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judging as the Doctor? who had wandered fifty years round London, seeking where he could enjoy the greatest possible comfort at the least possible expense ; and finally sitting himself down in Fullwood's Rents, he continued to economise solus in a two-pair-of-stairs back room, as dige nified, mysterious, intelligent a personage as ever graced Fullwood's Rents, or took a sixpenny plate at a second-rate eating-house." I prefer this place," quoth he, "for a residence, because, Sir, it contains almost every thing a man can require; here is a tailor, a shoe-maker, a butcher, a baker, a fishmonger, a milkman, a grocer, a cheesemonger, an eatinghouse, and a general summary in a chandler's shop ; in truth, Sir, I find it extremely convenient; I can just step out of a morning, and get my quarter of an ounce of tea for my breakfast-I always like tea fresh and fresh ; my penny roll from the baker's, and two ounces of butter at the cheesemonger's; I have my half pint of beer, read the newspaper, and smoke my pipe in the evening, in the parlor of The Harp. I like a pipe, Sir: always put a cherry-stone at the bottom of the pipe before you fill; it saves tobacco, and smokes mild." Thus spoke, here lived, and here died, this poor would-be economist, leaving behind him something less than Å HUNDRED THOUSAND POUNDS. But this, exclains the reader, is a sketch of character, and not a sketch of London. Well, then, without even taking a pecp, as plaintiff or defendant, at the Court of Requests in these Rents, better known by the appellation of The Coblers' Court of Chancery, and leaving the Doctor, The Harp, and Fullwood's Rents at once, I can only promise a Sketch of London repon another occasion.

cask, that it may all be of an equal temperature, and when rather below blood-warm, add the yeast. It will soon begin to ferment; and I have not found that it works more by this method than in coolers; it saves time, the expence of coolers, and the inconveniency of its laying about till the following day ; the beer is equally as good, with less sediment in the casks.

I have adopted another plan, which appears preferable. Tun the wort hot, as mentioned above; and instead of adding yeast, put into the cask about a quarter of a part of the spent hops, divided according to the sizes thereof while hot. I have found this method answer extremely well; the beer is stronger, will keep longer, and leaves no yeasty sediment at the bottom of the casks. The stronger the wort is, the longer it is before the fermentation takes place.* Ale brewed in January, did not begin to work till the warm weather in April ; some brewed in October, began in nine days, and table-beer has commenced the following day. By this method there is less waste, and the disagreeableness attending the sticky properties of yeast is avoided; and there is this advantage--the worț does not become beer until it has fermented, and therefore will not be stale so soon as that where yeast is used, and it retains the flavour of sweet wort and hops until the fermentation is completed. Previous to its commencement, the bungs should be put lightly into the casks, but closed tight if it should not begin in the course of about a fortnight, leaving the vent-pegs loose.

Those who do not wish to have any small-beer, by adding about half a pound of moist sugar to every gallon of wort, after it is strained. from the hops, either before or after it has been tunned, will find it nearly equal to the ale, and it will keep better through the summer. I have here to add my firm conviction, that beer turns sour during that period, in a great measure, from the want of attention in not tasting it soon

• This may be known by the hops rising to the surface, and working out.

OBSERVATIONS RELATIVE TO FERMENTING AND TUNNING BEER.

(From a Correspondent.) The practice of cooling and working the wort in coolers, I have found to be unnecessary. As soon as it is strained off from the hops, tun it, ccasionally stirring it about in the

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after it has done fermenting, anh occasionally afterwards; and when not sufficiently bitter, some of it should be taken out of the cask, and boiled with an additional quantity of hops, and re-placed therein wlien cld. Kent hops are the best for general purposes; and when they are not sufficiently strong, a small quantity of horehound and buckbane may be added, being both wholesome and not unpleasant. Not less than one poumd of hops to the bushel of malt for winter, and one pound and a quarter for summer, will be suffie cient, and those of a good quality. If the casks be kept sweet, by stopping them up tight when emptied, and the spring vent-pegs be used, there will be very little doubt of the beer keeping good. Many casks become musty, and a great quantity of beer spoiled, by the air

air being improperly admitted into them, and the cause is unjustly attributed to bad ingredients and the weather. A piece of strong paper or leather pasted over the bungs is beneficial.

