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register in the vestry-book. To lei severe disappointment the earl recovered, while the duke of Kingston, still ignorant of her marriage, solicited her hand. She made unavailing efforts to prevail on the earl of Bristol to agree to a divorce, till at length he became enamoured of another lady, and a divorce by mutual consent was pronounced at Doctors' Commons. She had now reached the summit of her wishes, and was publicly married on the 8th of March, 1769, to Evelyn Pierrepont, duke of Kingston, with whom she lived till his death, in 1773. The duke bequeathed to her his entire property, upon condition that she should never marry again; and the duchess plunged into a course of licentiousness which expaied her to public censure, and in consequence of which she went to Italy. A magnificent yacht, bu ilt and ornamented at an immense expense, conveyed her to Rome, where she was received by the pope and cardinals with great pomp, and treated as a princess. During her residence at Rome, she was on the eve of bestowing her hand and fortune upon an adventurer, who represented himself to be the prince of Albania, when he was apprehended as a swindler,and committed suicide in prison. Soon afterwards she learned that the heirs of the duke of Kingston sought to establish against her the charge of bigamy, in order to invalidate her marriage with the duke, and set aside his will. She instantly repaired to her banker, who, having been gained over by the other party, concealed himself, to avoid giving her the sum requisite for a journey to London. She placed herself at his door, and, pistol in hand, compelled him to comply with her demand. Upon her arrival in England she found that her first marriage had been declared valid, upon the ground of incompetency in the court which had pronounced it void. Public opinion was against her; and, under the character of lady Kitty Crocodile, she was ridiculed by Foote, in A Trip to Calais, which she succeeded in obtaining to be prohibited. The validity of her first marriage being established, preparations were made to try her for bigamy, and Westminster Hall was fitted up with great state. The trial was attended by most of the members of the royal family, the foreign ambassadors, members of parliament, and other distinguished personages. The duchess, in deep mourning, took her seat unmoved, attended by two
/emmet de chumbre, a physician, an apothe cary, her secretary, and six counsel. She addressed the peers with energy, but was declared guilty. But, although her marriage with the duke was declared bad, his will was decided to be good: she lost the title but retained the property. Upon this issue of the affair, the adversaries of lady Bristol took measures to prevent her quitting the kingdom ; but, whilst the writ ne exeat regno was preparing, she embarked for Calais and proceeded to Rome. After remaining there for some time she returned to Calais, and hired a spacious mansion which she splendidly furnished; but, the monotony of the town not suiting her volatile and turbulent disposition, she made a voyage to St. Petersburgh, in a magnificent yacht, and was received with the highest distinction by the Empress Catherine, to whom she presented the valuable collection of pictures formed by the Kingston family. She afterwards went to Poland, where prince Itadzivil gave sumptuous entertainments in honor of her visit, particularly a bear-hunt by torch-light Upon returning to France she purchased the beautiful chateau de Sainte Assize, two leagues from Fontamebleau, and the mansion in the rue CoqH6ron, at Paris, where she died, after executing a will, made by two attorneys who came from England on purpose. She bequeathed a set of jewels to the Empress of Russia, a large diamond to the pope, and a costly pearl necklace and ear-rings to the Countess of Salisbury, because they had belonged to a lady who bore that title in the reign of Henry IV. Her property in France was estimated at £200,000 sterling, besides which she had valuable possessions in England and Russia.*
The character of this female is easily explained. She had a foolish fashionable mother, who taught her to covet the vanity of distinction. She acquired it by nefarious arts, became rich and ostentatious, lived flagitiously, died dishonored, and is only remembered for her vices.
August 28. Day breaks . . 2 55 Sun rises ... 5 6 — sets ... 6 54 Twilight ends . 9 6 Blackberries ripen.
• Paris Ui. 221
away through th 5 garish light, to seek some other congenial resort. 'There yet remains the mitred archway very fair and large, of wrought stone, which separated the chancel from the body of the Church,' apparently of more recent workmanship than the rest of the building. One of the gable ends having suffered considerable injury, the roof in many places stands off from it, and the light thus admitted strikes so vividly on the eye as to produce a painful effect. When Hasted saw it, there was a breach made in the north side, wide enough for cattle to go in for shelter, and to receive ploughs, harrows, and other implements of husbandry; it is now repaired."—
A little boy went into a barn,
An owl came out and flew about,
So runs one of those " Songs for the Nur-
Little Jack Horner
Sat in a corner
Eating a Christmas pie.
