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General adviser.

Why should you want? Behold, the earth has roots!
Within this unile break forth an hundred springs :
The oaks bear mast, the brizis scarlet hips;
The bounteous huswise, Nature, on each bush
Lays her ful mess before you. Want! wby-want ?—Shakspeare.

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Definition of the word Economy (by Fish Market ......

Mr. Cobbett).........................

...... ib. Marketing ......... ....

The Family Economist, or Plans for the Directions to make White Bread ...

Expenditure of Income'..............1 -Household Do. ............

Indigence and its Remedies .......... - Leavened Do, .............

Hints to those who would be Rich ... 10 - Yeast..............

The way to make Money plentiful in - Delightful Cold Cream......

every Man's pocket(by Dr. Franklin) ib An excellent Receipt for Lip-salve ....

DOMESTIC MEDICINE ........ Meats, Vegetables, and Fruits in Season

ANNALS OF GULLING, No. I....... for May

Letter from a First-floor Lodger........ 13 Method of Ascertaining the Strength of Vegetable Powder, and best finitation Foreign Wipes .....

of Coffee ..... Restrictions oror Trade ..

USEFUL POETRY, Original and select 16





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In commencing a new periodical work, a prefatory or introductory Address is decorous as well as necessary, and such addresses are generally the result of that long-winded and over-weaning exertion which their several editors think necessary to make, in order to impress the public with an idea of the weight of talent and of worth that is to follow. We think a periodical should speak for itself, and that its introductory address ought to be as short as possible-a polite bow, and a concise statement of its plan. We therefore respectfully take off our hat to the Public, and without further ceremony state, that the plan of The Economist is this :-To lay down rules for economy, not only in matters concerning the interests of the pocket, but also those of the mind, from which emanate either happiness or misery. Economy, in our interpretation of the word, means the art of being comfortable and happy; and, therefore, the expenditure of time and the selection of pleasures shall form principles in our work. " Under these heads shall come the Art of House-keeping in every branchThe best Modes of employing Income-Directions for Fathers in the selection of Professions or Trades for their Children - Analysis of the Markets-Strictures upon Shops and Shopping-Domestic Medical Hints--Useful Receipts Cookery --Carving - Pickling-Brewing-Distilling - House-taking, and the Laws between Landlords and Tenants - Gardening-Travelling-Agriculture -Public Abuses, &c. &c. and a regularly Weekly Article upon the Knavery of Dealers (as long as that knavery exists) under the head of ANNALS OF GULLING, with the intention of opening the eyes of the Public to the fraud and humbug which is, unhappily, now but too prevalent.

Although occasionally we may offer our readers a little amusement, yet our aim is to be useful, and in the execution, THE ECONOMIST, we trust, will not rank inferior to the Mechanic's Magazine or Medical Adviser.

To carry this plan into effect, appropriate extracts and condensed excellencies from the most able and expensive works, as well as our own hearty exertions, shall be at the service of the Public, and our reward shall not be the least in their approbation. -Now let us proceed to business.


LONDON FISH-MARKET.. THERE is not in any city of Europe, a fish-market that is so badly situated as Billingsgate. The approaches are narrow and few, crowd. ed with waggons, and covered with dirt. The market itself is not one. sixth of the size which it ought to be, considering the extent of London: and it is placed at such a distance from the middle of the population of the metropolis, that one-fifth of the people cannot conveniently go to it'to purchase their fish. This gives rise to fish-shops, which, from having high rents to pay, and long carriage for their commodities, are obliged to put at least 25 or 30 per cent upon fish more than the seller in the market can afford to sell. Amsterdam, Rots terdam, Rouen, Bourdeaux, Lisbon, Naples, Florence,-all maritime cities,

are better accommodated in this lux. ury; their fish-markets are spacious, clean, and centrically situated; the people can all go to purchase their fish at the fountain-head, and the prices are therefore lower. But Lon. don-- the great city of the day, has a fish-market more like a string of round pent-houses than a public civic establishment. Many places could be found along the banks of the Thames far better in point of situation than Billingsgate, a place which would be within a moderate distance of the inhabitants of London; and surely, as this is the age for speculation in money matters, a company could do nothing better for the provement of London, as well as their own purses, than build a new and commodious Fish-Market.


joints may, with a little attention, be Rich and prudent persons gene- easily judged of; thus, beef is now rally obtain provisions and other quoted at from three to four shillings articles of necessity cheaper than their and four-pence per stone of 8 lb., or poorer and less prudent neighbours, from 4td. to 6d. per lb. according to which they are enabled to do from quality, and by the quarter of the bul. several causes, the chief of which are, lock. As not one-fourth of the meat

Knowledge of the wholesale price sent to market is of the first quality, of the commodity.

the mean or middle price will be fully Selection of market.

sufficient for an average: thus, if a Quantity purchased, and time of butcher buy two quarters of beef, a purchasing.