N. B.-If fermentation should not begin so soon as required, part of the wort may be taken out of the casks warmed, and yeast added thereto, so as to make it work ;' and when it has fermented a few hours, put it hot into the cask.

An excellent wine may be made at the time of brewing, as per following receipt, called

English Madeira. Pour seven gallons of boiling water on twenty-four pounds of good moist sugar; and where nearly cold, to every gallon of that liquor add one quart of strong ale from the vat, while in a state of fermentation. It may be immediately tunned, or it may work in the tub till the head begins to fall. When in the cask, add thereto one pound of sugarcandy, bruised small; four pounds of good raisins, chopped ; fill up as it works out with some reserved for that purpose ; and when the fermen• tation is over, add one pint of French brandy, two ounces of bitter almonds chopped, a quarter of an ounce of

Serille orange peel, or a Seville orange, or a lemon; fine it with half an ounce of isinglass dissolved. While the fermentation is going on, cover the bung-hole with a tile, and when it is over, bung it down tight, and paste a piece of paper over the bung. It will be fit to drink in twelve months, or less, when it may be bottled. Twenty-four pounds of £. s. d.

moist sugar, at 7d. .... 0 14 me

0 Two gallons of ale, at

1s. 6d. .............. 0 3 0 One pound of candy .... 014 Four pounds of raisins, at

10d. ....... One pint' of brandy...... 0 3 6 Bitter almonds, orange

peel, isinglass, &c. .... 0 1 10 Produce, at least, nine

gallons .............. 1 7 0 B Beer measure, per gallon.. 0 3 0

Those who are not in the habit of brewing, may easily produce a sufficient quantity of ale, by steeping any given quantity of malt in a saucepan, &c., near the fire, about three hours; putting for every quart of malt about three pints of boiled water, stirring it up occasionally as it is put in; then strain it off through a sieve, and pro ceed as in brewing, by boiling it with hops, and fermenting twelve pounds of moist sugar, which will produce about one gallon of juice in addition to the water.

HOW TO KEEP OUT OF TGE GAZE ITE.

Before you take a louse and shop, consider well of all the circumstances, and do not rest entirely on your own judgment : the best persons to seek advice of are those who (haring vo motive for or against the undertaking) live in the neighbourhood; they are better able to judge of local wants, and the probability of your success. Bargain with a good working car. penter and other tradesmen to make the aletrations absoluely necessary. Pay ready-money for all materials. In laying in your goods, go to a respectable wholesale house, and hy no means propose any extension of

credit ; be punctual in your payments within the time stipulated; this will open the door of every warehouse to your approach, and place the very best goods in your line at your service, and you will soon have the choice of the market. Be as much behind your own counter as circumstances will perinit; be very particular who you engage as a shopman; pay him sufficiently; spend your evenings at home, and make all about you as confortable as possible. If you wish to serve a needy friend, rather lend him your money than your acceptance; in the one case you can only lose your money, but in the other you may not only lose your money, but your reputation also. If by any accident you are unable to satisfy a creditor's demand, do not absent yourself, but state to him the plain facts; in the worst event, he is but your creditor ; but by avoiding or deceiving him, he becomes your enemy. Strictly adhering to these rules, with industry and perseverance, you will, in all human probability, keep out of The Gazette. ..

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vexation, degradation, and trouble, until the victim is driven to the Court of insolvent Debtors, or submits to a compromise with his creditors, and is scarcely able to hold his head up as he walks the king's highway. Hoping better things of our readers, we proceed to the agreeable task of submitting a Weekly Scale of Expenditure.