Be put in his thumb
And pulled out a plum—
And said, 'What a good boy am I!'
From this history it will be at once evident that the complacency of Little Jack arises, not from his simple and undivided interest in the pie, but form a consciousness that he had acted uprightly,—the pastry being very possibly the reward of his honorable behaviour.
For sublimity of conception I know of nothing that excels the following:—
To be sung on a high wind
Milton's winds 'rushing abroad from the four hinges of the world, and falling on the vext wilderness," shrinks into insignificance, when compared with this mighty conqueror "breaking his band," roaring and raving up the land, and daring even a " King of Scots" to take the field against him. Then there is the sweet blending of high and manly dignity with all the gentleness of love supposed, in the name bestowed on this valorous personage—the greatness and majesty couched under the appellation "Arthur, combined with the soft and soothing considerations inseparably connected with his title "of the bower 1"
Take as a contrast to this busy bustling hero, a piece of "still life" transplanted from p. 11 :—
Hickory, dickory, dock, The mouse ran up the clock, The clock struck one, And the mouse came down, Hickory, dickory, dock I Think, gentle reader, of the "grim and breathless hour of noon," and transport yourself to a cottage in the country, with its door standing ajar, and the window thrown open to the widest. The clock stands within a few minutes cf the " very witching hour of day," but the good housewife, not having read Milton,knows nothing of the " fear lest dinner cool," and has dropped into her neighbour's to hear the news. A poor mouse steals out into the quiet sunshine and clambers up the varnished case of this appendage, for what purpose this deponent saith not, when lo I
The clock strikes one,
And the mouse comes down.
Hickory, dickory, dock 1
Some of the descriptive touches of these "Songs" are excellent—
One misty moisty morning, When cloudy was the weather— puts to silence all the " towery dimness" of Mr. Robert Montgomery. The witch's exploit too is quite in character:— Whither, oh whither, oh whither so high X To sweep the cobwebs off the sky!
Crabbe never did any thing finer than the Poor-house Paralytic, and the Village Idiot—
The girl in the lane, that could not speak plain.
Went gobble, gobble, gobble— The man on the bill, that could not stand still, Went hobble, hobble, hobble.
Alas for Miss Muffett! she has marvellously diverted us:—
Little Miss Muffett
She sat nu a tuffctt,
There came a little spider.
And sat down beside her, And frightened Miss Muffett away. Picture to yourself the dark and side-long gait of the smart little spider, scrambling towards the young lady, and taking in most orderly sort his seat beside her 1 Then for the distress and consternation of little Miss Muffelt; how she screams out, leaps up, and shakes her frock as if all the scorpions in Egypt were clinging round it, and then wheels round like a dying peg-top, till, having staggered a few paces onwards, she settles down upon a daisied bank to take breath; and, ten to one, dreamg of spiders all the next night 1 St. Pierre was right when he said that persons usually choose for their companions through life those who differ from them in certain essentials, and this constitutes the grand mystery of conjugal felicity. Take a lesson from Jack Sprat's wife, and choose one whose habits will as happily dove-tail with yours:—
Could cat no fat,
And so, between them both,
St. John Baptist Beheaded. There are particulars concerning the former celebrations of this day in the Y.vcry-Day Book, ii. 1140, where are also some legendary accounts of the Baptist's decollation by order of Ilerod.
Once on a charger there wan laid,
It was on Herod's natal day.
This was he, that saintly John,
Honey and locusts were his food,
Herod kept in princely state
** Hither straightway brought to me."
Herod her suit would fain deny,
But for his oath's sake must comply,
Beauty in unloveliness,
Thee, Herodias' daughter, thee,
They fittest subject take to be.
They give thy form and fcurures grace;
But ever in thy bea .trous face
They show a stedfaet cruel gaze,
An eye unpitying; and amaze
In all beholders deep they mark,
That thou betrayest not one spark
Of feeling for the ruthless deed
That did thy praiseful dance succeed.
For on the head they make you look,
As if a sullen joy you took,
A cruel triumph, wicked pride.
That for your sport a saint had died.
