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ment. The names of the University doctors and graduates TheUniverappointed to dispute against them were these: of Oxford, sity doctors Doctor Weston, Prolocutor, Doctor Tresham, Doctor Cole, to dispute Doctor Oglethorpe, Doctor Pie, Master Harpsfield, Master Archbishop
against the Fecknam. Of Cambridge, Doctor Yong, Vice-Chancellor,
and his felDoctor Glin, Doctor Seaton, Doctor Watson, Doctor Sedgewicke, Doctor Atkinson, &c.
On Saturday, being the 14th of April, ... they went all to Another St. Mary's Church; and there, after a short consultation in tion of the a chapel, all the Commissioners came into the quire, and sat doctors and
priests. all on seats before the altar, to the number of thirty-three persons: and first they sent to the Mayor, that he should bring in Doctor Cranmer, which within a while was brought to them with a number of rusty billmen.
Thus the reverend Archbishop, when he was brought be Archbishop fore the Commissioners, reverenced them with much humi- brought belity, and stood with his staff in his hand, who, notwithstand-fore the ing having a stool offered him, refused to sit. Then the high priests Prolocutor, sitting in the midst in a scarlet gown, began ry's Church. with a short preface or oration in praise of unity, and espe- The revecially in the Church of Christ ; declaring withal his bring-lity and
rend humi. ing up, and taking degrees in Cambridge, and also how he behaviour
of the Archwas promoted by King Henry, and had been his counsellor, bishop beand a catholic man, one of the same unity, and a member fore them. thereof in times past; but of late years did separate and cut off himself from it, by teaching and setting forth of erroneous doctrine, making every year a new faith : and therefore it pleased the Queen's Grace to send them of the Convocation, and other learned men, to bring him to this unity again, if it might be. Then showed he him, how they of the Convocation-house had agreed upon certain Articles, whereunto they willed him to subscribe.
The Archbishop answered to the preface very wittily, The answer modestly, and learnedly, showing that he was very glad of of the Archan unity, forasmuch as it was “ conservatrix omnium rerum Dr.Weston. “ publicarum, tam ethnicorum quam Christianorum;" i. e. “ the preserver of all commonwealths, as well of the hea
" then as of the Christians;” and so he dilated the matter with one or two stories of the Romans' commonwealth. Which thing when he had done, he said, that he was very glad to come to an unity, so that it were in Christ, and agreeable to his holy word.
When he had thus spoken his full mind, the Prolocutor caused the Articles b to be read unto him, and asked if he would grant and subscribe unto them. Then the Bishop of Canterbury did read them over three or four times, and touching the first Article, he asked what they meant by these terms, “Verum et naturale;" i.e. “true and natural." • Do you not mean,' saith he, ' Corpus organicum ;' i.e. 'a * sensible body?' Some answered, “Idem quod natum est
ex Virgine;' i. e. the same that was born of the Vir
'gin ;' and so confusedly some said one thing, some anThe Arti- other. Then the Bishop of Canterbury denied it utterly ; cles denied and when he had looked upon the other two, he said they by the Arch. bishop. were all false, and against God's holy word: and therefore
he would not agree, he said, in that unity with them c. Scarbo- Which done, the Prolocutor, first willing him to write bis rough warning
mind of them that night, said moreover, that he should given to dispute in them, and caused a copy of the Articles to be deto dispute. livered him, assigning him to answer thereunto on Monday
next; and so charged the Mayor with him again, to be had to Bocardo, where he was kept before; offering moreover unto him to name what books he would occupy, and should have them brought unto him. The Archbishop was greatly
" [The following are the Articles, is given in the official report mentioned in the preceding note.
“ 1. In sacramento altaris virtute verbi Domini a sacerdote prolati, “præsens est realiter sub speciebus panis et vini naturale corpus Christi “conceptum de Virgine Maria. Item, naturalis ejusdem sanguis. “ 2. Post consecrationem non remanet substantia panis et vini, ne
alia ulla substantia, nisi substantia Christi, Dei et hominis. « 3. In missa est vivificum Ecclesiæ sacrificium pro peccatis tam vi“ vorum quam mortuorum propitiabile.” Harl. MSS. 3642.]
[In the above-named official report, it is said, that Cranmer“ primo “ eosdem articulos in forma verborum qua concipiuntur veros non esse “ asseruit, nibilo minus aiebat, quod si copiam eorundem articulorum “ et tempus perpendendi eosdem concederemus, redigere vellet in scriptis ejus ad eosdem responsum, nobisque in crastino tunc consequente die transmittere.” Tirl. MSS. 3642.]
commended of every body for his modesty; insomuch that some Masters of Art were seen to weep for him, which in judgment were contrary to him.
On Sunday after, Mr. Harpsfield preached at St. Mary's, the University Church, at nine of the clock, where were divers of the doctors of the University in their robes, and placed accordingly. After the sermon they went all to dinner to Magdalen College, and there had a great dinner. They supped at Lincoln College with the Prolocutor, whither Doctor Cranmer sent answer of his mind upon the Articles in writing.
