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whales, seen sporting about the southernmost part of the Inlet that was visited, few other species of animals
best of er
“We have scarcely," says Parry, "ever visited a coast on which so little of animal life occurs. For days together only one or two seals, a single sea-horse, and now and then a flock of ducks were seen.”
He still clings to the accomplishment of the great object of a northwest passage. At page 184 of his official narrative, he says:
" I feel confident that the undertaking, if it be deemed advisable at any future time to pursue it, will one day or other be accomplished ; for — setting aside the accidents to which, from their very nature, such attempts must be liable, as well as other unfavorable circumstances which human foresight can never guard against, or human power control - I cannot but believe it to be an enterprise well within the reasonable limits of practicability. It may be tried often and fail, for several favorable and fortunate circumstances must be combined for its accomplishment; but I believe, nevertheless, that it will ultimately be accomplished.
"I am much mistaken, indeed," he adds, “if the northwest passage ever becomes the business of a single summer ; nay, I believe that nothing but a concurrence of very favorable circumstances is likely ever to make a single winter in the ice sufficient for its accomplishment. But there is no argument against the possibility of final success; for we know that a winter in the ice may be passed not only in safety, but in health and comfort.
Not one winter alone, but two and three have been passed with health and safety in these seas, under a wise and careful commander.
FRANKLIN'S SECOND EXPEDITION, 1825–26. UNDAUNTED by the hardships and sufferings he had encountered in his previous travels with a noble spirit of ardor and enthusiasm, Captain Franklin determined
to prosecute the chain of his former discoveries from the Coppermine river to the most western point of the Arctic regions. A sea expedition, under the command of Captain Beechey was at the same time sent round Cape Florn to Behring's Straits, to co-operate with Parry and Franklin, so as to furnish provisions to the former, and a conveyance home to the latter.
Captain Franklin's offer was therefore accepted by the government, and leaving Liverpool in February, 1825, he arrived at New York about the middle of March. The officers under his orders were his old and tried companions and fellow sufferers in the former journey - Dr. Richardson and Lieutenant Back, with Mr. E. N. Kendal, a mate in the navy, who
had been out in the Griper with Capt. Lyon, and Mr. T. Drummond, a naturalist. Four boats, specially prepared for the purposes of the expedition, were sent out by the Hudson's Bay Company's ship.
In July, 1825, the party arrived at Fort Chipewyan. It is unnecessary to go over the ground and follow them in their northern journey; suffice it to say, they reached Great Bear Lake in safety, and erected a winter dwelling on its western shore, to which the name of Fort Franklin was given. To Back and Mr. Dease, an officer in the Hudson's Bay Company's service, were intrusted the arrangements for their winter quarters.
From here a small party set out with Franklin down the Mackenzie to examine the state of the Polar Sea. On the 5th of September they got back to their companions, and prepared to pass the long winter of seven or eight months.
On the 28th of June, 1826, the season being suffciently advanced, and all their preparations completed, the whole party got away in four boats to descend the Mackenzie to the Polar Sea. Where the river branches off into several channels, the party separated on the 3d of July, Captain Franklin and Lieutenant Back, with two boats and fourteen men, having with them the faithful Esquimaux interpreter, Augustus, who had been with them on the former expedition, proceeded to
the westward, while Dr. Richardson and Mr. Kendal in the other two boats, having ten men under their command, set out in an easterly direction, to search the Coppermine River.
Franklin arrived at the mouth of the Mackenzie on the 7th of July, where he encountered a large tribe of fierce Esquimaux, who pillaged his boats, and it was only by great caution, prudence and forbearance, that the whole party were not massacred. After getting the boats afloat, and clear of these unpleasant visitors, Franklin pursued his survey, a most tedious and ditticult one, for more than a month; he was only able to reach a point in latitude 70° 24' N., longitude 149° 37' W., to which Back's name was given ; and here prudence obliged him to return, although, strangely enough, a boat from the Blossom was waiting
not 160 miles west of his position to meet with him. The extent of coast surveyed was 374 miles. The return journey to Fort Franklin was safely accomplished, and they arrived at their house on the 31st of September, when they found Richardson and Kendal had returned on the first of the month, having accomplished a voyage of about 500 miles, or 902 by the coast line, between the 4th of July and the 8th of August
. They had pushed forward beyond the strait named after their boats, the Dolphin and
In aseending the Coppermine, they had to abandon their boats and carry their provisions and baggage.
