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as he had been more accustomed to common business, and more conversant in the " ways of men."
In another department, besides collecting authorities, Frank was remarkably useful to Dr. Johnson; this was, in explanation of low cant phrases, which the doctor used to get I rank to give his explanation of first. All words relating to gambling and cardplaying, such as All-fours, Catch-ho»or$, Cribbage, 4'C-, were, among the " typos," said to be Frank's, corrected by the doctor, for which he received a second payment. At the time this happened Johnson's Dictionary was going on printing very briskly in three departments, letter D, G, and L, being at work upon at the same time; and the doctor was, in the printing-house phrase, "out of town," that is, had received more money than he had produced MS.; for the proprietors restricted him in his payments, and would answer no more demands from him than at the rate of a guinea for every sheet of MS. copy he delivered, which was paid him by Mr. Strahan on delivery; and the doctor readily agreed to this. The copy was written upon quarto post paper, and in two columns each page. The doctor wrote, in his own hand, the words and their explanation, and generally two or three words in each column, leaving a space between each for the authorities, which were pasted on as they were collected by the different clerks or amanuenses employed. In this mode the MS. was so regular, that the sheets of MS. which made a sheet of print could be very exactly ascertained. Every guinea parcel came after this agreement regularly tied up, and was put upon a shelf in the corrector's room till wanted. The MS. being then in great forwardness, the doctor supplied copy faster than the printers called for it; and in one of the heaps of copy it happened that, upon giving it out to the compositors, some sheets of the old MS. that had been
Si mted off were found among the new IS. paid for. This led to a charge against the doctor of having obtained double payment for the same MS. copy. As the MS. was then in such a ready and forward state, it is but justice to the doctor's character to say, that he does not appear to have been driven to his shifts so much as to make use of this shabby trick to get three or four guineas, for the sum amounted to no more It is probable that it happened by the doctor's
keeping the old copy, which was always returned to him with the proof, in a disorderly manner. Besides this there was another mode of accounting for it, which, at that time, was very current in the printing-house. In addition to his old and constant assistant, Stuart, the Doctor had several others, some of them not of the best characters; one of this class had been lately discharged, whom the doctor had been very kind to, notwithstanding all his loose and idle tricks; and it was generally supposed that the rogue had fallen upon the expedient of picking up the old MS. to raise a few guineas, finding the money so readily paid on the MS. as he delivered it. Upon the whole, every body was inclined to acquit the doctor, as he had been well known to have rather " too little thought about money matters." What served to complete the doctor's acquittal was, that, immediately on the discovery, Frank supplied the quantum of right copy (for it was ready); which set every thing to rights, and that in the course of an hour or two.
Frank usually " spent his evenings" at the Bible, in Shire Lane, a house of call for bookbinders and printers; where he was in good esteem among some creditable neighbours that frequented the backroom. Except his fuddling, he was a very worthy character; yet his drinking and conviviality, he used to say, he left behind him at Edinburgh, where his intimacy with some jovial wits and great card-players made his journey to London very prudent and necessary, as nothing but such a measure could break off the connexion. Before Frank determined on quitting Edinburgh, he took some pains to bring his companions to order and good hours; and one of his efforts in this way was his writing a song of four verses, to the famous old tune of " Woe's my heart that we should sunder ;" every verse concluded with a chorus line," Let s leave lang-jinks but never sunder.'"
In one of his Edinburgh night rambles, Frank and his companions met with the mob-procession when they were conducting Captain Porteus to be hanged; and Frank and his companions were next day examined about it before the towncouncil, when, as he used to say," we were found to be too drunk to have had any hand
* Lang jinks is the name for lansquenet in Scotland among gamesters.
Edinburgh. June 1831. 7 September 1820 is the date of the following advertisement in the "Edinburgh Evening Couranl" of the 9th of that month:—
"the Lamiters of Edinburgh and its vicinity are respectfully informed, that a Festivalwui be celebrated by the Ready
TO-HALT-FRATF.RNITY,al M'lean's Hotel,
Prince's-street, on Thursday the 14lh day of September inst. "Dinner on the table at Five o'clock. "All such Cripples and Lamiters as wish to consociate and dine together will give in their names at the Hotel, before the 14lh inst.