On Monday, being the 16th of April, Mr. Say and Mr. April 16. White, notaries, went about in the morning to the Colleges,
Subscripto get subscriptions to the Articles. And about eight of the clock the Prolocutor with all the doctors and the Vice-Chancellor met together at Exeter College, and so they went into the Schools; and when the Vice-Chancellor, the Prolocutor, and doctors were placed, and four appointed to be Excep- Four E.c
ceptores tores argumentorum set at a table in the midst, and four
urgumennotaries sitting with them, Dr. Cranmer came to the An- torum. swerer's place, the Mayor and aldermen sitting by him ; set in tlie and so the Disputation began to be set a work by the Pro- Respond
ent's place. locutor with a short præludium. Dr. Chedsey began to Dr. Cranargue first, and ere he left, the Prolocutor divers times, mer closed Doctor Tresham, Oglethorpe, Marshall, Vice-Chancellor, Pye, Mayor and Cole, and Harpesfield did interrupt and press him with their aldermen,
for running arguments; so that every man said somewhat, as the Pro- away. locutor would suffer, disorderly, sometime in Latin d, some-Disputers
the time in English ; so that three hours of the time was spent Archbiere the Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge began, who also was shop.
[The official report states the previous arrangement to have been, that the Disputation should take place“ scholastico more, atque con“cisis argumentis, et sermone Latino.” It appears from the MS. in the Public Library at Cambridge, that Cole first departed from the regulations. (MSS. Kk. 5. 14.) Respecting the unfair and disorderly conduct of the disputation, see Cranmer's Letter to the Council, vol. i. Lett ccxcvii. Ridley's Report, in Foxe, Acts, &c. vol. iii. p. 90. Hoper's Letter to Farrur and others, ibid. p. 159. Declaration and Confession of Fuilh by divers godly preachers, ibid. p. 100.]
interrupted as before. He began with three or four quesThe Arch- tions subtlely. Here the beadles had provided drink, and bishop of.
offered the Answerer ; but he refused with thanks. The Prolocutor offered him, if he would make water, or otherwise ease himself, he should. Thus the Disputation continued until almost two of the clock, with this applausion audientium, Vicit veritas.' Then were all the argu
ments written by the four appointed, delivered into the Dr. Cran- hand of Master Say, Register. And as for the prisoner, he mer after Disputa
was had away by the Mayor; and the doctors dined togetion return-ther at the University College. ed again to
And thus much concerning the general order and manner of these Disputations, with such circumstances as there happened, and things there done, as well before the Disputation, and in the preparation thereof, as also in the time of their disputing. Now followeth to infer and declare the orations, arguments, and answers, used and brought forth in the said Disputations on both parts.
The Disputation had in the University of Oxford, the 16th
of April, 1554, betwixt Doctor Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury, being Respondent, and Doctor Chedsey,
Yong, and other, Opponents. April 16. On Monday, Doctor Weston, with all the residue of the
visitors, censors, and opponents, repairing to the Divinity School, each one installed themselves in their places. Doctor Cranmer with a rout of rusty bills was brought thither also, and set in the Answerer's place, with the Mayor and aldermen sitting by him. Where Doctor Weston, Prolocutor, apparelled in a scarlet gown, after the custom of the University, began the Disputation with this oration. His words
in Latin, as he spake them, were these: Dr. Weston Convenistis hodie, fratres, profligaturi detestandam illam speaketh
• hæresin de veritate corporis Christi in sacramento,' &c.; that is, “Ye are assembled hither, brethren, this day, to
confound the detestable heresy of the verity of the body of Christ in the sacrament,' &c. At which words, thus pronounced of the Prolocutor unawares, divers of the learned
truer than he wist.
men there present, considering and well weighing the words by him uttered, burst out into a great laughter, as though even in the entrance of the Disputations he had bewrayed himself and his religion, that termed the opinion of the verity of Christ's body in the sacrament a detestable heresy. The rest of his oration tended all to this effect, that it was not lawful by God's word to call these questions into controversy: for such as doubted of the words of Christ, might well be thought to doubt both of the truth and power of God. Whereunto Doctor Cranmer, desiring license, answered in this wise.
Cran. We are assembled, saith he, to discuss these doubt- Dr. Cranful controversies, and to lay them open before the eyes of
swer to the the world; whereof ye think it unlawful to dispute. It is preface. indeed no reason, saith he, that we should dispute of that which is determined upon before the truth be tried. But if these questions be not called into controversy, surely mine answer then is looked for in vain. This was the sum and effect of his answer; and this done he prepared himself to disputation.
Then Chedsey, the first Opponent, began in this wise to Dr. Cheddispute e
sey. * [It inay be doubted whether the commenceinent of this Disputation is properly arranged by Foxe. The several parts of it do not bang well together; and both the manuscript in the Public Library at Cambridge, and a fragment printed at Oxford in 1688, though they do not furnish sufficient materials for positively fixing a new order, strengthen the doubt respecting the correctness of the old one. The following is the fragınent referred to: it is attached to a copy of Ridley's Disputation.
“ Chedsey, post recitatam præfationem attulit consensum Evangelis“ tarum Matt. xxvi. Marc. xiv. Luc. xxii. • Ergo,' inquit, “ verum est
corpus, et verus sanguis, nam in duorum aut trium testium stat " . omnis veritas.'
“ Cran. “Verum corpus esse fateor et verum sanguinem de quibus “ mentionein faciunt Evangelistæ; nempe corpus vere crucifixum, el " " sanguis vere fusus. Sed panem appellavit illud veruin corpus, et “vinum sanguinem verum, sed figurata locutione, quia sacramentum "instituebat corporis occisi, et sanguinis fusi.' Atque huc referebat “ totius rei definitionem, et pro ampliori solutione exhibuit quoddam
“ Cheds. • Ergo vocatione et significatione erat corpus, et non vere; “sed Christus illud quod tradebatur vocavit corpus suum; sed panis “non tradebatur; Ergo panem non vocavit corpus suum.' “ Cran. 'Nego Majorem ; non enim quod tradebatur vocavit corpus suum,
panem vocavit verum corpus suum quod tradebatur. Ergo