Ilaving passed another vinter at Fort Franklin, as soon as the season broke up the Canadians were dismissed, and the party returned to England.
The cold experienced in the last winter was intense, the thermometer standing at one time at 58° below zero,
row plenty of food, a weather-tight dwelling, and good health, they passed it cheerfully;
Dr. Richardson gave a course of lectures on practical geology, and Mr. Drummond furnished information on natiral history. During the winter, in a solitary hut on the Rocky mountains, he managed to collect 200 specimens If birds, animals, &c., and more than 1500 of plants.
When Captain Franklin left England to proceed on this expedition he bad to undergo a severe struggle between his feelings of affection and a sense of duty. His wife (he has been married twice) was then lying at the point of death, and indeed died the day after he lett England. But with heroic fortitude she urged his departure at the very day appointed, entreating him, as he valued her peace and his own glory, not to delay a moment on her account. His feelings, therefore, may be inferred, but not described, when he had to elevate on Garry Island a silk flag, which she had made and given him as a parting gift, with the instruction that he was only to hoist it on reaching the Polar Sea.
H. M. sLoop Blossom, 26, Captain F. W. Beechey, sailed from Spithead on the 19th of May, 1825, and her instructions directed her, after surveying some of the islands in the Pacific, to be in Behring's Straits by the summer or autumn of 1826, and contingently in that of 1827.
It is foreign to my purpose here to allude to those parts of her voyage anterior to her arrival in the Straits.
On the 28th of June the Blossom came to an anchor off the town of Petropolowski, where she fell in with the Russian ship of war Modeste, under the command of Baron Wrangel, so well known for his enterprise ir the hazardous expedition by sledges over the ice to the northward of Cape Shelatskoi, or Errinos.
Captain Beechey here found dispatches informing" him of the return of Parry's expedition. Being besek by currents and other difficulties, it was not till the 5th of July that the Blossom got clear of the harbor, and made the best of her way to Kotzebue Sound, reaching the appointed rendezvous at Chamiso Island on the 25th. After landing and burying a barrel of flour upon Puffin Rock, the most unfrequented spot about the island, tho Blossomi occupied the time in sturveying and examining
the neighboring coasts to the northeast. On the 30th
The ship returned to the rendezvous on the evening
On the first visit of one of these parties, they constructed a chart of the coast upon the sand, of which, however
, Captain Beechey at first took very little notice. They, however, renewed their labor, and performed their work upon the sandy beach in a very ingenious and intelligible manner. The coast line was first marked out with a stick, and the distances regulated by the day's journey. The hills and ranges of mountains were next shown by elevations of sand or stone, and the islands represented by heaps of pebbles, their proportions being duly attended to. As the work proceeded, some of the bystanders occasionally suggested alterations
, and Captain Beechey moved one of the Diomede Islands, which was misplaced. This was at first objected to by the hydrographer, but one of the party recollecting that the islands were seen in one from Cape Prince of Wales, confirmed its new position and made the mistake quite evident to the others, who were much surprised that Captain Beechey should have ary knowledge of the subject. When the mountains and islands were erected, the villages and fishing-stations were marked by a number of sticks placed upright, in imitation of those which are put up on the coast wherever these people fix their abode. In time, a complete hydrographical plan
was drawn from Cape Derby to Cape This ingenuity and accuracy of description on the part of the Esquimaux is worthy of particular remark, and has been verified by almost all the Arctic explorers. Ward, under charge of Mr. Elson, reached to latitude The barge which had been dispatched to the east