« ZurückWeiter »
id. Anglix cui, Salve. "3d.—Cui servit Hibcraia, Salve. "1. Gallia cui titulos, terras dant cetera, Salve.
"2. Quctn divisa prius colit una'IIriitannia Salve.
"3d. Sunime, Monarcha BritUtnnix, Hibernal, Gallix, Salve, &C. &C.*
Walter Stuart or Stewart, High Steward of Scotland, whose office had given name to his family, was married to Marjory, the daughter of Robert Grace, the deliverer of Scotland. Their son, Robert, succeeded to the throne on the death of his uncle David, with whom the male line of Bruce became extinct..
Robert II.. the first of the Stuarts, came to the throne in right of his mother. He was aged and infirm at his accession, and his reign was neither happy nor tranquil. He was succeeded by his son John,-}who, on being crowned, assumed the name and title of
Robert III. This prince was lame in body and enervated in mind : his reign was unquiet. The wild conduct and cruel murder of his eldest son, David, and the subsequent unjust detention of James, his surviving son, by Henry IV. of England, caused him to die of sorrow.
James I., for eighteen years a captive in England, found his country in a greatly disturbed stale on his return to it; he fell by the hands of assassins at Perth.
James II., constantly in civil wars, basely murdered a Douglas with his own hand, and was killed by the bursting of a cannon at the siege of Roxburgh.
James III, was murdered by his rebellious subjects, after a battle with them near Bannockburn.
James IV. lost his life in Flodden Field.
James V. died of a broken heart, after his defeat at Solway, in the belief that his nobles and generals had been false to him.
Mary, his daughter, experienced a life of strange vicissitudes; she was treacherously deceived, and, after languishing many years in prison, was basely murdered by her kinswoman, Elizabeth, — Whether guilty or not of the crimes laid to her charge, will, probably, ever remain a point for doubt; but, as her latest his
• Nichols's Progresses, Processions, &c, of James the first, vol. I. p. 545.
t Le Sapc's Historical Atlas No, 16; also Hist, of Scotland passim.
Scott's History of Scotland, vol, i.
torian remarks, "Tins may be truly said, that if a life of exile and misery, endured with the most saintly pat. ;nce, could atone for crimes and errors of the class imputed to her, no such penalty was ever more fully discharged than that of Mary Stuart.'" Her son united thetwocrewns England and Scotland. James I. Adversity remitted, during his time only, the persecution of his race; although the early part of his reign, as king of Scotland, was any thing but felicitous. The change of style on this king's accession is said to have fulfilled an old prophecy. "The prophecy," says Bacon, "I heard when I was a child, and Queen Elizabeth was in the flower of her years, was
'When HF.MPE u tpun, England is done I Whereby it was generally conceived, that after the princes had reigned which had the principal letters of that word Iiempe, which were Henry, Edward, Mary, Philip, and Elizabeth, England should come to utter confusion, which thanks be to God is verified in the change of name; for that the King's style is now nn more England but Britain.
Charles I., who deluged his country with his subjects' blood, was dethroned and beheaded. Howel notices a curious error which was made at his proclamation, "King Charles," says he, "was proclaimed at Theobald's Court Gate by Sir Edward Zouch, Knight Marshal, Master Secretary Conway dictating unto him, 'Whereas it has pleased God to take to his mercy our gracious Sovereign King James, of famous memory, we proclaim Prince Charles his rightful and indubitable heir, &C. &C.,' the Knight Marshal mistook, and said,'his rightful and dubitable heir,' but he was rectified by the secretary."
Charles II. experienced a long series of misfortunes, both in exile t and on the throne. During his reign, the Dutch fleet, under De Ruyter, appeared in the
• Scott's History of Scotland, vol. ii. t Bacon's Essays. X A narrative of the dangers to which he was exposed after the Battle of Worcester is published in a little volume entitled "Boscobel," from the name of the house in which he lay concealed. This has been lately reprinted, in a collection of outer pieces relating to the king's escape.
