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will make every task more light for where they are driven into clusters, them.

by forcing the heads of the poor

animals close together in the centre, CRUELTIES OF SMITHFIELD MARKET.

their bodies diverging into a circle :

the constant passing of carts, &c. To the Editor of The Economist.

perpetually break these circles, SIR;-Observing, with great plea which are as constantly restored sure, your humane endeavours, in by the application of the goads, your 9th Number, to prevent the which are used on this, as on almost unfeeling practice of plucking the every occasion, with wantonness and feathers from live fowls, which brutal severity. Drovers and boys may be custom ought to be discouraged by seen continually passing carelessly every possible means, allow me, by in from one group to another, pricking, serting this in your useful publication, and driving their goads into the most to call the attention of your nume sensitive parts of the animals, even rous readers to the cruelties of while they are standing perfectly quiet, Smithfield market, which certainly and in their proper places; if the pain exceed those practised in Leadenhall. cause them to start, they turn their

Now, let any friend of humanity sticks, and inflict severe blows on their visit Smithfield on a Monday (the feet and shins with the stout end. Pre. market-day), between the hours of vious to the animals' being worn down 9 and 2 o'clock, taking his station at with pain, and exhausted with fasome window commanding a view tigue, hunger, and thirst, they spring of the market, and scenes of more forward upon the application of these atrocious cruelty cannot be imagined goads, and bellow from the violent than will here be exhibited, which blows intlicted on their horns. But dur. fully prove the necessity of more ing the last two or three hours of the effective. measures to restrain the market, they patiently suffer every propensity to cruelty than have hi species of persecution, except the therto been adopted; but, to prevent forcing them out of the circles when the painful sensations such a visit sold, which is effected by striking must produce, I will endeavour to them with great force on the head describe the scene chietly from my and borns; at first they toss their own observations, the barbarities of heads, then force themselves closer which appear to me to involve every into the circles, putting their heads individual acquainted with them in near the ground: the battering now disgrace who does not use his utmost ceases, and the goad is applied, efforts towards their removal: those which is forced into their face, who possess no powver themselves, eyes, &c. until the poor beasts may endeavour to stimulate others to leave the cluster, sometimes forcing its exertion, and this is the extent of their heads under carriages for promy abilities.

tection; and some, after proceeding On Sunday Evening, about 9 a short distance, rush between the o'clock, 35,000 sheep and lambs are ranks of the oxen that are fastened. driven into the pens, several of which to the railway ; then the goading and I have seen drop down quite exhausted battering is again resorted to with with fatigue and suffering, and ap- greater violence, until the object be parently insensible to the most accomplished. The practice of markviolent blows and goadings of their ing the cattlc, to distinguish the purinhuman tormentors; they then call cliased from the unsold, is done by to their assistance their savage dogs, cutting off the hair at the end of the who literally tear the flesh from tail, which, as the cutters dispose of their quiet victims: this might be it, they are sure to cut pretty close, entirely avoided, by the drover Jifte frequently taking off even part of the ing them into the pens. About 12 tail, which may be observed dripping o'clock the horned cattle are brought with blood, while the poor animal in, the greatest number of which lashes it about, ' apparently in the are left loose in the carriage-road, greatest agony.

But the most exquisite suffering is endured by those victims which have not the good fortune to be disposed of the first day, and led to a speedy termination of their existence. After standing a whole day on the hard pavement, bruised in every part, particularly their legs (which frequently exhibit, after they are killed, one coagulated mass of bruised flesh and blood), and nearly famishing, they are destined to prolong their miserable existence until another market-day.

The limits I have prescribed will not allow of more observations; but as no propensity is so hostile to the well-being of society as cruelty, I would strongly urge the necessity of parents endeavouring to inculcate in the minds of their children a degree of kindness for the brute creation: the principles of humanity, indeed,

qught to form a prominent feature · in the various systems of national

education ; and Sunday School teachers, it is hoped, will consider the inculeation of such principles an indis pensable duty.

The men to whose care the cattle are entrusted have each a badge on their arm numbered, in order that, if guilty of acts of wanton cruelty, any person may have the power of applying to a magistrate, whose authority cannot be more beneficially exercised than in taking effective measures for the suppression of this most odious propensity.

Your's, &c.
July 22, 1824.

their cheeks, industry in their arms, and money in their pockets; yet, before one short year had passed, were nothing but rags and disease! What can cause this? Where is the attraction? It is a false glow-a momentary flash upon the darkness of the poor man's fife that flies but to leave him still more gloomy. Hecomes home-he quarrels with his wife-he retires (where?) to ruminate: he becomes gloomy, and the gin-shop is his resource. Perhaps his wife (as well inclined as he may be to go there) begins this quarrel in order to drive him out, and then indulge herself with the usual beverage- a glass of gin, and lightens the pleasure of it by abusing the father of her children to her circle of tipplers, with whom she spends his earnings. The poor outcast visits the gin-shop even with the last penny, which ought to provide a mouthful of bread for his famishing frame. But this deceptive draught banishes, for a few moments, reflection, and palls the powers of the stomach. So he is happy!