I s. d. Bread and flour ..........0 j Butter and cheese (3 lbs.

butter, 1 lb, cheese).... 0 3 4 Tea, coffee, and sugar .... 0 4 Meat (about 14 lbs.) or fish 0 7 0 Vegetables ............. 0 2 0 Grocery and pickles ...... 18 Coals, wood, and candles,

on an average, winter

and summer ..........0 3 Milk .................. 0 1 0 Soap, starch, and articles for

washing and cleaning ..0 l 6 Beer .................. 0 3 6 Clothes ...............! Rent and taxes ....... Schooling .............. Charing. .............. 0 1 0 Extra for alms, entertain

ments, medicine, &c. ..0 1 6

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ESTIMATE OF EXPENDITURE FOR A

PERSON HAVING AN INCOME OF 150l. A-YEAR, WITH A WIFE AND THREE CHILDREN.

The above income is sufficient abundantly to supply all real necessaries and comforts for the family contemplated ; and if all persons would regulate their expense by what their income really is, rather than by what the world may conclude it to be, or what they may wish the world to believe it to be, we should not so often see families possessing the means above named, dragging on a wearisome life of prin vation bordering upon poverty ; in nine cases out of ten it has been occasioned by a previous profligate, or at all events careless expenditure, a want of system, an absence of keep ing accounts, a habit of runving in debt: some or all of these usually are the precursors of distress, aggravated by the insolence of petty creditors, and inducing a continuance of the same degrading system of incurring debts to little shopkeepers: every . month and every year increases the

which will leave a saving of 121. 4s. per annum : this, from under thirtyfive years of age, will insure 4001. on the life of the man, and endow a child with near 201. on arriving at the age of 21; or the same insurance being effected, the surplus will secure an annuity to man and wife, and the survivor, after the age of fifty or sixty. We shall advert to the subject of Life Insurance and Endowments in á future Number.

TAXES AND LONGEVITY AT WORKSOP.

The town of Worksop, in Nottinghamshire, contains a population of between four and five thousand inhabitants, who annually pay from eighty to one hundred thousand pounds to the government for malt duty alone. In the parish of Worksop reside five persons of one family, closely related, whose united ages amount to four hundred and fifty years; one of this

patriarchal quintetto is the progenitor name and address at full, and shall of sixteen persons bearing his own be happy to receive any communicaname of George.

tion direct, or through The Economist.

ANNALS OF CRUELTY. A poor servant girl lately applied to the London Hospital (and is now an out-patient of that Institution), afflicted with an abscess in each knee,

occasioned by constantly scouring : floors upon her knees: her master and mistress were fully aware of the existence of this painful disease, which she had contracted in their employ, but compelled her to continue her labour until the expiration of the month's warning which she had been obliged to give; and her brutal mistress stood over her the last morning of her servitude, and whilst her unhappy victim was suffering the greatest agony, superintended the painfu labour, and seemed to exult in the power of exercising unfeeling severity.

To the Editor of The Economist..

SIR;Having been a constant subscriber to your useful publication from its commencement, I beg leave, through the medium thereof, to request, from any of your correspondents, a little information connected with wills.

Suppose, for instance, that A makes a will, and leaves B and C executors; they both act after the death of the testator; and, in a short time, B dies intestate, but leaves a son under age; his relatives alminister. Query -Could either this son, after attaining the age of 21, or the administrators of his late father, have power, or claim a right by law, to act with C in the concerns of the testator A?

Your insertion of the above query will much oblige, Sir, yours, &c.

J. S. W. October 25, 1824.

LATE FIRE IN FLEET-STREET.

It is supposed by the orthodor thinkers, that the immediate cause of the late fire in Fleet-street was the spontaneous combustion of Carlile's inflammatory publications.

To the Editor of The Economist.