"W. T. Secretary.
Concerning the advertisement of " the Lamiters" I have made several enquiries, the result of which show that it was a mere quiz on the public.
The following, equally curious, and of more value perhaps to your erudite Miscellany, is copied from "Parker's London News,or the Impartial Intelligencer, containing the most remarkable occurrences Foreign and Domestic 18th January 1722 "
« WHEREAS Gentlemen And GenTlewomen, in walking the streets in dirty slabby weather, very frequently incommode their stockings and petticoats by the filth and nastiness thereof. There is a person who gives daily attendance from 9 to 3 in the afternoon, at the Hercules in Nags-head-court in Bartholomew lane,
behind the Royal Exchange, to instruct how all persons may walk the streets without dirting themselves in the worst or dirtiest weather."
The " Post Boy " from Thursday May 16 to Saturday May 18, 1723, in narrating the execution of counsellor Layer for High Treason, says " his head was carried to Newgate, in order to be parboiled and affixed upon Tetnple-bar this day."—Alas, wnat Cookery/
I am, &c,
[Advertisement from Walker's Birmingham paper, Monday April 12th 1742. No 26.]
The Litchfield And Birmingham Stage-coach set out this morning [Monday] from the Rose Inn at Uolbourn bridge, London, and will be at the house of Mr.Francis Cox, the Angel and Hen and Chickens, in the high town, Birmingham, on Wednesdaynexl to dinner, and goes the same afternoon to Litchfield, and returns to Birmingham on Thursday morning to breakfast, and gets to London on Saturday night, and so will continue every week regularly, with a good coach and able horses.
A Noted Surgeon.
[From a Lancashire paper, about the year 1778.]
Ellen Haythornthwaite, the wife of Robert Haythornthwaite, of Dicklin green, near Whitewell, in the forest of Bowland, Lancashire, is supposed to be one of the best Surgeons in the country; she has performed several amazing cures, given up for incurable by the Whitworth doctors, and others.
As for Asthmas, Coughs, Fevers, and all internal disorders, she will not prescribe a large quantity of drugs, and yet effectually cure, if curable; but as for burns, scalds, fractured skulls, bruises, and all external wounds, she will in a very little time make a perfect cure, if they come to her before they are mortified.
N. B. She will take nothing in hand if she finds it incurable.
Her charges are also very moderate, twelve pence a week, if they come to her. She travels none abroad.
The following can testify of her excellent remedies, with many others too tedious to mention.
John Langton, a lame hand.
James Dewhurst, ditto.
James Parker, a fractured skull: his brain was bare.
Christopher Martin, lame leg.
Robert Parkinson, ditto.
William Livesey, ditto.
Richard Knowles, a lame arm, two years standing.
Notice To The Profession.
To Be Sold, on the 8th of July, one hundred and thirty-one suits at law, the property of an eminent attorney about to retire from business. Note, the clients are rich and obstinate.
[Note. Whether this is serious or satirical I know not.]
September 7.—Day breaks . . 3 22 Sun rises ... 5 25 — sets ... 6 35 Twilight ends . 8 38 Green gage plums in great plenty. Peaches and nectarines abundant.
The parsons of the old Fleet, and of May fair, were noted for their celebration of private marriages; and it appears that the village of Mampstead was not less remarkable for conveniences of that kind to couples who wished to increase their happiness by a little sir and exercise.
About the beginning of the last century there stood, near the Wells, a place called Sion chapel, which seems to have been the property of the keeper of the adjoining tavern, by the following advertisement from a newspaper of 1716: it will be seen what temptations were held out to such parties as should keep their wedding dinner in his gardens.
