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comparatively with those where well- provided for their relief and improvetimed assistance would restore to so ment. ciety multitudes, who, when neglect
(To be continued.) ed, become too often irremovable burdens upon the public. Culpable UPON THE DEMORALIZATION CAUSED indigence can alone find a remedy in - BY ALE-HOUSES AND PAWNthe moral improvement of the people. BROKERS' SHOPS. • The laborious part of the commu In the metropolis, and in all the nity have to contend, it must be ad- cities and towns where the population mitted, with casualties, from which is extensive, it is greatly to be lathe higher orders are, in a great mea- mented that a large proportion of the sure, protected, with damps and working classes are improvident, carecold contracted by working in wet less, unthinking, and dissolute in their weather-by a want of a change of manners. Many of those whose skill raiment-deficient bed-clothes-cold and ingenuity in mechanical employrooms and cottages-hurts-wounds ments would soon raise them to a --and other accidents peculiar to their state of independence, from the high situation as out-door labourers; and, wages they obtain, frequently spend a therefore, they require medical and large portion of their time in corruptsurgical assistance more frequentlying their minds and enfeebling tiieir than others whose occupations expose bodies in ale-houses, trusting to the them less to the inclemency of sea earnings of three or four days in the sons. In disposing consequently of week, not only as a source of maintheir labour, they are not upon a partenance to their families, but as a with other classes. Nothing can ex- fund sufficient to defray the still re::d, upon many occasions, the suf- greater expense incurred in the aleferings of this useful denomination, house. Instead of enjoying those mon which the strength, stamina, comforts which are completely within and wealth of the country depend their reach, their children often reAnd, indeed, it is none of the least of main ragged and uneducated, and the evils which attend this condition misery and wretchedness are freof the community, that the innocent quently seen in their dwellings. indigence has, on most occasions, been Among the classes whose labour is confounded with the culpable. When less productive, requiring a more conparochial relief becomes necessary, stant and uninterrupted attention, it ihere is seldom any discrimination. is a melancholy truth, that, with very The virtuous labourer, broken down few exceptions, the ale-house swalby temporary misfortunes, is not re- lows up a large proportion of the stored by a judicious and adequate annual earnings - earnings which administration of occasional aid to his might produce comfort where wretchformer state of independent poverty, edness only is to be found ; and which, but is often forced to herd in a work in case of sickness or accident, rehouse with the idle and the dissolute; duces the families to a state of want, and thus, when the virtuous and in- requiring parochial relief. Nor are dustrious poor, by misfortunes not these evil habits confined to the male imputable to misconduct, descend into labourers. It is to be lamented, that indigence, their treatment and situa- the females are not seldom parties in tion are seldom better than those who the waste and depravity which prohave been reduced to the same state duces so large a portion of culpable by their vices and their crimes. The indigence. cause which produces this retrograde Looking at the average sales nestation is seldom considered. Inno, cessary to support licensed publiccent and criminal indigence share the houses, it may be fairly estimated, same fate; and hence it follows that that in 40,000 common ale-houses the morals of the poor are corrupted, (exclusive of houses of a higher des particularly in large towns, through scription) sixteen millions sterling the medium of the national institu- are expended by about two milions tions and asylums which have been of labouring people, in various pro
brokers in the metropolis, and nearly 450 in the country towns. The capital employed is supposed, upon good grounds, somewhat to exceed a million sterling, and this capital is presumed to be turned round thrice in the course of a year, and to yield each time 33 rd per cent on an average ; according to which calculation, the inferior orders of society in England are supposed to pay about one million a year for the use of temporary loans, including what they lose by their goods being forfeited.
portions, from perhaps 41. to 121., and averaging 8l. a year each! A revenue to a considerable amount is no doubt obtained through this medium, but it is a revenue dearly purchased by the state. ,
In the metropolis, and in all large owns, the poor are subject to another excessive burthen upon their little incomes, originating chiefly in their improvidence and total want of frugal habits or forethought, which compel great numbers to resort on every occasion to the pawnbroker's shop, when want, or even the gratification of any propensity, renders the accession of a small sum of money necessary, which is not seldom laid out at the same moment in gin, or some expensive food, or other gratification, which might have been dispensed with. In other instances, useful articles are pledged to procure the absolute necessaries of life. So rooted is this habit of trusting to the pawnbroker's shop for assistance, while an article of furniture or rag remains, upon which money can be raised, that a dependance on this resource often deadens the stimulus to forethought producing previous exertion; yet in so great a degree has it become a habit, that if these modes of raising money were not accessible, or were suddenly taken away, thousands would unavoidably perish in the streets. The distress on some occasions is so great as to compel the miserable object to pawn the blanket in the morning to take out the coat, gown, or petticoat, and again in the evening to pawn the day-garment to relieve the blanket to cover them at night; where the money lent (which is frequently the case) does not exceed a shilling, and supposing this
THE FAMILY ECONOMIST,
OR PLANS FOR THE EXPENDITURE OF
INCOME. (Continued from p. 7).' But for one reason we should recommend to practical economists the laying in a stock of such provisions as do not spoil in the keeping, and that reason is, that one is often seduced into a greater consumption than requisite, by having only to resort to the store-room, instead of being obliged to draw upon the pocket; there are certain articles, however, which should by all means, if practicable, be bought in quantity coals and potatoes particularly: the former, at certain seasons, without any extraordinary scarcity or demand, are ten or fifteen percent higher than at others, and in the event of long and intense winters, they often reach one hundred per cent advance We have always thought that an institution which would simply confine itself to the purchase of this first article in domestic comfort at the cheap season of the year, and to selling it out in winter to the poor
the interest paid for the loan would amount to 3,000!. per cent! It is by frequent fluctuations within the month, and by pawning one article to relieve another, where a small sum is obtained, that the premium for money becomes so excessive. There are about 240* licensed pawn
against frosts and snows, would be a most useful and benevolent charity indeed. With regard to potatoes, we believe the saving to be from ten to twenty per cent at least, in purchasing at Covent-Garden market in sacks, rather than buying from the green-grocer in pounds. Of other articles the necessity of having stores is not so great in London or other large towns, because for READY
• These observations were made nearly twenty years ago.
