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was so excessive that the Spaniards were apprehensive the ships would take fire; their fears were relieved by a shower of rain, but did not much abate the heat. The admiral was so fatigued by unremitting care and loss of sleep, that he was seized with a violent fit of the gout and a fever.

These circumstances induced him to listen to the remonstrances of his men, and to alter his course to the north-west, that he might reach some of the Caribee islands, where he might refit, and obtain a fresh supply of provisions.

On the first of August, the man stationed in the round-top, surprized them with the joyful cry of Land! Columbus named it Trinidad, which name it still retains; it lies near the mouth of of the river Oronoco, on the coast of Guiana. This river rolls towards the ocean such a vast body of water, and with such an impetuous force, that when it meets the tide, which on that coast rises to an uncommon height, occasions such a swell and agitation, that it is both surprising and formidable.

Columbus, before he was aware of the danger, was entangled with those adverse currents, and owed his safety by boldly venturing through a narrow strait which appeared so tremendous, that he called it La Boca del Drago: no sooner was the consternation subsided, than Columbus drew comfort and consolation from a circumstance, so full of peril. He wisely concluded, that such a vast body of water, could not be supplied by any island, but must flow through a country of immense extent, and that he had now in consequence, arrived at that country, which had been the main object of his pursuit.

Full of this idea, he stood to the west along the coast of those provinces, now known by the names of Paria and Cumana. He landed in several places, and found the inhabitants resembled those of Hispaniola; they wore, as ornaments, small plates of gold, and pearls of considerable value, which they willingly exchanged for European toys. Their understanding and courage appeared superior to the inhabitants of the islands.

This country produced four-footed animals of different kinds, and a great variety of fowls and fruit. The admiral was so much delighted with its fertility, that with the warm enthusiasm of a discoverer, he imagined it to be the paradise described in Scripture, which the Almighty had chosen for the residence of man, while he was innocent and worthy of such a possession.

Thus, Columbus had the glory of discovering a new world, making considerable progress towards a perfect knowledge of it, and was the first man that conducted the Spaniards to that vast settlement, which has been the chief seat of their empire, and and source of their treasures. The weak situation of his ships, scarcity of provisions, and his own infirmities, together with the impatience of his crew, made it necessary for him to steer away for Hispaniola. On the thirtieth of August, 1498, he reached that island, and found the colony in such a situation, as left him no prospect of enjoying that repose, which he stood so much in need

of. Many changes had happened, during his absence. His brother, the Adelantado, agreeable to former instructions, had removed the colony from Isabella, to a more convenient station, on the opposite side of the island, and laid the foundation of the town of St. Domingo.

As soon as they were established in this new settlement, the Adelantado, to prevent the people from forming new cabals, marched into other parts of the island, which his brother had not yet reduced to obedience; as the people were unable to resist, they submitted every where to the tribute imposed. While the Adelantado was thus employed, an alarming mutiny broke out, among the Spaniards: the ringleader was Francis Roldan, who was placed by Columbus, to be the guardian of order and tranquillity, in the colony.

The arguments he employed to seduce his countrymen, were frivolous and ill-founded. He accused Columbus, and his three brothers of arrogance and severity. He insinuated, that they aimed at establishing an independent dominion in the country; for this purpose, they designed to cut off part of the Spaniards, by hunger and fatigue, that they might the more easily, reduce the remainder to subjection; he said, it was unworthy of Castilians, to be the tame and passive slaves of three Genoese ad


By these insiduous means, strengthened by his rank, a deep impression was made on the minds of his countrymen, already prepared to receive unfavourable impressions. A considerable number made choice of him, for their leader, and took up arms against the Adelantado, and his brother, seized the king's maga zine of provisions, and endeavoured to surprise the fort at St. Domingo. This was preserved by the vigilance of Don Diego Columbus. The mutineers were obliged to retire to the province of Xaragua, where they continued, not only to oppose the Adelan tado's authority themselves, but excited the Indians to throw off the yoke.

