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with some difficulty in crossing, being obliged to take out the guns from the two-largest ships, which were notwithstanding, several times in danger of sticking fast. The next obstacle was a strong fort on Sullivan's island, șix miles east of Charleston, which, though not completely finished, was very strong. However, the

British generals resolved without hesitation to attack it, but I though an attack was easy froin sea, it was difficult to obtain a cooperation of the land forces.

This was, however, attempted by landing them on Long island, adjacent to Sullivan's island on the east, from which it is separated by a very narrow creek, not above two feet deep at low water.

Opposite to this ford, the provincials had posted a strong body of en troops, with cannon and intrenchments ; while general Lee was

posted on the main land, with a bridge of boats betwixt that and Sullivan's island, so that he could at pleasure, send reinforcements to the troops in the fort on Sullivan's island.

There were so many deiays occurred on the part of the British, that it was the 24th of June, 1776, before matters were in readi. ness for an attack; and, by this time the provincials had abun. dantly provided for their reception. On the morning of that day, the bomb-ketch began to throw shells into fort Sullivan, and about mid-day the two fifty gun ships, and thirty gun frigates came up and began a severe fire. Three other frigates were ordered to take their station between Charleston, and the fort, in order to en: filade the batteries, and cut off the communication with the main land; but, through the ignorance of the pilots, they all stuck fast; and though two of them were disentangled they were found to be totally unfit for service; the third was burnt, that she might not fall into the hands of the enemy.

The attack was therefore confined to the five armed vessels, and bomb-ketch, between whom and the fort, a dreadful fire ensued. The Bristol suffered excessively, the springs on her cable being shot away, she was for a time, entirely exposed to the enea my's fire. As the provincials poured in great quantities of red hot balls, she was twice in flames. Captain Morris, her commander, after receiving five wounds, was obliged to go below deck in order to have his arm amputated : after undergoing this operation, he returned to his station, where he received another wound, but still refused to quit his place; at last he received a red hot ball in his belly, which instantly put an end to his life. Of all the officers and seamen, who stood on the quarter deck of this vessel, not one escaped without a wound, except sir Peter Parker alone; whose intrepidity and presence of mind on this occasion, was very remarkable.

The engagement lasted until the darkness put an end to it. Little damage was done by the British, as the works of the enemy lay so low, that many of the shot flew over; and the fortifications, being composed of palm trees, mixed with earth, were well calculated to resist the impression of cannon. During the height of the attack, the batteries of the provincials were silent, so that it

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was concluded that they had been abandoned ; but this was found to proceed from want of powder; for, as soon as a supply of this article was obtained, the firing was resumed as brisk as before. During the whole of this desperate engagement, it was found impossible for the land forces to render any assistance to the fleet.

The enemy's works were found to be much stronger than had been imagined, and the depth of water effectually prevented them from making any attempt. In this unsuccessful attempt, the loss of the British in killed and wounded was two hundred. The Bristol and Experiment, were so much damaged, it was thought they could not get over the bar; this they accomplished, however, by great exertion of naval skill, to the surprise of the provincials, who had expected to have made them both prizes. It was said the Americans lost considerable in this engagement.

In the beginning of March, commodore Hopkins, was despatched by Congress, wită five frigates to the Bahama islands, where he made himself master of the ordnance and military stores; but the gunpowder which had been the principal object, was removed. On his return he captured several vessels; but was foiled in his attempt on the Glasgow frigate, which found means to escape, notwithstanding the efforts of the whole squadron.

Hitherto the Americans had been generally successful, they had now to experience misfortune, misery and disappointment; the enemy over-running the country, and their own armies not able to face them in the field. The province of New-York, being the most accessible by sea, was made the object for the main attack. The force sent against it, consisted of six ships of the line, thirty frigates, besides other armed vessels, and a vast number of transports. The fleet was commanded by lord Howe, and the land forces by his brother, general Sir William Howe, who was now at Halifax. The latter, however, had set sail a considerable time before his brother arrived, and lay before New-York, but without attempting to commence hostilities, until he should be joined by his brother.