time in asking and answering questions, each house is furnished with a little board, to be hung without the door, during a certain time each year; on which board are marked certain words, against which the inhabitant is to mark number or quantity, somewhat in this manner :tity, somewhat in this ma
MONEY one is always sure to get the value at all seasons, and the markets are not subject to the same degree of fluctuation. Plan of Expenditure for a man who,
with Thirty Shillings a-week, has to maintain a Wife and Three Chil
dren, and who pays READY MONEY. Amusements, and Incidental Ex. £. s.d.
.. ...... 0 3
0 3 0 Landlord ..........
020 Milkman ...................... 0 1 0
WOMEN CHILDREN ........ RICE OR WHEAT
The same contrast may be made as in the guinea a-week between ready money and credit in this and in all other expenditure. Again, we repeat, that it is in vain · for any man who will not adopt the ready money principle to study economy. Cash, and cash only, is the cornerstone upon which the economical edifice can be erected; without that foundation it is a building of cards, which a single breath will overturn. In the ears of all our readers, then, we shall continue, at the beginning and ending of every essay, to cry out, READY MONEY, READY MONEY ; and if but one solitary person hear our voice, and adopt our advice, this little publication has not been established in vain.
(To be continued).
All under sixteen are accounted children, and all above, men and women. Any other particulars which the government desires information of, are occasionally marked on the same boards. Thus the officers appointed to collect the accounts in each district, have only to pass before the doors, and enter into their book what they find marked on the board, without giving the least trouble to the family. There is a penalty on marking falsely ; and as neighbours must know nearly the truth of each other's account, they dare not expose themselves by a falsc one to each other's accusation.
PROVISION MADE IN CHINA
AGAINST FAMINE. In China an account is taken yearly of the number of people and the quantities of provision produced. This account is transmitted to the emperor, whose ministers can thence foresee a scarcity likely to happen in any province, and from what province it can best be supplied in good time. To facilitate the collecting of this account, and prevent the necessity of entering houses and spending
CHEAP BARLEY BROTH. Put four ounces of Scotch barley (previously washed in cold water), and four ounces of sliced onions, into five quarts of water; boil it gentlý for one hour, and pour it into a pan; then put into the saucepan from one to two ounces of clean bcef or mutton drippings,* or melted suet, or two or three ounces of fat bacon minced : when melted, stir into it four ounces of oatmeal; rub these together till you make a paste ; if this be pro
• Drippings to clarify-Put your drip. ping into a clean saucepan, over a stove or slow fire; when it is just going to boil, skim it well; let it boil, and then let it stand till it is a little cooled; then pour it through a sex
through a sieve into a pan.'
perly managed, the whole of the fat
TO MAKE HOG'S LARD. will combine with the barley broth,
Take any quantity of the leaf-fat and not a particle appear on the sur- of a large hog; cut it into bits about face to offend the most delicate sto-,
an inch square; put it over a slow mach; now add the barley broth, at fire in a clean, bright, brass kettle first a spoonful at a time, then the (if it is put in a pot that is tinned rest by degrees, stirring it well toge- it will fetch the tin off) ; let the heat ther till it boils. To season it, put a increase gradually, till it boils, and drachm of finely pounded celery, or a good quantity of fat is melted cress-seed, or half a drachın of
(keep stirring it often); then pour it each, and a quarter of a drachm of
through a cullender into an earthen fine-pounded Cayenne, or a drachm
pot or pan ; when the liquid part of and a half of ground pepper, or the fat has run through, return what allspice, into a tea-cup, and mix it was left in the cullender into the up with a little of the soup, and then
kettle, and put it over the fire till pour it into the rest; stir it thoroughly
more is melted; then put it into the together, let it simmer gently a
cullender, as before ; do this three or quarter of an hour longer, season it four times to draw out all the lard; with salt, and it is ready.
take care it does not scorch, as that The flavour may be varied by would spoil the flavour and colour, doubling the portion of onions, or and render it unfit for use ; when adding a clove of garlic, or eshallot,
it begins to cool, put it into small and leaving out the celery-seed; or,
bladders; tie them up close, and hang instead of oatmeal, thicken it with
them in a cool dry place, if it is to be ground rice or peas, &c. and make
kept a long time; but if it is only for it savoury with fried onions.
a month or two's use, it may remain · This preparation, excellent as it is,
in the pot, with a paper tied over it. would, without variety, soon be
Beef-suet may be done in the same come less agrecable. Nothing so
way, and is very good for pastry or completely disarms poverty of its frying sting, as the means of rendering a scanty pittance capable of yielding a
CRUST FOR FAMILY PIES WHEN comfortable variety.
