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for the "chccquers" placed at the doors of public houses, which might have originally been intended to advertise the people that their favorite amusement could be enjoyed within. Brand, however, is of a different opinion; "the checquers,'' saith he, " were originally intended, I should suppose, for a kind of draught-board, called tablet, and showed that there that game might be played. From their color, which was red, and the similarity to a lattice, it was corruptly called the red lettuce, which word is frequently used by ancient writers to signify an ale-house."
These necessarily hasty and imperfect observations may conclude with honest Caxton's " Description of the Pieces and Pawns," as it stands with its modernised autography, in the Rev. T. Frogual Dibdin's "Typographical Antiquities." "Description of the Pieces.
"The King must be thus made: for he must set in a chair clothed in purple, crowned on his head; in his right hand a sceptre, in his left hand an apple of gold/
"Thus ought The Queen to be made: she ought to be a fair lady, sitting in a chair, and crowned with a crown on her head, and clad with a cloth of gold, and a mantle above furred with ermine; and she should sit on the left side of the King, for the amplections and ombracings of her husband."
"the Alphyns [or Bishops] ought to be made and formed in manner of judges sitting in a chair, with a book open before their eyes; and that is because that some causes be criminal, and some civil."
"the Knight ought to be made all armed upon an horse, in such wise that he have an helm on his head, and a spear in his right hand, and covered with his shield,a sword and a mace in his left side; clad with an hawberk, and plates before his breast, leg-harness on his legs, spurs on his heels, on his hands his gauntlet, his horse well broken and taught, and apt to battle, and covered with arms."
"The Rooks, which be vicars andl egates to the King, ought to be made like a knight upon a horse, and a mantel and hood furred with mencuyer, holding a staff in his hand."
"Description of Pawns.
"The first Paton that is in the pla; of 'he chess, lignifieth a man of the Common People, for they be all called piesons; that is as much as to say, footmen. And then we will begin at the pawn which standeth
before the rook on the right side of the King, for as much as this pawn appertaineth to serve the vicar or lieutenant of the king, and other officers under him, of necessaries of victual. And this manner of people is figured and ought to be made in the form and shape of a man, holding in his right hand a spade or shovel, and a rod in the left hand. The spade or shovel is to delve and labour therewith the earth, and the rod is to drive and conduct withal the beasts unto her pasture. Also,- he ought to have on his girdle a crooked hatchet for to cut off the superfluities of the vinei and trees."
"The second Pawn, that standeth before the knight on the right side of the King, hath the form and figure of a man as a Smith, and that is reason; for it appertained to the knight to have bridles, saddles, spurs, and many other things made by the hands of smiths; and [he] ought to hold a hammer in his right hand, and in his left hand a dolabre ; and he ought to have on his girdle a trowel."
"The third Pawn, which is set before the Alphyn on the right side, ought to be figured as a clerk, and it is reason that he should be so (here the reasons, not very interesting ones, are specified); and this pawn ought to be made and figured in this manner: he must be made like a man that holdeth in his right hand a pair of shears, or force'.is (forceps), and in the left a great knife, and on his girdle a penner and inkhorn,and on his ear a pen to write with."
"The fourth Pawn is set before the King, and is formed in the form of a I man holding in his right hand a balance, and the weight in the left hand, and before him a table, and at his girdle a purse full of money, ready for to give to them that require it; and by this people be signified the merchants of cloth, linen, woollen, and of all other merchandizes."
"The fifth Pawn, that is set before the Queen signifieth the physician, spicer, and apothecary, and is formed in the figure of a man; and he is set in the chair as a a master, and holdeth in his right hand a book; and an ample, or a box with ointment in his left hand; and at his girdle his instruments of iron and of silver, for to make incisions, and to search wounds and hurts, and to cut apostumes."
"The sixth Pawn, which standeth before the Alphyn on the left side, is made in this form; for it is a man that hath the right hand stretched out as to call men, and holdeth in his left hand a loaf of bread
and a cup of wine; and on his girdle prince playing at chess, with an alfagui or
hanging a bundle of keys; and thus re- priest. Juror begged hard for two hours'
sembleth the taveruers, hustlers, and sellers respite, which was denied him ; at last,
of victual." with great reluctance, the officer permitted
The seventh Pawn. "The guards and him to finish the game, but before it was
keepers of cities be signified by the seventh finished a messenger arrived with the news
Pawn, which standeth on the left side of the death of Alehemed, and the unani
before the knight, and is formed in the mous election of Juzof to the crown
semblance of a man holding in his right We have a curious anecdote of Kerrand,
hand great keys, and in his left a pot and Count of Flanders, who having been
an ell for to measure with, and ought to accustomed to amuse himself at chess with
The eighth Pawn. "The ribalds, her, a mutual hatred took place; which
players at dice, and the messengers and came to such a height, that, when the count
Couriers ought to be set before the rook, was taken prisoner at the battle of Borrnes,
for it appertaineth to the rook, which is she suffered him to remain a long time in
the vicar of the King, to have men con- prison, though she could easily have pro
venable (convenient) for to run here and cured his release.