SIR ;-As I observe your pages are ever open to expose fraud and imposition, give me leave to call your attention to the shameful prices charged for clothes, by what are called regular tailors, and to throw out a hint for the formation of a new company, which I am confident would answer well-a Clothes or Tailors' Company. Such a company, consisting of twenty or thirty persons (each subscribing fifty pounds, which would be quite sufficient capital to establish it), might purchase their cloth of the manufacturers at Leeds, and in the west of England, for ready money, and supply such persons who may be willing to pay ready money, at little more than half the prices ordinarily charged by credit-giving tailors. Should you be willing to insert this, I have little doubt a sufh. cient number of subscribers might soon be found, who would be equally willing, with myself, to take a fiftypound share. Your very obedient servant,

L. S. London, November 10, 1824.

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and quality to the article ; but the first time the stockings are washed, off goes the plating, and you have a broad meshed web-like fabric, which will scarce stand a second washing A London worthy, who is notorious for the sale of such goods, , a few years since prosecuted to conviction a poor youth who uttered a two-pound Bank of England note, knowing the same not to be genuine. Really it is scarcely a less inmoral act to defraud an unwary purchaser of his money, by passing off sophisticated goods. You shall find plated stockings at all the “cheap hosiery warehousesin Cheapside, Gracechurch-street, Leadenhall-street, and many other streets in London. Flannel, and other wollen goods, are frequently subjected to this operation.-Beware of Plated Hosiery.

FLOSCULOUS RELIEVO. This lady is at her tricks again. Can any woman of common sense be gulled by her specious pretensions? “ To ladies of taste and genius, an elegant art, by which the pupil is to earn three or four guineas a-week, &c., Chester-place.” We can only afford space to say, Beware of this she-cheat.

planting: also in drawing various sorts of trees and shrubs for garden plantations : finishing the autumn sowing of tree and shrub seeds, and of making layers, planting cuttings, suckers, &c.; likewise in removing plants in pots to shelter or warm situations for the winter.

All necessary transplanting may now be performed in the various sorts of hardy trees and shrubs, as occasion may require, both in all sorts of fruit trees, fruit-tree stocks, &c. for grafting and budding, and in all kinds of deciduous, forest, and ornamental trees and flowering shrubs; also in some of the hardier sorts of evergreens.

Likewise plant off rooted layers, if any still remain on the parent stools of the preceding autumn, last spring, or summer's laying, and place them in nursery rows; or also, of any very curious or more tender kinds, plant in pots, for removing to occasional shelter in the winter.

Take off suckers from the roots of all kinds of trees and shrubs in which they are produced ; such as lilacs, limes, roses, gooseberries, currants, raspberries, filberts, figs, codlins, and numerous other sorts; and if wanted for propagation, plant them in the nursery to acquire proper growth.

Move pots of hardy plants, both of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous sorts, to some warm dry situation; and if the pots are plunged in dry, raised ground, the roots will be more effectually protected from frost.

Pruning of trees and shrubs may now be performed as required, in all deciduous kinds, both in fruit, forest, and ornamental trees and shrubs, principally to cut out and reduce any very irregular, or rude rambling shoots, and other disorderly growths, either in the head or below ; likewise in hardy evergreens, you may occasionally prune any very irregular super advanced shoots of the head, and the low under stragglers.

Trim up the stems of deciduous, forest, and ornamental trees, by cutting away strong lateral shoots ; or shorten small ones to two or three inches.

In fruit trees cut out all advanced

SWORN BROKERS. I These are a set of gentlemen we want particularly, and we trust our readers will oblige not only us, but the public, with a few hints about their evil-doings. There is not in London, bakers always excepted, a more roguish set of fellows. We have a few facts about them on our file, but wait for a few more, be ore we show them up.

GARDENING, HORTICULTURE, &c.

In this month the nursery demands particular attention in the necessary works of planting, and propagating many sorts of trees and shrubs; in continuing the preparation of ground for these occasions, and forwarding the completion of the principalautumn

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