BUTTER IS DEAR.” Change of food is absolutely ne
Cut some slices of beef-suet very cessary, not merely as a matter of
thin ; put some flour on your board; pleasure and comfort, but of health. This soup will be much improved,
lay the suit upon it; roll it with a if, instead of water, it be made with
rolling-pin, till it is quite soft ; rub it the liquor meat has been boiled in ;
very fine into some flour, and mix it at tripe, cow-heel, and cook-shops,
with cold water. It is much better this may be had for little or nothing.
done this way than chopped, and This soup has the advantage of
makes a very good crust for any pie being very soon and easily made,
that is to be eaten hot, or for fruit with no more fuel than is necessary
puddings. to warm a room; those who have not tasted it, cannot imagine what a
COOKERY. savoury and satisfying meal is produced by the combination of these TO BOIL A LEG OF LAMB. cheap and homely ingredients. If Shake a little flour over the lamb, the generally received cpinion be tie it in a clean cloth, and put it in true, that animal and vegetable foods the water when it boils ; if it weighs afford nourishment in proportion to
six pounds, boil it an hour and a hall; the quantity of oil, jelly, and muci
take off the scum as it rises, and boil lage that can be extracted from them,
it in a good quantity of water; send this soup has strong claims to the
it to table with spinage, carrots, and attention of rational economists.
melted butter; caper sauce, or gooseberry sauce is also very good with it.
it a little pepper; it will take but a short time; when done, serve it up with melted butter.
TO DRESS A HIND QUARTER OF
HOUSE LAMB. Boil the leg in a floured cloth an hour and a quarter, cut the loin into chops, fry them, and lay them round the leg, with a bit of crisp parsley on each ; serve it up with spinage or brockoli.
TO SOUSE OR PICKLE SALMON.
Boil it in the usual way for eating, as before directed, after which, take it out and boil the liquor with bayleaves, pepper-corns, and salt ; add vinegar when cold, and pour it over the fish.
TO BOIL. A TONGUE. If the tongue is dried, it must lie in water one night before you boil it; if a pickled one, only wash it in a good quantity of water; put it into the pot, with the water cold, and let it boil very slowly, three hours and a half ; if a large one. four hours or more, according to the size of it. When you take it up, be careful not to stick a fork into it; take off the peel, put it on a dish, and garnish it with any kind of herbs you think proper. If the tongue is to be eaten cold, when the peel is taken off, put it into an earthen pan, with as much of the liquor it was boiled in as will cover it; let it remain till cold; then take it out, and dry it with a clean cloth; cut it in slices, and send it to table, garnished with green parsley
SHORT MAXIMS FOR HEALTH.
Drink not milk after fish, particularly salmon.
Salmon out of season is unwholesome; it produces bowel complaints.
Endeavour always to rise about the same hour every day, and if possible to go to bed at similar hours.
Less than five hours sleep, or more than eight in the twenty-four, is pernicious.
Eat not too much at a meal : little and often is an old rule.
If in excessive heat from exertion, get gradually cool, and drink no cold fluid ; but when the heat is a little diminished, take a little spirits and water.
Keep the bowels always regular--neither too much one way nor the other: if too relaxed, take twenty grains of rhubarb, for a grown person; ten for a younger person. If the bowels be inclined to constipation, take occasionally one or two of the following LAXATIVE Pills:• Take of Extract of Colocynth, 2 Scruples, Caloniel 10 grains, and make them into 12 pills.
TO BOIL SALMON. Clean the fish, and scrape it carefully; boil it gently with salt and horse-radish in the water; if put into cold water, a piece not very thick will take half an hour after it boils. Serve it up with shrimp, lobster, or anchovy-sauce, in one tureen, and fennel and butter in another; if you have essence of anchovy, send plain melted butter to table with it; some like parsley and butter.
TO BROIL SALMON. Cut some slices an inch thick, and season them with pepper and salt; dip them in sweet oil, or rub them with butter; fold them in pieces of writing paper, and broil them over a slow fire six or eight ininutes; serve them up in the papers, with some anchovy sauce in a tureen, or plain melted butter ; if the salmon is dried, soak it for two or three hours; then put it on the gridiron, and shake over
AN ENETIC-GOOD WHEN SICKNESS
OF THE STOMACH AND HEAD-ACHE
Twenty grains of ipecacuanha, and one grain of tartar emetic: mix with a little water.
Plenty of warm water should then be drank ; night is the best time to take it; if taken in the day-time, the patient should go to bed after its open ration.