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September 9, 1759, died, at the age of eighty-six, Thomas Bradbury, an eminent dissenting minister, whose meeting-house, in New-street, Shoe-lane, was lawlessly destroyed by Sacheverel's mob. He preached many years in New-court, Carey-street, Lincoln's Inn-fields, where he was succeeded by Mr. Winter, whose

i brother married one of Mr. Bradbury's daughters. Mr. Bradbury was a man of superior abilities, and real piety without bigotry. Mr. Granger saw a friendly letter from archbishop Wake to him, part of a correspondence between the metropolitan and this patriarch of the dissenters, which was creditable to their respective views of each other. The principles of the revolution, which called the house of Hanover to the throne, were warmly espoused, and firmly maintained, by Mr.

j Bradbury, both privately and in public.

[ He was of a merry disposition; a social, pleasant companion, more famed for mirth than harangues, and had a good ear for music, with a fine strong voice. He was supposed to sing " The Roast beef of old England" better than any other man. "Such," says the Rev. Mr. Noble, "was 'brave old Tom Bradbury, a good preacher, and a facetious companion.' It is not the cheerful man that disturbs the state, nor often the rich; but the sour, disappointed, needy man. Bradbury was happy in his temper, rich in the gifts of fortune, and possessed the esteem of a wide circle of friends. A perfect toleration would be an act of prudence as well as humanity; and, while the establishment is not invaded, it will always be advantageous; for

Conscience is a thing, we know.

Like to a mastiff dog,
Which, if tied up, be fierce will grow,
He'll bite his very clojj."

h. m.

September 9.—Day breaks . . 3 27 Sun rises . . . 5 29 — sets ... 6 31 Twilight ends . 8 33 The nights and mornings become sensibly colder, and are often frosty.

September 10.

Harvest-supper The Mel-supperKern-supperShouting The Churn. The learned and ill-fated Eugene Aram says, " These rural entertainments and

usages were formerly more general
over England than they are at present,
being become by time, necessity, or avarice,
complex, confined, and altered. They
are commonly insisted upon by the reap-
ers as customary things, and a part of
their due for their toils of harvest, and
complied with by their masters, perhaps
more through regard of interest than in-
clination. For, should they refuse them
the pleasures of this much-expected time,
this festal night, the youth especially, of
both sexes, would decline serving him for
the future, and employ their labors for
others, who would promise them the rustic
joys of the harvest supper, mirth, and
music, dance, and song." He has other
observations to the following effect. These
feasts appear to be the relics of Pagan
or Jewish ceremonies, and carry in them
more meaning, and are of higher antiquity
than is generally apprehended. We hear in
different counties, and often in the same
county, of melsupper, churn-supper, harvest
supper, harvest home, feast of ingathering.
cj'C The antiquity of the custom appears
from Exod. xxiii.l6. "The feast ofharvest,
the first fruits of thy labors, which thou
hast sown in the field." The Jews cele-
brated the feast of harvest, by precept;
and, prior to this, Gen. vi. 3, "Cain
brought of the fruit of the ground, and
offering to the Lord."

Yet the offering of the first-fruits, it may well be supposed, was not peculiar to the Jews. Calimachus affirms that these primitse were sent by tne people of every nation to the temple of Apollo, in Delos, and by the Hyperboreans in ] articular, the most distant that enjoy the happiness of corn and harvest. Herodotus also mentions this annual custom of , the Hyperboreans, remarking, that those of Delos talk of " Holy things tied up in a sheaf of wheat, conveyed from the Hyperboreans." The Jews, by command of their law, offered also a sheaf, Lev. xxiii. 10, " And shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring a sheaf, the first fruits of your harvest, unto the priest." This may be looked upon as equivalent to a proof; for, as the offering and the feast appear to have been always and intimately connected, in countries affording records, so it is more than probable they were connected too in countries which had none, or none that survived to our times.

There seems great reason to conclude, that this feast, which was once sacred to Apollo, was constantly maintained, when * far less valuable circumstance, i. e. 'homing the churn, is observed to this day by the reapers, and from so old an era; for we read of this acclamation, [Isa. xvi. 9,J " For the shouting for thy summer fruits, and for thy harvest is fallen." And again, verse 10, " And in the vineyards there shall be no singing, neither shall there be shouting." Hence then, or from some of the Phoenician colonies, is our traditionary "shouting the chum." Bread or cakes composed part of the Hebrew offering, [Levit. xxiii. 13,] and a cake thrown upon the head of the victim was part of a Greek offering to Apollo, whose worship was formerly celebrated in Britain, where the May-pole yet continues one remain of it. This they adorned with garlands on May-day, to welcome the approach of Apollo, or the sun, towards the north, and to signify that the flowers were the product of his presence and influence. But, upon the progress of Christianity, Apollo lost his divinity, and the adoration of his deity subsided. Yet so permanent is custom, that this rite of the harvest-supper, together with that of the May-pole, have been preserved in Britain; and what had been anciently offered to the god, the reapers prudently eat up themselves. At last, the use of the meal of new corn was neglected, and the supper, so far as meal was concerned, was made indifferently of old or new corn, as most agreeable to the founder.

