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THE MARKETS-Modern Markeus, No.
2. (pitalhelds) .................... 386 Economical Oil Lamp (with a Plale) .. ib. Trades, No, III.-Book-binding........ 587 November ........
388 Benefit Societies ...................... 590 Sketches of London, No. 1.-Aldgate .. 992 Flying Kites ........................ General Directions for November .... Estimate of Expenditure for a Person having an Income of 1951. a-year, with
a Wife and Three Children .......... 394 A Good Winter Dress for Children .... b. Eligible Situations for Business-Baker ib. The Bakers........................... ib.
Brend Company .......... .... ...
Teas, adulterated and otherwise .... ib. Reflections, Maxims, &c. .............. 398 GARDENING, FARMING, &c.-Direc.
tions for the Kitchen Garden ........ ib. COOKERY-Duck Pie-Oiblet Pie ..., USEFUL RECEIPTS-To dye Cottons
and Lineos Black-To give a Gloss to . fine Oak Wainscot .......
........ 400 DOMESTIC MEDICINE-A Cure for
Hooping Cough-A Good Bitter for
the Stomach ........................ Notice to Correspondents...........
Wirs an Incomendilure to
whole had been pulled down, and the materials presented to a score of school-boys, they would only have made a sufficient bonfire to celebrate the festivities of Friday, and burn to ashes the effigy of wicked Guy Fawkes.
THE MARKETS. Beer, mutton, veal; and pork, may all be quoted at a balfpenny a pound advance on inferior, and a penny in the pound on the best quality ; a fine sirloin of beef is worth retail 8d. the pound; the very best, if with a buttock, 7d. ; with an edge-bone, 6 d.: a fine leg of mutton, 7d. the pound; a fillet of veal, 9d.; pork, from 6d. to 9d.
POULTRY-the same as last week; but if the weather should become cold, an advance will undoubtedly be experienced the beginning of next week, until after the ninth, when the Ilondon consumption will decline, and a trifling re-action will probably take place.
Fish - A good supply of fish at market in the early part of the week cod, haddock, whitings, skate, soles, flounders, eels, and herrings : cod, 2s. 60. to 58. each ; haddocks, 25. to 8s. 6d. each; whitings, three a shilling; skate, 1s. the pound; soles, 6d. to 28. the pair ; flounders, 9d. a dozen ; eels, 6d. the pound, very fine ; herrings, 9d. the dozen.
VEGETABLES are on the advance, and may be expected to continue to sise; potatoes, 3s. to 6s. per cwt. to families, by the ton may be bought from 21. 153. to 51.; cauliflowers, 28. to 38. 6d. per dozen; turnips, 1s. 6d. to 23. 6d. per dozen; greens, 28. to 8s. 6d. per dozen; cabbages, 1s. 3d, to 2x. per dozen; pickling, 23. 6d. to 6s, per dozen ; onions, 1s. 6d. to 2s.6d. the peck.
BREAD, 9d. to 11d. the 4-lb. loaf.
ECONOMICAL OIL. LAMP.*
(Plate.) This lamp is a considerable inprovement on those bitherto generally in use; and, although it may be thought a greasy. trifling article, it is nevertheless of very great importa ance, as it tends to prevent waste, to save time, and to economize an article very generally used by me. chanics.
Procure a small bottle (one of those which are sold by perfumers, containing oil for ladies curls, &c. would do extremely well), fit a cork to it, get a quill or tube of any kind, burn a hole through the cork, and insert the tube, and let it be air-tight. When the cork with the tube therein is inserted in the bottle, let the tube just clear the bottom of the bottle, and let the upper end project say a quarter of an inch, above the cork. Put some oil in the bottle, say to an inch in height. Insert the cork, and the oil will be raised in the tube by the compression of the air in the bottle to three or four times the height of the oil in the bottle. Put your fore-finger on the tube, and with your thumb and middle finger lift out the cork and tube, keeping your fore finger on the tube until you convey it to where you wish it applied, when, by raising your fore finger, the pressure of the atmospheric air will force out a stream in proportion to the size of your tube. When enough is discharged for your purpose, you have only to press your fore finger on the tube. Should but a small quan tity be required, take out the cora without putting your finger on the tube, and when raised, place you finger on the tube. You may then carry it to any distance without its dropping, and by touching the parts
. This is taken from the Mechanic's Magazine,
MODERN MÄRKETS.---N0. X.
Spirulfields. This market is well supplied with fruit and vegetables, and particularly potatoes, the greater part of which coming to the London market, are the growth of Essex. The market occupies a space of about an acre, but the potatoe dealers chietly occupy the houses round the market; amongst the several potatoe-salesmen here, the
pal. As to the low tumbling-down wooden sheds wbich form the market
the centre of the quadrangle, if the
of any work you wish oiled, make use of it in very small quantities. Should you want still less, lift your cork as in the last instance, and in taking it out, hold the hottom of the tube against the inside of the neck of the bottle, and you will nearly extract the whole of the remainder drop by drop. If a stopper is kept in the top of the tube, though the bottle should be thrown down or even turned bottom upwards for a short time, the oil will not run out.