The Americans had, according to custom, fortified New York, and the adjacent islands in an extraordinary manner. General Howe, notwithstanding was suffered to land his troops on Staten island, where he was soon joined by a number of inhabitants. About the middle of July, lord Howe arrived with the grand arinament, and being one of the commissioners appointed to receive the submission of the colonists, he published a circular letter to the several governors, who had lately been expelled from their provinces, desiring them to make the extent of his commission, and the powers he was invested with by parliament, as public as possible.

Here, however, the Congress-saved him trouble, by ordering his letter and declaration to be published in all the newspapers, " That every one might see the insidiousness of the British ministry; and, that they had nothing to trust to, besides the exertion of their own valour."

Lord Howe next sent a letter to general Washington ; but as it was directed “ To George Washington, Esq." the general refused to accept it, as not being in a style suited to his station. To obviate this objection, adjutant-general Patterson, was sent with another letter, directed “ To George Washington, &c. &c. &c." but though a very polite reception was given to the bearer, general Washington utterly refused the letter, nor could any explanation of the adjutant induce him to accept of it. The only interest. ing part was that relating to the powers of the commissioners, of whom lord Howe was one.

The adjutant told him, that these powers were very extensive; that the commissioners were determined to exert themselves to the utmost in order to bring about a reconciliation ; and, that he hoped the general would consider this visit as a step towards it. General Washington replied, that it did not appear that these powers consisted in any thing else than granting pardons ; and as America had committed no offence, she asked no forgiveness; and, was only defending her unquestionable rights.

The decision being now left to the sword, no time was lost, and hostilities commenced as soon as the British troops could be col. lected. This was not done before the month of August, when they landed without opposition on Long island, opposite to the shore of Staten island. General Putnam, with a large body of troops, lay encamped, and strongly fortified on a peninsula on the opposite shore, with a range of hills between the armies, the principal pass of which was near a place called Flat-Bush ; here the centre of the British army, consisting of Hessians, took post; the left wing under general Grant, lying near the shore ; and the right consist. ing of the greater part of the British forces, lay under lord Percy, Cornwallis, and general Clinton. Putnam had ordered these pas. ses to be secured by large detachments, which was executed immediately with those that were near ; but one of the most importance, that lay at a distance, was entirely neglected. Through this a large body of troops under lord Percy and Clinton, passed, and attacked the Americans in the rear, while they were engaged with the Hessians in front.

Through this piece of negligence their defeat became inevita. ble, Those who were engaged with the Hessians, first perceived their mistake, and began a retreat towards their camp; but the passage was intercepted by the British troops, who drove them back into the woods. Here they were met by the Hessians; and thus were they for many hours slaughtered between two parties, no way of escape but by forcing their way through the British troops, and thus regaining their camp. In this attempt many perished ; and the right wing, engaged with general Grant, shared the same fate. The victory was complete ; and the Americans lost, on this fatal day, August the twenty-seventh, upwards of one thousand men, and two generals : several officers of distinction were made prisoners, with a number of privates. Among the siain, a regiment, consisting of young gentlemen of fortune and faVOL. II,

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was concluded that they had been abandoned ; but this was found to proceed from want of powder; for, as soon as a supply of this article was obtained, the firing was resumed as brisk as before. During the whole of this desperate engagement, it was found impossible for the land forces to render any assistance to the fleet.

The enemy's works were found to be much stronger than had been imagined, and the depth of water effectually prevented them from making any attempt. In this unsuccessful attempt, the loss of the British in killed and wounded was two hundred. The Bristol and Experiment, were so much damaged, it was thought they could not get over the bar; this they accomplished, however, by great exertion of naval skill, to the surprise of the provincials, who had expected to have made them both prizes. It was said the Americans lost considerable in this engagement. “

In the beginning of March, commodore Hopkins, was despatched by Congress, with five frigates to the Bahama islands, where he made himself master of the ordnance and military stores ; but the gunpowder which had been the principal object, was removed. On his return he captured several vessels; but was foiled in his attempt on the Glasgow frigate, which found means to escape, notwithstanding the efforts of the whole squadron.