The usage itself accounts for the name of mcl-supper. Mel signifies meal, and the instrument also called with us a melt, wherewith corn was anciently reduced to meal, in a mortar. Provisions of meal or of corn in furmity, he, composed by far the greatest part of these old country entertainments, perfectly conformably to the simplicity of early times and persons. And as the harvest was concluded with preparat ou of meal, ready for the mell, this came to mean the last of all things; as, when a horse comes last in a race, they often say in the north "he has got the mell."

The other names of this country festivity sufficiently explain themselves, except churn-tupper. This is entirely different from the me/-supper; but they generally happen so near together that they are frequently confounded. The thurn-supper was always provided when ii\ was shorn, but the mel-supper after all re as got in. It was called the churn supper because, from immemorial times, it "as

customary to produce in a chum a great uantity of cream, and to circulate it by ishfuls to each of the rustic company, who ate it with bread. Though this custom has been disused in many places, or is agreeably commuted for by ale, yet it survives still about Whitby and Scarborough, in the east, and round about Guisburn, &c, in Craven, in the west. But, perhaps a century or two more will put an end to it, and both the things and name shall die, Vicarious ale is now more approved, and the tankard almost every where politely preferred to the churn.

Churn, in our provincial pronunciation kern, is the Hebrew kern or kerin, from its being circular, like most horns; and it is the Latin corona, named so either from its radii, resembling horns, as on some very ancient coins, or from its encircling the head; so a ring of people is called corona. Also the Celtic koren,kcreu, corn, which continues according to its old pronunciation in Cornwall, &c, and our modern word horn is no more than this; the ancient hard sound of k in corn heme softened into the aspirate h, as has been done in numberless instances. The lr.sli Celtae also call a round stone clough crent when the variation is merely dialectic. Hence, too, our crane berries, i. e. round berries, from the Celtic adjective mat, round.

These particulars are derived, as before stated, from a dissertation by Eugene Aram, who, after an ingenious defence, was clearly convicted of a murder he had committed sixteen years before his trial, and suffered death for the crime. I,

"Largess." [For the Year Book.] It is, or lately was, a custom in Hert fordshire, for the men employed in getting in the corn, to meet in companies on the morning next after the " Harvest-home," for the purpose of perambulating the neighbourhood of their work, to "beg J _/bto-largess," as they term it. Each party is headed by a "lord o' th' harvest," who is generally spokesman for the rest. Th«y solicit from all persons respectably attired, whom they may happen to meet; but they are more urgent in their requests at the dwellings of persons to whom the'1 masters or themselves have been customers during the past year. In mo*1 instances "largess" is very liberally bestowed, both in money an"4 o kiud; iwl

d

J the total sum collected is equitably divided at the close of the day, when

"The laughing hind» rejoice j"

And

"The grateful fanner pays accepted thanks With joy unfeigned."

E. H. B.

Harvest-home.—" Largess."
[For the Year Book.]

The sounds of rustic rejoicing, at the close of harvest, fall pleasantly upon the ear, and are affecting to the feelings of a kind-hearted traveller: he knows that pleasure prevails among the toil-worn laborers of a good-natured farmer.

Here, once a year, distinction lowers its crest,
The master, servant, and the merry guest.
Are equal all , and round the happy ring
The reaper's eyes exulting glances fling ,
And, warmed with gratitude, he quits his
place,

With sun-burnt hands, and ale-r nlivened face,
Refills the jug his honored host to tend,
To serve at once the master and the friend;
Proud thus to meet his smiles, to share his
tale,

His nuts, his conversation, and his ale.

Bkomjield.