Let the artizan avoid the door of the gin-shop as the gate of perdition; and, instead of expending his hard-earned income thus, let him increase bis comforts at home: even if he must have gin, let him not go to the shop to drink it, but with his family sit down and be happy. But, why dririk giu? Is not a draught of good porter, or home-brewed ale inore wholesome, more enlivening, and more economical? Leave off the gin-shop, and money, happiness, and health will increase with you. Visit it, and disease, poverty, and misery await you!


(Illustrated by the Frontispiece.)

Here is the footstep of the drunkard marked. The hand of poverty and wretchedness has rubbed off the paint from the door. Here comes the half-famished artizan, the worn and emaciated wife, the prostitute, and the putcast. What is it that thus attracts ? Is it pleasure? Is it gain? Is it lise or benefit? No; but the very worst depravity of man's nature! Many have passed its threshold, for the first time, with health on


To the Editor of The Economist.

SIR ;-In the 13th Number of your valuable publication, under the head of Smithfield, you have taken an onportunity of giving a side hit to Sir William Walworth ; although I am not prepared to call the man who slew a rebel an assassin, yet there are secrets in history; and perhaps, if the matter be investigated, this ex

ploit of London's mayor may not be found wholly made up of patriotism: it appears by Stowe's Survey, that Walworth was the landlord of the Stews on the Bankside, which he farmed out to the Dutch vrows, and which Wat had pulled down ; it may be inferred, that private feeling first knocked down the saucy ribald, and then thrust him through and through with his dagger, and that there was as much of personal vengeance as patriotism, which raised his arm to erish the demolisher of so much valuable property !

I remain, Sir,
:. Your obedient servant,


of any person who was present when the money was lost to lay an indict. ment. The acts are 9 Anne, c. 14, and 25 George II, c. 36.

We are not advocates for the praco tice of applying to the law to recover money lost which was risked voluntarily, but there are too many cases where young men are deprived of their property, or the property entrusted to their care, by the deceptions and allurements of the gaminghouses ; to these, and their friends, we address our present remarks, and recommend them to profit by them. The only way to put down gamblingholises, is by exerting the law against them; and we sincerely wish we could see the inhabitants of each street, where they exist, united for the purposes of visiting them with the penalties of the law.

In proceeding against these gamblers, the most strict watch should be kept over the plaintiff's ate torney employed against them, in order that, by delays and deception, he may not manage to lose the cause. Money becomes no object to them in such an undertaking, and they would willingly part with ten times the sum sued for, than that the suer should succeed in his object. Many actions are commenced against them, but we seldom hear of them, because they are not brought into court, bribery in uine cases out of ten being the cause.

[graphic][merged small]


(Continued from p. 173). TO RECOVER SUMS LOST AT GAMING.

We have little more to say upon the voice of day-light gaming, and Rouge et Noir houses, than what we have stated in our 10th and 11th Nume bers; but as we have promised to lay down the means of recovering sums lost at unlawful gaming, we shall make a few observations upon the sube ject. There are two methods of recovering money lost at play: one is by an action for sums had and received, and the other by indictment. In the first way it will be necessary, as in all cases of debt, to have a wito ness to prove the loss; but, in the latter process, the plaintiff's own oath is sufficient. If an action be not brought within three months after the money is lost, an action for debt cannot be proceeded upon; it must be by indictment, and at the end of that period, it is in the power

To the Editor of The Economist.

SIR; Two respectable fernales went to the shop of Mr. Am , in Cranbourn-alley, a short time since, to purchase some bonnets; they were shown a good article at a certain price, and pressed much to buy, and allow them to be sent home; but from some cause they did not pur. chase. A few days after, one of the same party went with the full intention o purchasing two bonnets ; she was shov'ni some at the same price as the others, but of an inferior quality; on remonstrating at the difference, they brought her the same articles as at first, with only the moderate additions of eight shillings on each bomet tu the public let these gentlemen enjoy all these boasted advantages themselves: it will be fair, liberal, and just!

the price originally asked! All remove stranice was in vain; they would not sell the article at the first price fixed. The master of the shop sluk out of the way, being quite ashamell of his untradesman-like conduct. The fact is, if the purchase had been made and paid for, they would have sent home an inferior article, which I really believe is a very common practice in those pulling-in shops, as I term them, for you really can hardly pass in many parts of the town without being absolutely dragged into shops, and forced to look at articles quite against your inclination.

I am, Sir, yours, &c.

SPANISH SNUFF. · Cheap tobacco-powder, savine, yellow saud, okl rotten wood, and almost any vegetable substance, both dry and greeil, mixed into a body, and coloured with red ochre, amber, or oiher noxious red or brown colour, moistened with water and inolasses. The whole is passed through a hair sieve, to mix it more intimately, then placed in a heap for some time, to sudorify or sweat, as the suuffmen have it, which makes it all over equally moist, and imitates the oiliness which the real Havannah possesses. It is then placed in canisters or jars, and an ill-printed label in Spanish pasted outside. This is the genuine Nacouba sold in London; aye, and exported in large quantities to the East Indies too!