fore or hind quarter, at 3s. 8d. per Choice of article, &c. &c.

stone, or 5 d. per lb., and sells the A few hints and practical remarks sir-loin and ribs for 8d., the buttock upon this subject will, we trust, be and short ribs for 6d., the flank and found useful.

brisket for 5 d., the clods and stickTo begin with the most important ings for 3d., the shin and leg for 3s., item of consumption,

he will make a good profit, and not Bread.- A baker, who pays ready

more than the preceding retail prices money for his flour, and receives ready

should be paid for heef when the money from all his customers, can

wholesale prices are proportionate. afford to sell a four-pound loaf of equal

Mutton is from 3s. to 45. per stone, quality three halfpence or two-pence

or from 41d to 6d. per lb. by the carcheaper than the baker who takes and

case (sinking the offal) ; at these gives credit can ; the first obtains the

prices, a leg of mutton may be sold at

44d., shoulders at 4d., loins at 7d., or same description of flour from seven to ten shillings a sack cheaper than

in clods 9d., breasts 5d., necks at 5d. the latter ; his customers fetch their

of the best description, and fom i to

1fd. per lb. less, according to quality. bread from his shop, whereby he saves servants' wages; he has no bad

Lamb is from 4s. to 6s. per stone, by

the carcase, and may be sold by the debts to compel him to burthen the paying customers with what those

quarter by the retail butcher at from may owe him who never pay. A few

6d. to 10d. per lb. according to quatrials at different bakers and careful

lity: from Easter to Whitsuntide

butchers sell the quarters with the comparison of quality, will soon enable a purchaser to judge correctly, and to

feet attached, which renders lamb an effect a considerable saving; in a fa

extravagant luxury-atall events unfit mily of six or seven persons, it will

for general use in a large family with make a difference of from two to

limited means; and if purchased at

all, great caution should be used, as three pounds per annum.

many young sheep are sold for lambs Flour. - The above remarks on (technically called Dan), very much bread will partly apply to flour, the inferior to either lamb or multon. price of which is now from 50s. to Veal is much the same price as 60s. per sack of 280 lbs. ; good flour

mutton; very superior quality is worth may be sold at 9fd. the quartern 45. 8d. per stone, or 7d. per lb. whole (quarter of a peck), which weighs

sale. The loin and the fillet being three pounds and a half. The bakers the most free from bone, fetch a larger frequentlycharge two-pence, and some proportionate price, and at the above times more, per quartern dearer than

rates would be charged 10d. per lb.; the corn-chandler; there is no good but this is the very finest in the reason why they should do so. market; good veal may be bought

Meat. The wholesale price of for much less--some parts for half the meat, as between the salesmen in the price. principal market and the butchers, Pork-no meat varies so much in may be seen in the daily newspapers, price as this dainty food; it is now and in this publication; the fair price from 25.8d. to 5s. per stone, or from 4d. which should be charged for different to 6fd., and no meat (beef excepted) more profitable, so much of it being loaves about four pounds each, or adapted for salting ; legs and loins any size you like; clean the oven, put fetch the best prices, and, according in the loaves, and bake them two to quality, may be sold from 5d. to hours and a half in summer; the 8d. per lb. ; there is much difference water must be luke-warm, in winter in the quality of pork, of which, and a little warmer, and in frosty weathe means of judging of this and other ther as warm as you can bear your meat, we shall treat in another hand in it, but not so hot as to scald Number.

the yeast. Make the loaves a quarSteaks, chops, and small dressings, ter of an hour before they are put are always unprofitable; they are into the oven : some prefer baking subject to increased price, increased bread in tins made for the purpose. labour, increased fuel, and increased Bricks are made by making the loaves waste; occasionally, indeed, persons long instead of round, and cutting of slender means may purchase small them in several places along the sides pieces, cut from prime pieces, cheap; with a knife before they are put in but too frequently they are mixed up the oven; small families may reduce with cuttings from the coarsest parts, the quantity. such as the shin and legs. Sausages are unprofitable food; for

HOUSEHOLD BREAD instance, beef sausages are now sold Is made the same way as the at 6d. per lb.; they are not unfre white bread, only it is a mixture of quently made of bad and unwhole

rye and wheat-flour; the proportion some meat, and if made of good meat, is generally two pecks of wheat to of the coarsest parts of clods, stick one of rye, but some prefer half rye; ings, shins, and legs, worth at the bread made of half rye will keep , present prices (sinking the bone) moist and good a week or ten days, 3d. per lb.; three-quarters of a pound

and is excellent for bilious or costive of meat will, with crumbs of bread, habits. This sort of dough should and herbs mixed with water, make a

be made very stiff. pound of sausages; thus, in fact, 6d. is paid per lb. for an article (sup