In some parts of Suffolk and Essex, after the Harvest-home feast, there still remains the old custom of "Hallooing Largess." At the beginning of the reaping a leader is appointed. He is generally the best of the reapers, and called the lord; and, when the labor of the harvest is over, he and the husbandmen are borne home upon the last load of grain. Their wives and children,and immediate friends, follow in procession, carrying the implements used during the harvest, with green boughs, a sheaf of wheat, and, perhaps, a flag or two made of handkerchiefs, and such other rude demonstrations of rejoicing as fancy may suggest, or convenience offer. With light hearts and smiling faces, and cheerful shouts, they proceed merrily along to the farmer's house, where a good substantial supper is provided for them, and to which are generally invited the neighbouring farmers. This is called the " Horkey," or Harvesthome. There

—first the fuelled chimney biases wide \ The tankards foam; and the strong table groans

Beneath the smoking sirloin stretched imtn nse

From side to side, in which, with desperate

knife,

They deep incision make, and talk the while Of England's glory, ne'er to be defaced. While hence they borrow vigour.

During the day it was the business of the " Lord" to collect from the neighbours and friends of the farm what is called "Largess money." At night, when

Now twelve o'clock was drawing nigh,

And alt in merry cue;
I knocked the cask, " oh, oh I" says I,

We've almost conqucr'd you.
• • •

Twas near upon as light as noon;

A luryeu, on the hill.
They shouted to the full round moon;

I think I hear them still.

Upon the breaking up of the " Hot- key, the husbandmen of the farm assemble upon some near eminence, or conspicuous place, and lustily call out " Holla, holla, holla,—Large*." The "Holla" they repeat quick, reserving all their strength for the word " Largess," and on this word they dwell till their voice is exhausted. On a clear still night the shout of " largess" may be heard at a great distance, and the lengthened sound is very peculiar and pleasing. They repeat the shout as often as they have received "largess," and then, with some parting merriment, which the "brown October" often makes obstreporous, they close an evening, the anticipation of which had cheered the old, and delighted the young, throughout the toils of harvest.

Bloomfield has very pleasantly introduced the custom by a poem called the "Ilorkey-night," in his beautiful garland of " Wild flowers," from which the above two verses are extracted, and to which I refer readers fond of nature, " though in simple guise." The custom is fast sinking; it only lingers among a few farmers who are old fashioned enough to bestow their "Largess" freely, and who love to hear the welkin ring with the shout of gratitude.

W. Doowevu.

h. m.

September 10.—Day breaks . . 3 30 Sun rises ..531 — sets ... 6 29 Twilight ends . 8 30 Officinal saffron blows

P h

[graphic]

[For the Year Book.] Above is a copy of a Farthing in my possession, inscribed on one side, " Tins Farthing Made For," on the other side,

"CHERTSEY IN SURREY, 1668." As the

inscription implies, it was once a current coin of the town: it is now very scarce.

Around the third bell of Chertsey church is the following inscription, in monkish characters about an inch and a half high, " * Ora * Mente * Pia * Pro * Nobis Virgo Maria *." This bell was brought to the church of Chertsey from the monasteiy, which was established there in the year 666 upon the conversion of the Saxons from Paganism. Subsequently, that building was destroyed, and a new edifice erected by king Edgar. King Henry VI. was buried at Chertsey monastery, which in the reign of Henry VIII. finally underwent the fate of the religious houses.

Shakspeare frequently mentions Chertsey in Richard III. Thus, at the close of the scene with the lady Anne, he makes Richard say—

Repair to Crosby place.

Where—after I have solemnly intcrr'd,
At I hertsey xnonast'ry, this noble king,
And wet his grave with my repentant tears—
I will with all expedient duty see you.

Cowley, the poet, lived at Chertsey, in the Perch-house, the residence of the late chamberlain of London, Richard Claik, esq., who materially improved the estate. In the vicinity of the town is St Ann'shill, on which was anciently a cell of worship attached to the monastery; near its site is the picturesque residence formerly the seat of the late right hon. Charles James Fox.

A. R. Smith.

Farthings.

A farthing is the fourth part of a penny. The Anglo-Saxon penny is known to have been as early as 688, and was perhaps earlier: it was of silver. The cross is said to have been deeply impressed upon U, that it might be divided into the half

ling, or halfpenny, and the fourth-ling, oc fourth of a penny, now called farthing. There is a passage in Whitaker's Richmond, which shows that coins were halved and quartered, as the dollar is at this time in remote settlements of the United States in America.

