar, Kaimes' Elements of Criticisms, Blair's Lectures, &c.

The usual Style of Address, for the principal publick Officers in the

United States, is as follows, viz.

The PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, is sometimes ada dressed by that appellation only. The most customary style of addressing him, is, His Excellency the PRESIDENT of the United States ; or, His Excellency the PresidENT.

The same may be observed of the Vice-President of the United States, mutatis mutandis : Or he may be addressed, His Excellency D. D. T. Esq. Vice-President of the U. S.

Members of Congress : H.G.O.Esq. Senator ; or, H. C-, Esq. Member of the House of Representatives ; or, J. C- Esq. M. H. R. (i. e. Member of the House of Representatives.)

The Secretary of the Senate; S. A. O—, Esq. Secretary of the Senate.

The Clerk of the House of Representatives ; T. D Esq. Clerk H. R.

Ambassadours, and foreign Ministers, have the title of Excellency.

Judges of the Superiour Courts, The Honourable J.M Esq. Chief Justice of - Mutatis mutandis.]

The Heads of the Great Departments of the Federal Government, The Honourable J. Q. A—, Esq. Secretary of the Treasury, &c. &c. &c.

The Governours, or Presidents of the State Governments, have the title of Excellency.

Deputy Governours, or Vice-Presidents of the State Governments, The Honourable.

Members of the State Legislatures, Esq.

Judges of Inferiour Courts, Counsellors at Law, Prothonotaries, County Lieutenants of the Militia, Collectors, Naval Officers, and Surveyors in the Departments of the Customs, and all the commissioned officers in the United States, are styled Esq.

Bishops in the United States. The Right Reverend W. W-D. D. Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church, in the State of fc. &c. &c.

Other Clergymen: The Reverend L. B, D. D. or, The Reverend Doctor B- ; or,

The Reverend Mr. H. or, The Reverend L. B- Rector of or Pastor of [Mutatis mutandis.]

Professors in the Universities and Colleges : R. P D. D. Professor of in the University of ; Professor C. D; Mr. Professor.

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Directions when to use Capital Letters.

1. The first word of every book, epistle, note, bill, verse, (whether it be in prose, rhyme, or blank-verse) must begin with a capital.

2. Proper names of persons, places, ships, rivers, mountains, things personified, &c. begin with a capital : also all appellative names of professions, &c.

3. Qualities, affirmations, or participles, must not begin with a capital, unless such words come immediately after a period ; in which case any word whatever begins with a capital.

4. If any saying or passage, of an author, be quoted in his own words, it begins with a capital, although not immediately after a period. Such sentences should also be introduced in this manner; with two inverted commas, and closed with two apostrophies.”

5. A capital must never be written in the middle of a word among small letters.

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