"8th September 1716.—Sion Chapel At Hampstead, being a private and pleasure place, many persons of the best fashion have lately been married there. Now, as a minister is obliged constantly to attend, this is to give notice, that all persons bringing a licence, and who shall
have their wedding dinner in the gardens, may be married in the said chapel without giving any fee or reward whatsoever: and such as do not keep their wedding dinner at the gardens, only five shillings will be demanded of them for all fees."
Many similar advertisements in old newspapers show the facilities formerly afforded to private marriages.
H. B. Andrews.
In 1794 the minister of Eskdalemuir, in the county of Dumfries, mentions an annual fair held time out of mind at the meeting of the Black and White Esks, now entirely laid aside. At that fair it was the custom for unmarried persons of both sexes to choose a companion, according to their liking, with whom they were to live till that time next year. This was called "hand-fasting," or hand in fist. If they were pleased with each other at that time, then they continued together for life: if not, they separated, and were free to make another choice as at the first. The fruit of the connexion, if there were any, was always attached to the disaffected person. In later times, when this part of the country belonged to the Abbey of Melrose, a priest, to whom they gave the name of "Book i'bosom," either because he carried in his bosom a Bible, or perhaps a register of the marriages, came from time to time to confirm the marriages.
In the Isle of Portland, near Weymouth, where the inhabitants seldom or never intermarry with any on the mainland, young women betroth themselves to lovers of the same place, and allow them the privileges of husbands, with the certainty of being made wives the moment that the consequences of their intimacy become apparent.
[This usage I ascertained, upon the spot, to prevail in 1817, and was assured, by respectable married females of the place, that only one instance of the engagement not being fulfilled by a young man had occurred within their memory, and in that case the offender was driven by the inhabitants with ignominy from the island. W. H.J
Breaking a Piece of Money. It was anciently customary to break a piece of gold or silver in token of a verbal contract of marriage and promises of love; one half whereof was kept by the woman, while the other part remained with the man. The Dialogue between Kitty and Filbert in the " What d'ye call it," by Gay, illustrates the usage:— Yet, Justices, permit as, ere we part. To break this Ninepencc as you've broke our heart."
Filbert (breaking the ninepencc)—As this divides, thus are we torn in twain.
Kitty (joining the pieces)—And, as this meets, thus may we meet again.
In *■ The Country Wake," a comedy by Dogget, 4 to., London, 1696, Act v. sc. i., Hob, who fancies he is dying, before he makes his last will and testimony, as he calls it, when his mother desires him to try to speak to Mary, "for she is thy wife, and no other," answers, " I know I'm sure to her—and I do own it before you all; I ask't her the question last Lammas, and at AUhallow's-tide we broke a piece of money; and if I had lived till last Sunday we had been ask'd in the church." Mr. Douce's MS. Notes say: "Analogous to the interchangement of rings seems the custom of breaking a piece of money. An example of this occurs in 'Bateman's Tragedy,' a wellknown penny history, chap, v." A law book, "Swinburne on Spousals," p. 10, says: "Some spousals are contracted by signs, as the giving and receiving a ring, others by words."
It appears to have been formerly a custom, also, for those who were betrothed to wear some flower as an external and conspicuous mark of their mutual engagement. Spenser, in his * Shepherd's Calendar," says,
"Bring coronations and Sods in wine
Sops in wine were a species of flowers among the smaller kind of single gilliflowers or pinks.*
In 1792 the minister of Galston, in Ayrshire, mentions a singular custom there: "When a young man wishes to pay his addresses to his sweetheart, instead of going to her father's, and professing his passion, he goes to a public-house,
and, having let the landlady into the secret of his attachment, the object of his wishes is immediately sent for, who seldom refuses to come. She is entertained with ale and whisky, or brandy; and the marriage is concluded on. The second day after the marriage a " creeping," as it is called, takes place. The young wedded pair, with their friends, assemble in a convenient spot. A small creel, or basket, is prepared for the occasion, into which they put some stones: the young men carry it alternately, and allow themselves to be caught by the maidens, who have a kiss when they succeed. After a great deal of innocent mirth and pleasantry, the creer falls at length to the young husband's share, who is obliged to carry it generally for a long time, none of the young women having compassion upon him. At last his fair mate kindly relieves him from his burden; and her complaisance, in this particular, is considered as a proof of her satisfaction with the choice she has made. The creel goes round again; more merrimeiit succeeds; and all the company dine together, and talk over the feats of the field.''