In 1444, 23 Henry VI., a petition was presented to the House of Commons, stating, that for default of half-pence and farthings, men "travaillingoverContrees, for part of their expences of necessiiee, must depart our Soveraigne Lord's coigne, that is to wete, a Peny in two pieces, or elles forgo all the same Peny for the paiement of an Half-Peny." f

Henry I. first ordered half-pence and farthings to be made round. Before that time they had been made square. J

James I. granted by patent, to Frances, duchess of Richmond, the monopoly of coining farthings for seventeen years. §

Queen Anne's Farthing. It prevails, as a vulgar error, that a Queen Anne's Farthing is of immense value. Her farthing is scarce, but not valuable, unless in fine preservation. The only farthing issued in her reign bears her head, inscribed Anna Dei Gratia, and on the reverse Britannia 1714. In the finest condition it is not worth more than twenty shillings, or, with the broad rim, thirty shillings. There were patterns for farthings of her reign, which were not issued, one with Britannia under a portal, and another with Peace in a car, are rare, and valued at forty shillings. The rarest pattern is inscribed on the reverse Bnw Et Pace 1713. The field in the centre is sunk, the rims indented, to prevent casting in sand, and it has all the improvements so much boasted of as being the invention of Boullon in his last coinage of copper. ||

Fosbroke't Ency. of Antiquities, t Antiq. Repertory. t Andrew's Hist. G. Britain. $ Rymer.

| Fothroh.

The season of harvest is memorable for an act of cruel injustice, perpetrated in the name of religion by Ferdinand U., emperor of Germany, against several flourishing communities of peaceable christians. Robert Robinson, in his "Ecclesiastical Researches," tells the following story of this outrage.

The ancestors of these people had been driven from France in the twelfth century. They were Baptists, and the records of Bohemia state that, about that time, exiles of this persuasion arrived and settled, near a hundred miles from Prague, at Saiz and Laun on the river Eger, just on the borders of the kingdom. Almost two hundred years after, an undoubted record of the same country mentions a

I people of the same description, some as burnt at Prague, and others as inhabiting the borders of the kingdom; and, a hundred and fifty years after that, we find a people of the same description, settled by connivance in the metropolis, and in

i several other parts of the kingdom.— About one hundred and twenty years

I lower, a people in the same country, exactly like the former, lived on the estate of prince Lichtenstein. They were about

i thirty or forty thousand in number. They had no priests, but taught one another. They had no private property, for they held all things jointly. They executed no offices, and neither exacted nor took oaths. They bore no arms, and rather chose to suffer than resist. They worshipped God only by adoring his perfections, and endeavouring to imitate his goodness. They thought Christianity wanted no comment. They professed their belief of it, by being baptized ; and their love to Christ, and one another, by

I receiving the Lord's supper. They aspired at neither wealth nor power, and their plan was industry. Bohemia afforded them work, wages, and a secure asylum,

i which were all they wanted. These facts do honor to human nature; they exhibit

1 in the great picture of the world a few

1 small figures in a back ground, unstained with the blood, and unruffled with the disputes of their fellow creatures. It was their wisdom, in their times, not to come

1 forward to deliver apologies to the world, and creeds with flattering prefaces to

1 prinoes; the turbulence of the crowd would have caused the still voice of reason not to be heard.

The Protestants of Bohemia alternately endured persecution and enjoyed repose, according to the bigoted or lenient dispositions of successive emperors. They existed by connivance and expedients till the accession of Maximilian H., who declared that such princes as tyrannized over the consciences of men attacked the Supreme Being, and frequently lost possessions on earth by concerning themselves with what exclusively belonged to the divine government. He used to say of Huss, "they very much injured that good man." Lamenting with Crato, his \ physician, the contentions of mankind about religion, the emperor asked the doctor what sect he thought came nearest to the simplicity of the apostles; Crato answered, "I verily think the people called Picards." Maximilian replied, "I think so too." During his reign every body enjoyed liberty of conscience. His son and successor Rodolph, was of the same pacific nature; but some jesuits who insinuated themselves into his councils persuaded him to enforce an old decree, obnoxious against the Picards. Just afterwards the Turks took one of his towns, and Rodolph exclaimed, " I ex

fected some such blow from the moment began to usurp dominion over the consciences of men ; for they belong to God alone." From that time he expressly granted liberty of conscience, and the free exercise of religion. His brother Mathias contested with him for dominion, and Rodolph finally ceded to him Hungary, Austria, Moravia, and Bohemia. Though the Bohemians did not approve of this transfer, yet they so far deferred to Rodolph as to elect Mathias, and crown him king of Bohemia. He succeeded Rodolph as emperor, and, being desirous.of excluding his brothers from the imperial throne, he adopted his cousin Ferdinand, and so intrigued as to effect his election by the states of Bohemia, and Ferdinand was crowned at Prague. It was evident to the Bohemians that the house of Austria was elevating itself on the ruins of German liberty. When, therefore, on the death of Matthias, his nominee was elected emperor of Germany, under the title of Ferdinand IL, the Bohemians chose Frederick, the elector palatine, king of Bohemia, and having stipulated for their liberties they crowned him. Frederick had married the princess Elizabeth, daughter of James I. king of England, from whom, and other princes of

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