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heart of the country, to obstruct its commerce, altar of our common country, to lay the Con to excite war on its borders, and to endanger stitution upon it, and to swear that the Conits stability.

stitution shall be maintained and the Union Has South Carolina any right to draw her preserved. He thought it better to preserve sister States into one common ruin? Mr. the Union, even if we had a quarrel with the Johnson here quoted from Gov. Gist's Mes- North sometimes. It was better to quarrel sage and from Mr. Keitt's speeches to show with the North occasionally than to quarrel that such was the intention. He (Johnson) among ourselves. Mr. Johnson here referred would tell South Carolina that, as far as Ten- to the remark of the Senator from Georgia

cerned, she would not be (Iverson) about some Texas Brutus arising to dragged into a Southern or any other Con- relieve that State of her Governor unless he federacy until she had time to consider about should conform to the wishes of the people. it! He would also tell the Northern States This, he (Johnson) said, does not look much that Tennessee would not be driven out of like harmony. He appealed to the South to the Confederacy either. If the Abolitionists pause and consider before they rashly go too wanted to abolish Slavery, the first step they far. He earnestly appealed to the North to would take would be to dissolve the Union. come forward with propositions of peace, conThe existence of Slavery demands a preserva- ciliation, and concession. They know that tion of the Union. What protection will the Congress has power to-day to arrest secession Border States have if the Union is dissolved, and save the Union. Will they come forward, whose property is at stake, and whose inter- or desert the sinking ship? For one he would ests are most endangered? If a division were stand supporting the edifice of his country as commenced, where would it stop? Rather long as human efforts could last. Mr. Johnthan see the Government divided into thirty- son closed with a strong, earnest, and eloquent three petty, wrangling powers, he would see appeal for all to stand by the Constitution it a consolidated Government and consoli- and the Union, dated power.

What is the reason for dis This speech from a Southern man of great union? Because our man was not elected ! influence in his State materially strengthened If Mr. Breckenridge had been elected, not one the cause of the Union. It awakened the would have wanted to break up the Union; Union men of the Border Slave States to a but Mr. Lincoln is elected, and now they say full comprehension of the crisis and its relathey will break up the Union. He said, No. tions to their interests; for, unlike all other What was there to fear ? Mr. Lincoln was a Union speeches, it had a large circulation minority President. Let South Carolina send among the people of those States. her Senators back, and Mr. Lincoln cannot [A part of the system of

Settled System of even make a Cabinet without the consent of disunion tactics, from the

Deception the Senate. Was he to be such a coward as early stages of the moveto retreat when it was evident the South had ment, was to keep the large body of the peothe power in their own hands? Was he to ple ignorant of the true nature of the relabe so cowardly as to desert a noble band at tions and sentiments of the North by supthe North who stood by the South on prin- pressing - except in garbled and perverted ciple? Yet, for a temporary defeat it is pro-versions--all documents and statements calposed to turn our backs on them and leave culated to enlighten the Southern people, them to their fate. We have nothing to do in the fullest sense. Probably the world but to stand firmly at our posts like men, and never has known so intelligent a people to be in four years' time Lincoln and his party will so hoodwinked and deceived by its orators both be hurled from power. What reason, and presses as the people of the Southern then, is there for desertion and the breaking States during the year 1860. A Northern up of the Government? He believed that we man, cognisant of all sides of the argument, could obtain all needed guarantees. He en- and knowing all the given facts of parties, treated every patriot to come forward in the principles and men, in reading a paper pubspirit of brotherly love, to stand around the lished anywhere South of Kentucky would be

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GOVERNOR PICKENS' INAUGURAL.

93

amazed at its apparent ignorance. It was but|(Republican), of Massachu

Resolution of apparent, however; for, with free access to all setts, read a resolution, “for