August 29. Day breaks . . 2 57 Sun rises ... 5 8 — sets ... 6 52 Twilight ends ..93 Bundle fungus, agaricus fascicular is, spring at the base of old decayed posts, &c.
August 30, 1654. Evelyn, being at Peterborough, makes this entry in his Diary :—M From the steeple we viewed the fens of Lincolnshire, now much enclosed, and drained with infinite expense by many sluices, into mounds and ingenious mills, and the like inventions, at which the city and cowury about it, consisting of a very poor and lazy sort of people, were much displeased."
Draining in England was chiefly effected by works undertaken by the monks. In the reign of Elizabeth there was a new invention " to inne and drayne grounds."
August 30. Day breaks ..30
— sets ... 6 50 Twilight ends . 9 0 The agaricus integer forms, particularly the ris, which is found in large woods among fallen bark.
31st August, 1807, Cardinal York, the last lineal male descendant of the House of Stuart, died.
[For the Year Book.]
"If any thing," says Voltaire, " could justify those who believe in an unavoidable fatality, it would be the series of misfortunes which, for the space of three hundred years, have befallen the House of Stuart."
It is affirmed that when Fleance, the son of Banquo, fled into North Wales to shield himself from the power of Macbeth, the tyrant of Scotland, he found a friendly asylum at the court of Griffydth ap Llewellyn, the reigning prince, by whom he was long entertained with the warmest affection; and that becoming enamoured of Nest, the daughter of Griffydth, and violating the laws of hospitality and honor, he formed an illicit intimacy with her, and had by her a son whom they named Waller. Gryffydth, in resentment for so foul an offence, ordered Fleance to be slain, and reduced his daughter to servitude. As her son Walter advanced in years, he excelled in valor and elevation of mind. In a dispute with a companion his birth was reproachfully retorted on him; he slew his antagonist on the spot, and fearing to abide the consequences fled into Scotland, where he attached himself to the English, in the train of Queen Margaret, sister to Edgar Atheling. Walter by his conduct and ability acquired great esteem; he obtained honorable public employment, and was ultimately appointed High Steward of Scotland, from which office he and his descendants took the name of Stewart, or Stuart. From this root sprung the royal family of Stuart, as well as other
branches of illustrious families in Scotland.'
Sir Walter Scott, however, alleges that "Early authorities show us no such persons as Banquo and his son Fleance, nor have we reason to think that the latter ever fled further from Macbeth than across the flat scene according to the stage direction— neither were Banquo or his son ancestors to the house of Stuart."t In addition to this, there is a statement of more importance by Sir Walter—"The genealogy of the Stewart family, who acceded to the throne of Scotland, has been the theme of many a fable. But their pedigree has by late antiquarians been distinctly traced to the great Anglo-Norman family of FitzAlan in England: no unworthy descent for a race of monarchs. In David the first's time, Walter Fitz-Alan held the high post of Senechal or high steward of the king's household; and, the dignity becoming hereditary in the family, what was originally a title became a surname." J
That the Stuarts themselves believed in their being descended from Banquo, and that one of our Universities also gave credence to it, is a recorded fact—for when James I. (of England) visited the University of Oxford, on passing the gate of St. John's College, his Majesty was saluted by three youths representing the weird sisters (Sibylla?) who in Latin hexameters bade the descendant of Banquo hail, as king of Scotland, England, and Ireland. "Ad Itegis introitum, e Joanensi Collegio extra portam urbis Borealem sito, tres quasi Sibylle, ut e sylva salutarunt.
"1st. Fatidicas oliin fama est cecinisse torores
Imperium sine fine tuae, rex inclyte, stirpis.
Banquoncm agnovit gencrosa Loqua
bna Thanum , Ncc tibi, Banquo, sed tuis scepua,
nepotibus ills Immortalibus immortalia vaticinate; In saltum, ut lateas, dum, Banquv,
recedis ab aula. Tres eadem paritcr canimus tibi f,.ia
Dum, spectande tuis c saltu accedis ad urbem,
Teque aalutamus: S.jivc, cui Scotia servit.
• Warrington's History of Wales, b. 4.— Holingshcad'ft Chron.
* Lardner's Ency.—Hist. Scotland, vol. 1, p. 18.
t Ibid—p. 219.