If, instead of inserting a tube of equal diameter in the cork, you insert a taper one, the lower hole being sufficiently large to admit a small pin, and the upper one to admit an ordinary sized pea ; by the same action, oils and other fluids will charge it ; and when the finger is removed from the top, oils will be discharged by drops only; but volatiles or æther, &c. will discharge more rapidly, unless held when taken from the bottle in a horizontal position, when they may be dropped to the greatest nicety. Volatiles will also require the small liole at the lower end of the tube to be smaller than for oils, and when not in use, a cork may be inserted in the upper end of the tube to prevent their escape. Mercury, from its density, will not act well; but if you fill, or partly fill, a taper tuhe with mercury, and close the big end, then, by jerking the tube, small globules will escape.
pointed out the use of a particular kind of glue for fastening the leaves of a book together-an invention which his countrymen thought of such importance as to entitle him to a statue The most ancient mode of binding consisted in gluing the different leaves together, and attaching them to cylinders of wood, round which they are rolled. This is called Egyptian binding, and continued to be practised long after the age of Augustus. It is now wholly disused, except in oriental countries, and in Jewish Synagogues, where they still continue to write books of the law on slips of velhim sewed together, so as to form only one long page, with a roller at each extremity, furnished with clasps of gold or silver. The square form of binding which is now universally practised, at least in Europe, is said to have been first invented by one of the kings of Pergamus, the same to whom we owe the invention of parchment." . Modern binding is of two kinds : the one particularly adapted to printed books where leather forms the general coverivg, and the other more immediately applied to accountbooks, where parchment or vellum is made use of as the outside covering.
In this business the first operation is to fold the sheets according to the proper form, that is, folios into two leaves, quartos into four, octavos into eight, and so on; this is usually the work of females, who perform it with a slip of ivory or box-wood, called a folding-stick : in this they are di : rected by the catch-words and sige natures, which are the letters with the numbers annexed to them, at the bottom of the pages of the first one or more leaves in each sheet. .
The leaves thus folded and laid over each other in the order of the signatures, are beaten on a stone with a heavy hammer, to make them solid and smooth, and then they are pressed. Thus prepared, they are sewed in a sewing-press, upon packthreads or cords, which are called bands, at a proper distance from each other; which is done by drawing a thread through the middle of each sheet, and giving a turn round each band, bem
(Book-binding.) Book-binding is the art of sewing together the sheets of a book, and securing them with a back and sideboards. Binding is distinguished from stitching, which is merely sewing leaves, without bands or backs; and from half-binding, which consists in securing the back only with leather, the pasteboard sides being covered with blue or marbled paper; whereas, in binding, both back and sides are covered with leather.
At what time the art of bookbinding was first invented it is impose sible to ascertain ; but Phillatius, a learned Athenian, was the first who
ginning with the first, and proceed- and the back; on the exact performing to the last. The common num- ance of which depends the neatness of ber of bands is six in folios, and five the book. The back is now to be in quarto and octavos. In neat bind warmed by the fire to soften the ing a saw is made use of, to make glue, and the leather of the back is places for the bands, which are sunk rubbed down with a folding-stick or into the paper, so that the back of bodki, to fix it close to the back of the book, when Lound, may be the book. After this, it is washed smooth, without any appearance of over with a little paste and water ; bands. After this the backs are two blank leaves on tach side are glued, the ends of the bands being then to be pasted down to the cover, opened with a knife, for the more and when dry, the leaves are burconvenient fixing of the pasteboard; rished in the press, and the cover then the back is turned with a rolled on the edges. The cover is hammer, the look being fixed in a now glazed with the white of an egg, press between boards, called backing and then polished with a polishing boards, in order to make a groove for iron. If the book is to be lettered, a admitting the pasteboards. The piece or pieces of red morocco are boards being then applied, holes are pasted between the bands, to receive made for drawing the bands through, the title, &c. in gold letters. ! the superfluous ends being cut off, The letters or other ornaments are and the parts hammered smooth. The made with gilding tools, engraved in hook is then pressed, in order for cut relievo, either on the points of punting, which is performed by a ma cheons, or a round little cylinder of chine called a plough. After this the brass. . The punches make their book is put into a press, called the impressions by being pressed flat cutting press, betwixt two boards, down, and the cylinders by being the one lying even with the press, for rolled along by a handle, to which the knife to run upon, the other above, they are fitted on an iron stay, or for the knife to cut against..