there to enquire and espy the places and The chess-board of Tamerlane was a
cities that might be contrary to the king, parallelogram, having eleven squares one
And this Pawn that represented this way and twelve the other,
people ought to be formed in this manner: Subjoined is »n "Explanation of the
he must have the form of a man that hath position, powers, and names of the pieces on
long heeris (hairs), and black, and hnldeth the Chinese Chess-bourd, or, Chiitg AV,
in his right hand a little money, and in (Royal Game.)
his left hand three dice, and about him a "As there are nine pieces, instead of
a cord instead of a girdle, and ought to eight, to occupy the rear rank, they stand
have a box full of letters." on the lines between and not within the
The following are a few additional squares. The game is consequently
anecdotes and remarks :— played on the lines.
Dr. Robertson relates in his History of "The King, or Chong, stands in the Charles V. that John Frederic, elector of middle line of the row. II is moves reSaxony, having been taken prisoner by semble those of our King, but are confined Charles, was condemned to death. The to the fortress marked out for him. decree was intimated to him while at "The two princes, or fou, stand on chess with Ernest of Brunswic, his fellow each side of him, and have equal power prisoner. But, a short pause, and making and limits.
some reflection on the irregularity and "The mandarins, or tchong, answer to
injustice of the emperor's proceedings, he our bishops, and have the same moves,
turned to his antagonist, whom he chal- except that they cannot cross the water,
lenged to finish the game. He played or white space in the middle of the board,
with his usual ingenuity and attention; to annoy the enemy, but stand on the
and, having beat Ernest, expressed all the defensive.
satisfaction which is commonly felt on "The Knights, or ratlier-horses, called
gaining such victories. He wasnot, how- math stand and move like ours in every
ever, put to death, but set at liberty after respect.
five years' confinement. 'The war-chariots, or tche, resemble
In the chronicle of the Moorish kings our rooks or castles, of Gianeda we find it related, that, in "The rocket-boys, or pao, are pieces 1396, Mehemed Balba seized upon the whose motions and powers are unknown crown, in prejudice of his elder brother, to us. They act with the direction of a and passed his life in one continual round rocket, and can take none of their adverof disasters. His wars with Castile were sary's men that have not a piece or pawn invariably unsuccessful; and his death intervening. To defend your men from was occasioned by a poisoned vest. Find- this attack it is necessary to open the line ing his case desperate, he despatched an between either to, take off the check on officer to the fort of Salabreno, to put his the King, or to save a man from being capbrother .luznf to death, lest that prince's tured by the pao. Their operation is, otheradlierents should form any obstacle to his wise, like that of a rook. Their stations son's succession. The alcavde found the are marked between the pieces and pawns.
have on his girdle a purse open."
"The five pawns, or ping, make up the number of the men equal to that of our board. Instead of taking sideways, like ours, they have the rook's motion, except that it is limited to one step, and is not retrograde. Another important point, in which the ping differs from ours, is that they continue in statu quo, after reaching their adversary's head quarters. The posts of the ping are marked in front."
I remain, &c.
I. F. R.
Walworth, March 1831.
[From the sune correspondent.]
Since my last I have gathered some farther particulars respecting chess, part of which I met with in a tour through the Gentleman's Magazine.
And first, with respect its origin, I find quoted from the " Opus Arithmeticum," of Dr. Wallis, that "One Sessa, an Indian, having first found out the game of chess and showed it to his prince Shehram, the king, who was highly pleased with it, bid him ask what he would for the reward of his invention; whereupon he asked that, for the first little square of the chess-board, he might have one grain of wheat given him; for the second two, and so on, doubling continually according to the number of squares in the chess-board which was sixty-four. And when the king, who intended to give a noble reward, was much displeased that he had asked so trifling a one, Sessa declared that he would be contented with this small one. So this reward he had fixed upon was ordered to be given him, but the king was quickly astonished, when he found that this would rise to so vast a quantity, that the whole earth itself could not furnish so much wheat."
Concerning chess-men it is stated that "The third piece of chess, which we call a bishop, the French fool, the Spaniards utferei, and the Italians atfiere tergeand, in the east was the figure of an elephant, whose name (fit) it bore. The fifth piece, which we call a rook, and the French torn, is called by the eastern people the rokh, and the Indians make it of the figure of a camel, mounted by a horseman with a bow and arrow in his hand. The name of rokh, which is common both to the Persians and Indians, signifies in the language of the last a sort of camel used in war, and placed upon the wings of their armies by way of light horse. The rapid
motion of this piece, which jumps from one end of the board to the other, agrees with this idea of it; it was at first the only piece that had motion."