Thames, took Sheerness and burnt many ships of war, and almost insulted the capital itself in their predatory incursion. • Virtue was depressed and vice and levity countenanced throughout the land. His death was sudden and not without suspicion of poison, although some historians say there is no ground for such belief, f
James H., a weak, intolerant, and besotted prince, whose intentions, it was suspected, were to replace the kingdom under the papal jurisdiction; for which, and various acts of despotism, he was deposed, and transmitted to his offspring (male) exile and seclusion from the throne, lie died at St. Germains, in 1701.
Of his daughters, Mary, married to William of Orange, with whom she reigned jointly; and Anne, married to George of Denmark, who reigned in her own name, no further notice need be taken than that they died without issue. In 1714, the crown of Great Britain passed to the House of Hanover.
In 1711, the Jacobite party in Scotland made no scruple of avowing their attachment to the Pretender, and the duchess of Gordon went so far as to cause medals to be struck with the head of the Chevalier de St. George on one side, and on the other the British Isles, with the motto "Ueditte;" these she presented to the faculty of advocates, who passed her a vote of thanks for them. J
Charles James, more known by the name of the Chevalier de St. George, the first Pretender, was the only son of James 'I. He might almost be termed a wanderer, from his seeking a home among various powers on the continent, and being occasionally driven from his asylum, through political motives, whilst striving to interest the court so as to render him assistance in his design of gaining possession of the British throne.
He died at Rome, 1st Jan. 1766, and left two sons.
Among the various attempts made by the Stuarts, with the aid of foreign powers, to regain possession of their lost dominions, in two instances only did they wear any thing like a formidable appearance, those in 1715, and 1745, the latter headed by Charles Edward in person, when so many of the Scotch nobility sealed with
• Temple, vol. iii. t flume's Mist. England. J StnoHct's Hist. England. i For a History of these rebellions, SCO 1. Register of the Rebellion 1715, and
blood, on the scaffold or in the field, their fealty to him whom they considered as their rightful sovereign. §
The extraordinary perils and escapes of the prince Charles Edward, when every hope in his cause was crushed, in traversing, under various disguises, those realms over which his progenitors had, for upwards of three centuries, swayed the sceptre, seeking for the opportunity of some friendly sail to waft him in security to the opposite shore, wear more the appearance of a tale of romance than of reality.t To the immortal honor of the Scottish nation, though a great number of persons of all ranks must, necessarily, have been entrusted with the secret, and though the head of the pretender was "worth its weight in gold," there was not to be found one recreant dastard base enough to betray an unfortunate gentleman for the sake of lucre. J
The young prince did at length succeed in quitting the British territories, but it was only to experience fresh vicissitudes, as in a short period afterwards, through the political intrigues of the British court, he was refused an asylum in France. The conduct of Louis XV. towards the prince on this occasion was highly censured, and is thus noticed by Mr. Douglas :—* The fondness of the French for their monarch had been considerably impaired before my arrival in Paris. It was considered as unworthy of a monarch, and an ignominy to the French nation, to abandon the young pretender, and to exclude him from a retreat in France ; though the success of the war might have justified the king in making this one of the conditions of peace, and though it had been prom sed him expressly by treaty. The manner, also, in which this prince, the great grandson of Henry the Fourth, was treated when he was arrested, by being pinioned like a felon, awakened a strong feeling of popular displeasure. It was surprising to hear the remarks of the French on this transaction. Paris was in
1745. 1 vol. Rvo., containing the names, &c, of all who suffered in the Stuart cause.
2. Memoirs of the Rebellion in 1745-6, by Chevalier de Johnstone, 1 vol. 8vo.
t The history of his escape is thought to be pretty faithfully delineated in a little work which was published under the title of " Ascanius."
t Thirty thousand pounds were offered for his apprehension. Vide Smoliei's History of England.
a ferment, sufficient to have produced another affair of the Barricades; every tongue was loud and every pen satyrical; epigrams and verses flew about the streets and were posted up in the most public places on the occasion, severely reflecting on the conduct of the court. And, though I did not visit the French capital until seven or eight months after, I found this one of the first topics of conversation, and the praises of Prince Edward in every mouth. Louis the XV. is no longer U bien aimc." *
The campaign of 1745 proved so decisive that it terminated the struggle, and the Stuarts retired from the contest.