Such was the distracted state of the colony, when Columbus arrived. He was astonished to find that the three ships, which he had dispatched from the Canaries had not yet arrived. By want of skill in the pilots, and the violence of the currents, they had been carried one hundred and sixty miles west of St. Domingo, and forced to take shelter in the harbour of the province of Xaragua, where Roldan and his seditious followers were cantoned. Roldan carefully concealed from the commanders, his insurrec tion against the Adelantado, and employed all his art to gain their confidence, persuaded them to set on shore, a considerable part of of the new settlers, whom they brought over, that they might proceed by land, to St. Domingo.

It required no great argument with those men, to espouse his cause. They were the refuse of the jails of Spain. These were familiarized to deeds of violence, and eagerly returned to a course of life to which they had been accustomed. The commanders of

the ships were convinced, when it was too late, of their impru dence, and stood away for St. Domingo, and got safe into port a few days after their admiral.

These ships brought but small relief to the colony, their provisions being much reduced, by the length of the voyage. Roldan, by the additional force of his new associates, became extremely formidable, and extravagant in his demands. Columbus, filled with resentment at his ingratitude, and highly incensed, at the insolence of his followers, yet appeared in no haste to take the field. He trembled at the thoughts of kindling the flames of civil war. He saw with regret, that the prejudices and passions which had excited the rebels to take arms, had infected those who still adhered to him, and were all cold to the service. He therefore chose to negociate rather than fight. By a seasonable proclamation, offering free pardon to such as returned to their duty, he made impressions on some of the malecontents. To those who were desirous of returning to Spain, he gave full liberty: by this he allured, all those who were disgusted with the country, and disappointed in their views. He soothed Roldan's pride, by promising to restore him to his former office; and by complying with the demands of others, he satisfied their avarice. Thus gradually, and without bloodshed, after several tedious negociations, he dissolved a confederacy that threatened ruin to the colony, and restored order and regular government.

This mutinous disposition in the people, prevented Columbus from prosecuting his discoveries on the continent. As soon as his affairs would permit, he sent some of his ships to Spain, with an account of the voyage he had made, together with a description of the countries, which he had discovered; a chart of the coast along which he sailed; also specimens of the gold, pearls, and other curiosities found there. At the same time, he transmitted an account of the insurrection in Hispaniola. Roldan and his followers, did not neglect to convey to Spain, by the same ships, an apology for their conduct, and recriminated upon the admiral, and his brothers.

Unfortunately for the honour of Spain, and the happiness of Columbus, Roldan gained the most credit at court, and produced unexpected. events. The perpetual occupation and disquiet, which the malecontents in the colony, gave him, prevented him from attending to the machinations of his enemies, in the court of Spain. Several of these had embraced the opportunity of returning to Europe, in the ships Columbus had dispatched from St. Domingo.


Inflamed with rage at the disappointment of all their hopes, their poverty and distress excited compassion, and gave their accusations the appearance of probability, and made their complaints interesting. They teazed Ferdinand and Isabella, with memorials, containing an account of their own grievances, and charges against Columbus. Whenever the king and queen appeared in public, they were surrounded by a crowd of petitioners,

demanding payment of arrears due to them, and vengeance on Columbus, as the author of their sufferings. The admiral's sons, were insulted wherever they met them, reproaching them as the offspring of a projector, whose fatal curiosity had discovered those pernicious regions, which drained Spain of its wealth, and would prove the grave of its people.

These endeavours to ruin Columbus, were powerfully seconded by that part of courtiers, who had always thwarted his schemes, and were stung with envy at his success and credit.

Ferdinand listened with a willing and partial ear to every accusation; time had now diminished the first sensations of joy, which the discovery of the New World had occasioned, and fame alone was not sufficient to satisfy the cold and avaricious mind of Ferdinand. He considered Spain as a loser by the enterprize of Columbus, and imputed it to his incapacity for government, that a country abounding in gold, had not yielded a greater value to its conquerors. Even Isabella began to give way to the number and boldness of his accusers, and concluded, that there must have been some occasion, on his part, that caused such heavy com plaints against him. This was no sooner known, than a resolution fatal to Columbus was taken.