Hitherto the Americans had been generally successful, they had now to experience misfortune, misery and disappointment; the enemy over-running the country, and their own armies not able to face them in the field. The province of New York, being the most accessible by sea, was made the object for the main attack. The force sent against it, consisted of six ships of the line, thirty frigates, besides other armed vessels, and a vast number of transports. The fleet was commanded by lord Howe, and the land forces by his brother, general Sir William Howe, who was now at Halifax. The latter, however, had set sail a considerable time before his brother arrived, and lay before New York, but without attempting to commence hostilities, until he should be joined by his brother.

The Americans had, according to custom, fortified New York, and the adjacent islands in an extraordinary manner. General Howe, notwithstanding was suffered to land his troops on Staten island, where he was soon joined by a number of inhabitants. About the middle of July, lord Howe arrived with the grand arinament, and being one of the commissioners appointed to receive the submission of the colonists, he published a circular letter to the several governors, who had lately been expelled from their provinces, desiring them to make the extent of his commission, and the powers he was invested with by parliament, as public as possible.

Here, however, the Congress-saved him trouble, by ordering his letter and declaration to be published in all the newspapers, * That every one might see the insidiousness of the British minis try; and, that they had nothing to trust to, besides the exertion of their own valour,”

Lord Howe next sent a letter to general Washington ; but as it was directed “ To George Washington, Esq." the general refused to accept it, as not being in a style suited to his station. To obviate this objection, adjutant-general Patterson, was sent with another letter, directed “ To George Washington, &c. &c. &c." but though a very polite reception was given to the bearer, general Washington utterly refused the letter, nor could any explanation of the adjutant induce him to accept of it. The only interest ing part was that relating to the powers of the commissioners, of whom lord Howe was one.

The adjutant told him, that these powers were very extensive; that the commissioners were determined to exert themselves to the utmost in order to bring about a reconciliation ; and, that he hoped the general would consider this visit as a step towards it. General Washington replied, that it did not appear that these powers consisted in any thing else than granting pardons; and as America had committed no offence, she asked no forgiveness; and, was only defending her unquestionable rights.

The decision being now left to the sword, no time was lost, and hostilities commenced as soon as the British troops could be collected. This was not done before the month of August, when they landed without opposition on Long island, opposite to the shore of Staten island. General Putnam, with a large body of troops, lay encamped, and strongly fortified on a peninsula on the opposite shore, with a range of hills between the armies, the principal pass of which was near a place called Flat-Bush ; here the centre of the British army, consisting of Hessians, took post; the left wing under general Grant, lying near the shore ; and the right consisting of the greater part of the British forces, lay under lord Percy, Cornwallis, and general Clinton. Putnam had ordered these passes to be secured by large detachments, which was executed iminediately with those that were near ; but one of the most importance, that lay at a distance, was entirely neglected. Through this a large body of troops under lörd Percy and Clinton, passed, and attacked the Americans in the rear, while they were engaged with the Hessians in front.

Through this piece of negligence their defeat became inevita. ble. Those who were engaged with the Hessians, first perceived their mistake, and began a retreat towards their camp; but the passage was intercepted by the British troops, who drove them back into the woods. Here they were met by the Hessians; and thus were they for many hours slaughtered between two parties, no way of escape but by forcing their way through the British troops, and thus regaining their camp. In this attempt many perished; and the right wing, engaged with general Grant, shared the same fate. The victory was complete ; and the Americans lost, on this fatal day, August the twenty-seventh, upwards of one thousand men, and two generals : several officers of distinction were made prisoners, with a number of privates. Among the siain, a regiment, consisting of young gentlemen of fortune and faVOL. II.

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