. . . . The book being cut, the pasteboards To apply the gold, the binders are squared with a proper pair of glaze the parts of the leather with a iron shears, and it is then ready for liquor made of the white of eggs, die sprinkling, gilding, blacking, or, luted with water, by means of a bit marbling the leaves. If the leaves of sponge ; and wheii nearly dry, they are to be gilt, the book is put be- slightly oil them, and then lay on tween two boards into a press, and pieces of gold leaf; and on these they when the leaves are rendered very apply the tools, having first warmed smooth, they are rubbed over with them in a charcoal fire. When the size-water, the gold leaf is then laid gilding is finished, they rub off the on, dried by a fire, and burnished off. superfluous gold, and polish the • The head-band is now to be whole. added, which is an ornament of thread
(To be continued.) or silk, placed at the extremities of the book across the leaves, and woven
NOVEMBER. or twisted about a roll of paper.
Dreary, chilly, wet November, the The book is now fit for covering: month of fogs, of rain, and of gloom; calf-skin is the most usual cover; this but November hath its charms. 10 is moistened in water, and cut to the hath charms to the school-boy size of the book ; the edges are then couning over the story of“ Gunpowder pared off on a marble stone. The Treason and Plot;" how the wicked cover is next smeared over with Guy Fawkes, at this time of the year, paste, then stretched over the paste- in 1905, did, at the instigation of the board on the outside, and cloubled Pope, coutrive and attempt to exeover the edges within-side. The cute the most horril»le tragedy ever book-binder then fixes it firmly be. conceived by mortal man-no less tween two boards to make the cover than to blow into the air the Parliga stick the stronger to the pasteboards ment-house, with the King, the Lord
and the Commons, and thus, at one wearied discharge of his duties, and fell blow, destroy the three estates of prayers that his valuable life may this thrice happy kingdom; how he be continued, as well for the sake of placed barrels of gunpowder in the his family as society at large-to the cellars below; how lord Monteagle lovers of good eating, who have tickets received a letter, which he did not un for the feast-to the young gentlemen, derstand ; how that same lord took and to the young ladies, from sixteen council thereon; how the royal sa to sixty, who love dancing-to the gacity of James smelled out the plot, worthy deputies who aspire to be and how caution completed what aldermen-to the common-councilsagacity began ; bow Guy was found men--to the yet plain citizen-to the in the cellar on the eve of the fifth of aspiring apprentice, cach in their own November, with the implements of person assuming a portion of the destruction in his possession, to wit, bouours of the day, and reveling in a tinder-box, matches, and a dark the pleasing prospect of becoming, on Janthom; how the said Guy, with some future occasion, the chief object his wicked associates, were brought of the pageant-to the judges and to condigni punishment; and how serjeants learned in the law, who, on from that time all loyal people do on the 6th (the first day of Term) breakthis day annually rejoice and evince fast with the Lord Chancellor-to the their detestation of this Jesuitical ma barristers, who, ranged in lines in Ruchination, by allowing the juvenile fus' Hall, have the honour of receiving branches of their family to light bon the salutation of his lordship and the fires, let off crackers, and burn old judges, as they pass to their respective Guy. It hath charms to the city courts - to him whose bag is full of folks of all ages, sizes, rauks, and briefs, and to him who, during the conditions to the little miss and vacation, has travelled the circuit, fol. master, with many an anxious inquiry lowing the law without once overaddressed to “ Papa, when will lord taking it to the attorney, with Im. inayor's day be? When shall I see the pey's Practice at his fingers' ends, full gold coach, and the men in armour, of promise to the expectant clientand the flags, and the trumpets, and to all concerned in the mazy intricathe music?”-to the LORD MAYOR, cies of the glorious uncertain profesand LADY MAYORESS ELÉCT, and to sion :- to all these November hath its all the members of the family, from charms. It hath charms to the conthe nearest in consanguinity, to the templative moralist : as the heaps of humble cousin twenty times removed, leaves lie on the ground, they afford
the clerks, the porters, the domestic protection to the tender flower to * servants, from my lady's own maid blossom in early spring. The falling to the stable-boy, who feel themselves of the leaves induce serious and useful a degree ennobled, and begin to · reflections; it pourtrays the natural practise, “Yes, my lady"_" coming, decay of man in common with all my lord”- your ladyship looks hea. created beings, and lifts our minds venly"-" would your lordship wish with reverential awe and joyous hope that chest of tea to be sent to Scrub to Him who changeth barrermess to bins' to-day?"-to all who do court verdure, and hath vouchsafed his and service on the memorable ninth - gracious promise, that, althongh the to the in-coming lord, in anti: ipat seasons may vary, and the distinctions ing the good he may achieve during of summer and winter cease to exist, his mayoralty, and to the out-gcirg yet there shall always be “ seed-time lord in the pleasing reflection that, 8 and harvest:" with this promise befort ? the last year of his life has been the us, let us cast away gloom. Every most honourable, so it has also been mozath teems with joys and bles the most useful; that in retiring from sings to the contented and virtuous office, and yielding the external mind. badges of honour, he is accompanied with the thanks and prayers of his : fellow-citizens; thanks for the un