True-lovf.rs-knots. Among the ancient northern nations a knot seems to have been the symbol of indissoluble love, faith, and friendship. Hence the ancient runic inscriptions, Uickes's, are in the form of a knot; and hence, among the northern English and Scots, who still retain, in a great roeasure,the language and manners of the ancient Danes, that curious kind of knot, which is a mutual present between the lover and his mistress, and which, being considered as the emblem of plighted fidelity, is therefore called "a true-love knot:" a name which is not derived, as may be naturally supposed, from the words "true" and "love," but formed from the Danish verb "trulofa/'^tfcm do, I plight my troth, or faith. Thus, in the Islandic Gospels, the following passage in the first chapter of St. Matthew confirms, beyond a doubt, the sense here given—" til einrar Meyar er truhfad var einum Manne," Sec.; i.e. to a virgin essed; that is, who was promised, or engaged herself to a man, &.c. Hence, evidently, the "bride favors,"
or the "top-knots," at marriages, which have been considered as emblems of the ties of duty and affection between the bride and her spouse, have been derived.
In Davison's "Poetical Rhapsody, 1611," are the following verses:—
The True Lover's Knot.
For trough I loved with all the powers of my
And though my restless thoughts their rest in
For since her beauties sun my fruitless hope ! did breede,
By absence from that sun I hop't to sterve
j For when I shift my place, like to the stricken deere,
I cannot shift the shaft which in my side I
So have I scene the sicke to turne ana turnc
As if that outward change could ease his in-
Vet goodnes is the spring from whence this
ill doth gro*, For goodneB caused the love, which great respect did owe. Respect true love did show; True love thus wrought my woe.
Gay, in his Pastoral called " the Spell," describes the rustic manner of knitting the true-love-knot:—
As Lubberkin once slept beneath a tree,
In England these knots of ribands were formerly distributed in great abundance as bride favors, even at the marriages of persons of the first distinction. They were worn at the hat, and consisted of ribands of various colors. M. Misson,
in his Travels in England, printed in 1696, says, "Formerly, in France, they gave Livrees de Noces, which was a knot of ribands, to be worn by the guests upon their arms; but that is practised now only among peasants. In England it is done still amongst the greatest noblemen. These ribands they call 'favors,' and give them not only to those that are at the wedding, but to five hundred people besides. T'other day, when the eldest son of M. de Overkerque married the duke of Ormond's sister, they dispensed a whole inundation of those little favors: nothing else was here to be met with, from the hat of the king down to that of the meanest servant." Ozell, in a note to his translation of Misson, says: "The favor was a pretty large knot, of several colors, gold, silver, carnations, and white. This is worn upon the hat for some weeks." The only color for wedding-favors at this time  is white.
The bride favors have not been omitted in "The Collier's Wedding," a northern provincial poem:—
The blithsome bucksome country maids.
The same poem, speaking of the youth
In a curious old book "The fifteen Comforts of Marriage," a conference is introduced concerning bridal colors in dressing up the bridal-bed by the bridemaids.—"Not, say they, with yellow ribbands, these are the emblems of jealousy —not with 'Fueille mort,' that signifies fading love—but with true blue, that signifies constancy, and green denotes youth—put them both together, and there's youthful constancy. One proposed blue and black, that signifies constancy till death; but that was objected to as those colors will never match. Violet was proposed assignifyingreligii n: this was objected to as being too grave . and at last they concluded to mingle <r gold tissue with grass green, which latter signifies youthful jollity." For the bride's favors, top-knots, and garters, the bride proposed blue, gold color, lemoncolor, Ice Gold-color was objected to as signifying avarice. The younger bride