To the Editor of The Economist.

Sir ;-Of all the plated things with which the unwary are deceived, there is none more extraordinary than that which forms the title of my letter. A short time ago my attention was attracted to some beautiful small white poodle dogs in a cage at Charing-Cross, and after some chafering betwixt the seller and myself, I became the purchaser of one for twelve shillings; in a few days, I observed symptoms of uneasiness in the aniinal, when all of a sudden I saw a brown nose just under the white one, and with a little assistance, out walked as dingy, ill-looking a cur as ever breathed : the poodle's skin had been curiously fastened on the animals body, and I was bit.

• T. Rogers. Grays Inn Lane.


DEVIL. We are, as minor periodicals, ambitious of being noticed by our greater brethren. The llorning Chronicle often does us that honour; but sometimes--for instance, in the extract of the Confessions of a Bricklayer'," insertel last Wednesday, the printer's devil has omitted to mention where the article came from. This is like recognizing an humble acquaintance, by first looking at him, and then noclding at the wall. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. NO. III

(Literary.) Who invented Mrs. Veal's Vision? - Daniel Defoe !

Who composed Thomas Little's poeins? - Little Thomas Moore!

Who made Mavor's Spelling-book? - Benjamin Tabart! "

Who compiled Mawes' Gardener ? --John Abercrombie.

Who wrote Barry Cornwall s poems? - Proctor the At Lorney!

Wlio was the author of Junius! Our coris noments may answer the

LOTTERY This is the last, but not the least gull. Every ticket is to be a prize of (what think you?) five pounds, and tickets will probably be sold at nineteen pounds each. If all is fair in the drawing of the lottery (and we do not mean to assert the contrary), according to the doctrine of chances, the ticket can only be worth ten pounds, inclusive of the certainty of the return of five. The contractors expatiate much on the advantage which the lottery possesses. Suppose

REFLECTIONS, MAXIMS, &c. ference of opinion; the world said I

was mad, and I said the world was Continued from p. 221.) i

mad; I was outvoted, and here I am." 25. There is but one pursuit in 30. The ignorant have often given life which it is in the power of all to credit to the wise for powers that follow, and of all to attain. It is are permitted to none, merely because subject to no disappointments, since the wise have made a proper use of he that perseveres, makes every dif those puwers that are permitted to all. ficulty an advancement, and every The little Arabian tale of the dervise contest a victory; and this is the may be the comment of this proposipursuit of Virtue. Sincerely to as tion. A dervise was journeying alone pire after Virtue, is to gain her, and in the desert, when two merchants zealously to labour after her wages, suddenly met him. “ You have lost is to receive them. Those that seek a camel,” said he to the merchants. her early, will find her before it is “Indeed we have," they replied. late; her reward also is with her, “Was he not blind in his right eye, and she will come quickly. For the and laine in his left leg ?” said the breast of a good man is a little heaven dervise. “He was,” replied the mere commencing on earth; where the chants. “Had he not lost a front Deity sits enthroned with unrivalled tooth?” said the dervise. “ He had," influence, every subjugated passion, rejoined the merchants. “And was “ like the wind and storm, fulfilling he not loaded with honey on one side, his word.”

and wheat on the other?” “ Most 26. The excesses of our youth certainly he was,” they replied ; " and are drafts upon our old age, payable as you have seen him so lately, and with interest, about thirty years aftermarked him so particularly, you can, date.

in all probability, conduct us unto 27. Hope is a prodigal young him." "My friends," said the derheir, and Experience is his banker; vise, “ I have never seen your camel, buit his drafts are seldon honoured, nor ever heard of him, but from you." since there is often a heavy balance "A pretty story, truly,” said the against him, because he draw's merchants; " but where are the largely on a small capital, is not yet jewels which formed a part of his in possession, and if he were, would cargo?” “I have neither seen your die.

camel nor your jewels,” repeated 28. Men are born with two eyes, the dervise. On this they seized his but with one tongue, in order that person, and forth with hurried him they should see twice as much as before the cadi, where, on the strictest they say; but, from their conduct, one search, nothing could be found upon would suppose that they were born him, nor could any evidence whatever with two tongues, and one eye; for be adduced to convict him, either of those talk the most who have ob- falsehood or of theft. They were served the least, and obtrude their then about to proceed against him as remarks upon every thing, who have a sorcerer, when the dervise, with seen into nothing.

great calmness, thus addressed the 29. It proceeds rather from re- court: “ I have been much amused venge than malice, when we hear a with your surprise, and own that man affirm, that all the world are there has been some ground for knaves. For, before a man draws your suspicions; but I have lived this conclusion of the world, the long, and alone; and I can find ample world has usually anticipated him, scope for observation, even in a deand concluded all this of him who sert. I knew that I had crossed the makes the observation. Such men track of a camel that had strayed may be compared to Brothers the from its owner, because I saw no prophet, who, on being asked by a mark of any human footstep on the friend how he came to be clapped up same route; I knew that the animal into Bedlam, replied, “I and the was blind in one eye, because it had world happened to have a slight dif- cropped the herbage only on one side

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