Francis de Bovadilla, a knight of Calatrava was appointed to repair to Hispaniola, with full powers to inquire into the conduct of Columbus; and, if he found the charge of mal-administration proved against him, to supercede him in the government. It was impossible for Columbus to escape condemnation, when this preposterous commission made it the interest of the judge to find him guilty.

Though Columbus had restored tranquility in the island, though he had brought both Spaniards, and Indians, to submit quietly to his government, yet the interested Rovadilla, without attending to the merit of those services, shewed a determined purpose of treating him as criminal. He seized the admiral's house in St. Domingo, when he was absent, with all his effects; he rendered himself master of the fort, and the king's stores, by violence; and required all persons to acknowledge him as supreme governor; he set at liberty all the prisoners confined by the admiral; and summoned him to appear before his tribunal to answer for his conduct, sending him at the same time a copy of the royal man. date, by which Columbus was enjoined to yield implicit obedience to his commands.

Columbus, though deeply affected with the ingratitude and injustice of Ferdinand and Isabella, submitted with a respectful silence to the will of his sovereigns, and repaired directly to the court of that violent and partial judge. Bovadilla, without admitting him to his presence, ordered him instantly to be arrested, loaded with chains, and hurried on board a ship. Under this hu miliating reverse of fortune, that firmness of mind which had hitherto supported him, did not forsake him. Conscious of his own integrity, and solacing himself with the great things he had

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achieved, he endured this insult, not only with that composure, but dignity that surprised and over-awed his enemies.

Bovadilla to excuse his own conduct, and to load Columbus with infamy, encouraged all persons, however infamous, to lodge infor mations, though false and inconsistent against him; out of these Bovadilla collected materials to support an accusation, which he transmitted to Spain, at the same time that he ordered Columbus and his two brothers to be carried thither in fetters. And added the cruel insult of confining the brothers in different ships, exclu ding them from that friendly intercourse, which might have soothed them under such accumulated distress.

But although the Spaniards in Hispaniola approved of the arbitrary and cruel proceedings of Bovadilla, there was one man who still remembered how much his countrymen were indebted to Columbus; and was touched with pity for the man who had performed such great actions. This was Alonzo de Valejo, the captain of the vessel on board of which the admiral was confined. As soon as he was clear of the island, he approached his prisoner with great respect, and offered to release him from the fetters with which he was so unjustly loaded. "No," replied Columbus, with a noble indignation, "I wear these irons in consequence of "an order from my sovereigns; they shall find me as obedient to "this, as to their other injunctions. By their command I am "brought into this situation, and their command alone, shall set "me at liberty."

The voyage to Spain was fortunately very short. As soon as Ferdinand and Isabella were informed that Columbus was brought home a prisonor, in chains, they felt the necessity of disavowing all such inhuman proceedings. They saw, that all Europe would be filled with indignation at such ungenerous conduct towards a man, to whom they were so much ndebted, and who had performed actions worthy of the highest recompense. Ashamed of their own conduct, and eager to make some reparation for this injury, as well as to efface the stain upon their own characters, they instantly issued orders to set Columbus at liberty; invited him to court; and remitted money to enable him to appear there in a manner suitable to his rank.

When he came into the royal presence, the various passions which agitated his mind for a time suppressed the power of utterance. He at length recovered himself, and justified his conduct by producing the fullest proof of his innocence, and integrity, and exposed the evil designs of his enemies. Who, not contented with having ruined his fortune, aimed a deadly blow at his honour and fame. He was treated by Ferdinand with decent civility: by Isabella with tenderness and respect. They concurred in expressing their sorrow for the treatment he had so unjustly received, disavowed their knowledge of it, and promised him protection and future favour.

Bovadilla was instantly degraded, that all suspicion might be removed from themselves, as authors of such disgraceful and vio

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