"That the present Pretender," f says Hume, "was in London in the year 1753, I know with the greatest certainty, because I had it from Lord Marechal, who said it consisted with his certain knowledge.
"Two or t'iree days after he gave me this information, he told me that the evening before he had learned several curious particulars from a lady (who I imagined to be the Lady Primrose, though my lord refused to name her). The pretender came to her house in the evening, without giving her any preparatory information, andentered the room where she had a
pretty large company with her, and was herself playing at cards. He was announced by the servant under another name: she thought that the cards would have dropped from her hands on seeing him; but she had presence of mind enough to call him by the name he assumed, and asked him when he came to England, and how long he intended to stay.
"After he and all the company went away the servants remarked how wonderfully like the strange gentleman was to the prince's picture, which hung on the chimney piece in the very room in which he had entered. My lord added (I think from the authority of the same lady) that he used so little precaution that he went abroad openly in the day light in his own dress, only laying aside his blue ribbon and star, walked once through St. James's and took a turn in the Mall.
"About five years ago I told this story to Lord Holderness, who was Secretary of
* Travels of John Douglas, afterwards Bishop of Salisbury, in the years 1748-9. t Charles Edward.
State of 1753, and I added that I supposed this piece of intelligence had e— caped his lordship at the time. 1 By no means,' said he, * and who do you think first told me; it was the King himself, who subjoined, and what do you think I should do with him? Lord Holderness owned that he was puzzled how to reply, for if he declared his real sentiments they might favor of indifference to the royal family. The king perceived his embarrassment and extricated him from it, by adding, 'My lord, I shall just do nothing at all; when he is tired of England he will go abroad again.'
"But, what will surprise you more, lord Marechal, a few days after the coronation of the present king, told me that he believed the young pretender was at that time in England, or at least had been so very lately, and had been over to see the show of the coronation, and had actually seen it. I asked my lord the reason for this strange fact, 'why,' said he, ' a gentleman told me so that saw him there and even spoke to him, and whispered in his car these words, your royal highness is the last of all mortals whom I should expect to see here. It was curiosity that led me, said the other, but I assure you that the person who is the object of all this pomp and magnificence, is the man I envy least.' You see this story is so near traced from the fountain head as to wear a great face of probability. Query—What if the pretender had taker. up Dymock's gauntlet? I find that the pretender's visit to England, in 1753, was known to the Jacobites, and some of them assured me that he took the opportunity of formally renouncing the Roman Catholic religion, under his own name of Charles Stuart, in the church in the Strand, and that this is the reason of the bad treatment he met with at the court of Home. I own that I am a sceptic with regard to the last particular." *
Charles Edward, or, as he was generally called, Prince Edward, the eldest son of Charles James, died at Rome, 31st Jan., 1788, without issue. In the proclamation for his apprehension when heading the forces in Scotland, in 1745, he is called the "Prince Adventurer." +
• David Hume's letter to Sir John Pringle, M. D., dated St. Andrcw's-square, Edinburgh, Feb. 10, 1773.
t Smollct's Hist. England
After the death of his father, he also went by the name of the " Pretender."
Genealogical Tree Of The House Of Stuart.
Walter Stewart,—Marjory Bruce. Robert II. 1376. Elizabeth Mure of Rowallan. John,1390, who changed his name tc Robert III. Annabella Drummond of Stobhall David. James I, 1406, Johanna of England, niece to Richard II. James II. 1437. Mary of Gueldres. James III. 1460. Margaret of Denmark. James IV., 1438, Margaret of England, daughter to Henry VII. James V., 1513 Mary of Guise. Dauphin } MARY. $ Henry Steward,
afterwards f ( Lord Damlcy.
Francis Il.r Resigned 1.167,
James VI. and 1—1567,-1603.