According to Leland's "Collectanea" it appears, that " Fulco (Fitzwaren) primus, had syx sunnes, Fulco, William, Garine, Philip, John, and Alane; John, sun to king Henry, and Fulco fell at variance at chestes, and John brake Fulco hed with the chest borde; and then F'ulco gave him such a blow that had almost killed him." John seems never to have forgiven this blow, as he deprived Fulco of the tittle of VVitington, gave him the government of the Marches, and endeavoured to have him killed, or to get him into his power, but at last pardoned and employed him in Zealand, where he did noble feats.
Again—" There is a story of two persons of distinction, the one lived at Madrid, the other at Rome, who played a game of chess at that distance. They began when young, and though they both lived to a very old age, yet the game was not finished. One of them dying, appointed his executor to go on with the game. Their method was, each don kept a chess board, with the pieces ranged in exact order, in their respective closets at Madrid and Rome :having agreed who should move first, the don informs his play-fellow at Rome, by letter, that he has moved his king's pawn two moves, the courier speedily returns, and advises his antagonist that the minute after he had the honor to receive this, he likewise moved his king's pawn two paces, and so they went on."
In my former letter I ventured an opinion respecting the origin of chequers at the doors of public houses. In the Gents. Magazine, lxiii. 531, a correspondent states that " the earl of Arundel, in the reign of Phillip and Mary, had a grant to licence public houses, and part of the armorial bearings of that noble family was a chequered board, wherefore the publican, to show that he had a licence, put out that mark as part of his sign." In vol. lxiv. 737, another contributor writes, "I think it was the great earl of Warrenne, if not, some descendant or heir near him, not beyond the time of Rufus, had an exclusive power of granting licences to sell beer. That the agent might collect a tax more readily, the door posts were painted in chequers, the arms of Warren then, ana to this day."
Should either of these statements be correct, I deduce therefrom that my imputation of the origin of chequers to chess alone is not unfounded, and particularly as it is stated, in Dr. Rees's Enclyclc, pedia, that at one time the popularity of this game among the nobility was so great that "no fewer than 26 English families have emblazoned chess-boards and chess rooks in their arms."
I am, Sec.
J. F. R.
Walworth, April 13, 1831.
Phi Li Dor.
Andre Danican, a native of Drieux, near Paris, who had the sobriquet, or nickname, of Philidor, given him by the king of France, after an Italian musician of that name, was not more noted as the first chess-player than for his musical compositions. He published his "Analyse du Jeu des Echecs," in 12mo., Lond. 174S. He died on the 31st of August, 1795, at the age of sixty-nine. He enjoyed to the last a strong retentive memory, which long rendered him remarkable. He was a member of the Chess Club near thirty years. His meek qualifier caused him to be no 1ms esteemed as
a companion than he was admired forthat extraordinary skill in the difficult game of chess which pre-eminently distinguished him. Two months before his death, he played two games blindfold at the same time, against two excellent chess-players, and was declared the victor. What seemed most to have shaken his constitution, and to have hastened his decease, was the refusal of a passport to France to see his family, who lived there, before he paid the last debt of Nature. This was rendered more bitter on its being intimated that he was a suspected character, and had been denounced by a committee of French informers. From that moment his philosophy forsook him—his tears were incessant—and he sunk into the grave without a groan.'
Each hedge is cover'd thick with green; And , where the hedger late hath been, Young tender shoots begin to grow From out the mossy stumps below. But woodmen still on Spring intrude, And thin the shadow's solitude , With sharpened aies felling down
represent Scotland in parliament. Finding himself deprived of all his offices, and suspected by the ministry of George 1., he openly avowed those principles which it is supposed he secretly entertained in support of the Pretender and commanded an undisciplined and half armed multitude which was defeated by the king's troops. He effected his escape and joined the hope of his party at Rome; but quitting this service he went to Geneva, where he was arrested. Regaining his liberty, he retired to Paris, which he left, depressed by misfortune, for Aix-la-Chapelle, where he died in the arms of his affectionate daughter, Frances, who had been the faithful companion of his afflictions. The earl of Mar was twice married. His first lady was Margaret, daughter of Thomas Hay, earl of Kinnoul, by whom he had issue, John, who died an infant, and Thomas, Lord Erskine. His second countess was Frances, daughter of Evelyn Pierrepoint, duke of Kingston. She effected his escape in an ingenious manner, by dressing him in woman's clothes. George I. allotted this lady her jointure! as if her lord had been actually dead; and permitted his friends to purchase his estates, valued at £1678 per annum, for