DIRECTIONS TO MAKE LEAVENED posing it genuine) only intrinsically

BREAD. worth 2 d. Those made of pork are

Save two pounds of dough from liable to the same objections, in

the last baking, cover it with flour, creased indeed by the greater profit

and keep it in a little flour-barrel; their larger price yields: as an induce

the night before you intend to bake, ment to the unprincipled manufac

put the dough or leaven into a peck turer, to use unfit materials, we could,

of flour, and work them well togeand probably will, a “tale unfold.”

ther with warm water ; let it lie in a

dry wooden vessel in a warm place, DIRECTIONS TO MAKE WHITE BREAD.

covered with a linen cloth, and a Put a bushel of fine flour into a blanket over the cloth; if the dough dough-trough. Take nine quarts of is kept warm, it will be sufficiently warm water, and mix it with a quart fermented by the next morning to of yeast; put it to the flour, and stir mix with two or three bushels of it well with your hands till it is flour. Work it up with warm water, tough ; let it lie till it rises as high and a pound of salt to each bushel. as it can, which will be in about an When well worked, and thoroughly hour and a quarter. Watch it when mixed with all the flour, let it be it rises, and do not let it remain too covered with the linen and blanket long, or it will fall; then make up the - till it rises; then knead it well, and dough with eight quarts more of warm work it up into loaves and bricks; water, and one pound of salt; work make the loaves broad, and not so it up with your hands, cover it with thick and high as for yeast bread; a coarse cloth, and flannel over the bake them as before directed; the cloth; by the time the oven is heated, more leaven there is put to the flour the dough will be ready. Make the the lighter the bread will be,


dian meal? Indian meal is used In Long Island, says Mr. Cobbett, merely because it is of a less adhesive they make yeast cakes. A parcel of nature than that of wheat; while peathose cakes is made once a year : that meal, or even barley-meal, would do is often enough; and, when you bake, just as well. But, SECOND, to dry you take one of these cakes (or more, the cakes to make them (and quickly according to the bulk of the batch), too, mind) as hard as ship-biscuit and with it raise your bread.

(which is much harder than the timThe materials for a good batch of ber of Scotch firs or Canada firs): cakes are as follow:-3 ounces of and to do this in the sun (for it must good fresh hops; 34 pounds of rye- not be fire), where are we, in this flour; 7 pounds of Indian corn-meal; climate, to get the sun? In 1916 we and i gallon of water. Rub the hops, could not; for that year melons rotted so as to separate them. Put them in the glazed frames, and never ripeninto the water, which is to be boiling ed; but in every nine summers out at the time; let them boil half an of ten, we have, in June, in July, or hour; then strain the liquor through in August, a fortnight of hot sun; a fine sieve into an earthen vessel. and that is enough. Nature has not While the liquor is hot, put in the given us a peach climate ; but we get rye-flour, stirring the liquor well and peaches. The cakes, when put in the quickly as the rye-flour goes into it. sun, may have a glass-sash, or a The day after, when it is working, hand-light put over them; this would put in the Indian meal, stirring it make their birth hotter than that of well as it goes in. Before the Indian the hottest open-air situation in Amemeal be all in, the mess will be very rica. In short, to a farmer's wife, or stiff; and it will, in fact, be dough, any good housewife, all the little diffivery much of the consistence of the culties to the attainment of such an dough that bread is made of. Take object, would appear as nothing. The this dough, and knead it well, as you will only is required; and if there be would for pie-crust. Roll it out with not that, it is useless to think of the a rolling-pin, as you roll out pie attempt. crust, to the thickness of about the third of an inch. When you have it DELIGHTFUL COLD CREAM. (or a part at a time) rolled out, cut Melt half a pound of hog's lard in it up into cakes with a tumbler-glass a basin over steam, take it off the turned upside down, or with some- fire, and add three quarters of a pint thing else that will answer the same of rose-water, and half a gill of oil of purpose. Take a clean board (a tin almonds; stir up the whole with may be better), and put the cakes to great care till of a proper consistency. dry in the sun; turn them every day; let them receive no wet, and they will

AN EXCELLENT RECEIPT FOR LIPbecome as hard as ship-biscuit; put

SALVE. them into a bag, or box, and keep Put into a gallipot or small jar, them in a place perfectly free from two ounces of white wax, half an damp. When you bake, take two ounce of spermaceti, and a quarter of cakes, of the thickness above men- a pint of oil of sweet almonds; tie it tioned, and about three inches in down close, and put it into a small diameter; put them into hot water saucepan, with as much water in it over night, having cracked them first; as will come nearly to the top of the let the vessel containing them stand gallipot, but not high enough to boil near the fire-place all night; they will over it; let it boil till the wax is all dissolve by the morning, and then melted, then put in one penny-worth you use them in setting your sponge of alkanit root, tied up in a bit of rag; (as it is called) precisely as you would tie it down, and put it again into the use the yeast of beer.

saucepan, and let it boil till it is of a There are two things which may be proper colour; it is best to take a considered by the reader as obstacles. little out first to cool, as it looks First, where are we to get the In- much valer when cold; when it is as

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