Charles II. Ann Hyde, James H. Mary of 1648, v^v^ Modena.
Mary, 1688 Anne. 1702,
who reigned with her George of Denmark, husband Died 1714.
William III. No issue.
In 1714. the Crown went to the House of Hanover. Charles James, the first pretender, generally called the Chevalier de St. George married Maria Clementina Sobieski. Died 1765. 1
Charles Edward, Henry Benedict, who invaded England Cardinal York, in 1745, married died 1807.
Henry Benedict, the second son of Charles James, as soon as he found the designs of his house rendered abortive
from the signal defeat his brother met with in V745, devoted himself to the church, and in 1747 received the scarlet hat from Benedict XIV., taking the title of Cardinal York.
In 1800, being infirm in body, and beggared by the change of power in Rome, George III. granted him a pension of £4000 per annum, which became his sole support until 1807, when he died at Rome in his eighty-third year.
An act with respect to the attainder of blood, it is understood, was to expire at the death of Cardinal York.
In a letter to Sir Jas. Cnxe Hippisley. dated 26th Feb. 1800, after acknowledging the first half yearly payment of his annuity, the Cardinal thus proceeds :—
"I own to you that the succor granted to me could not be more timely, for without it it would have been impossible for me to subsist, on account of the irreparable loss of all my income, the very funds being also destroyed, so that I should otherwise have been reduced, for the short remainder of my life, to languish in misery and indigence."
The Cardinal left as a legacy to the Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV., the order constantly worn by Charles I., and a valuable ring, which was worn by the kings of Scotland on the day of their coronation.
Among the curious memoranda of the Royal House of Stuart, found in the lepositories of cardinal York, was a medal, supposed to be unique. On the obverse is the head of Charles Edward with the significant inscription tuum cuique, on the reverse is the Scotch thistle with its appropriate motto nemo me imlacessit. This medal is said to have executed by a French artist, and bears the date of the year 1745.*
August 31. Day breaks ..33 Sun rises . . . 5 12 — sets ... 6 48 Twilight ends . . 8 57 Pheasants' eyes in flower. Largecrimson agaric begins to spring up
• In the livery-Day Book there is an engraving of a medal struck by card in a. York, as Henry IX. King of England, with particulars concerning him.
Tue Owl's Concert And Ball.
As every bird of ton
Is certain to be there,
I, also, must make one,
Or all my friends would stare.
The Throstle said, I well
I'm going home to practise,
LORD OWL was so much troubled
He sat in stately grandeur.
Dr. Goose's well-fed goslina
Squire Pheasant, yeoman Partridge,
Thrush, Blackbird, Martin, Swallow,
With a Turkey and Pea hen.
And also sir Cock Robin,
With little Jenny Wren.
Beau Starling never came.
But sent a civil note.
In which he said that he was raged,
And could not then get out.
The pensive lady Philomel
DAME OWL, whose eyes were w«ak,
This splendor dazzled so,
That all, with much politeness.
To another room did go.
Twas every bird's endeavour
To dance, to sing, or say
Something new and tonnish
To pass the time away.
Miss OWL, with much entreating.
Screamed out a loud bravura.
So bad her voice, so out of tune,
That no one could endure her.
When the Lark rose up to sing.
The Owlet walked away.
Because, she said, it put her so
In mind of vulgar day.
Then, from a thorn, sweet Philomel
Warbled a plaintive strain
With such pathetic sweetness
All begg'd for it again.
To rouse their drooping spirits,
Cornet Bullfinch tuned his pipe.
And dandy Chaffinch walta'd
A round with Mrs. Snipe.
Parson Rook, who's always hoarse.
Affected them a song,
Which, like his drawling homilies.
Was half an hour too long.
Two timid, twinlike demoiselles.
And also of her singing
Dick Sparrow and Miss Swallow,
And the Pie said to the Jay,
And every thing was there
That the daintiest bird could wish;
So they pecked about accordingly,
Each at his favorite dish.
The supper was scarce over
When the Lark proclaim'd the day;
Then, nodding all a kind farewell.
They flew their several ways.