Inquiry. correct sources of information, Southern edi- information," as follows: tors could have produced as correct journals " Whereas, by report of the proceedings in the as their readers had a right to demand. State Convention of South Carolina, held on the 19th That they, daily and weekly, issued papers, inst., the Hon. Wm. Porcher Miles, a Member of this every column of which was loaded with mis- House, used the following language: 'In a converstatements, and with matter calculated to in-sation, and subsequently in a written communication fluence the passions and prejudices of South- to the President, I know this to have been said: 'If ern men against the North, against the Union, you send a solitary soldier to these forts, the instant against individuals and enterprises, is to their the intelligence reaches our people, and we shall

take care that it does reach us before it can reach lasting dishonor; and the future historian

the forts, the forts will be taken, because such a will refer to them as exemplars of a policy

course is necessary to our safety and self-preservafrom which Machiavelli could have drawn

tion;' therefore, rich materials with which to instruct his

Resolved, That the President be required to comPrince. Constant familiarity with Southern municate to the House what information he has rejournals for several years past has forced usceived, either oral or in writing, to the effect that if to believe that the press of the South is more the forts of Charleston are further reinforced, the directly responsible for the revolution than forts will be taken by any force or authority hostile the leading actors in it. This view is con

to the authority and supremacy of the United firmed by the opinions of many eminent

States." and candid Southern men.]

The reading of this resolution and preamMr. Breckenridge, Speak- ble caused much excitement on the Southern The Committee of Thirteen.

er of the Senate, on the side of the House. Taken in connection

20th, announced the Com- with Mr. Clarke's Resolution of Inquiry in mittee of Thirteen, on the Crisis, under Mr. the Senate, it foreshadowed a purpose to Powell's resolution, viz. :—Messrs. Powell, compel the President to reveal all his dealHunter, Crittenden, Seward, Toombs, Doug- ings with the conspirators against the Union las, Collamer, Davis, Wade, Bigler, Rice,

-a revelation which Southern Members, and Doolittle and Grimes. Mr. Davis (Reuben), a few Northern Democrats strenuously opof Mississippi, was, at his own request, ex- posed. cused, " on account of the position in which No further proceedings of interest to our the State stood." He afterwards, however, subject transpired in either Houses during consented, at the request of Southern Sena- the week, the Pacific Railroad Bill, the Detors, to serve.

ficiency Bill, &c., &c., being under consideraIn the House, December 20th, Mr. Delano tion.

CHAPTER XIV.

THE SOUTH CAROLINA CONVENTION. THE ORDINANCE OF SECES

SION. GENERAL PROCEEDINGS. THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE ADOPTED.

The Convention's

The South Carolina Con- | ordinance proper to be Assembling of the

The Ordinance of Se vention of Delegates as adopted by the ConvenConvention.

cession, sembled in Columbia, De- tio was submitted by Mr. cember 17th. After four ballots for Presi- Inglis, viz:dent, General D. F. Jamison was chosen to “ AN ORDINANCE to dissolve the Union between the preside over its deliberations. The smallpox State of South Carolina and other States United raging as an epidemic at Columbia, induced with her under the Compact entitled 'the Constithe Convention to adjourn to Charleston.

tution of the United States of America.' Hon. F. W. Pickens hav “We, the people of the State of South Carolina, in Governor Pickens

ing been elected Governor Convention assembled, do declare and ordain, and it Inaugurated by the Legislature, was in- is hereby declared and ordained, that the ordinance

adopted by us in Convention, on the 23d day of May, augurated December 17th. His message was

in the year of our Lord 1788, whereby the Constituquite up to the sentiment of the State. Mr.

tion of the United States of America was ratified, Pickens was chosen Governor for his firmness, and also all Acts and parts of Acts of the General sagacity, and strong Southern feelings. His Assembly of this State ratifying the amendments of succeeding administration proved him to the said Constitution, are hereby repealed, and that have been an able and judicious officer. the union now subsisting between South Carolina

Dec. 19th, theConvention and other States under the name of the United States

assembled in Charleston, of America is hereby dissolved." Proceedings.

and held a session, on that This was passed by the unanimous vote of day, chiefly to organize, name committees, 169, at quarter past one o'clock, P.M., (Deand

prepare for business. As preliminary to cember 20th.) The fact of its adoption, was ima full understanding of the responsibilities mediately given to the great crowd gathered and changes to be incurred by secession, mem- in front of the building, created the wildbers had a free interchange of sentiments-- est enthusiasm, while the news flew over Chancellor Dunken and Judge Magrath mak- the wires to the uttermost corners of the ing speeches. Several important resolutions, Union, to excite and interest the public. looking to a Conference of States to form a An interesting debate new Government, to a Commission of adjust- followed, in the Conven Interesting Debate. ment to the President, &c., &c., were referred tion, upon the adoption. to the proper Committees.

In order to show how the act affected the On the 20th, a Committee was named to immediate interests of the State, in the draft a Summary of Causes of the secession of opinion of the leading men of the ConvenSouth Carolina. Mr. Rhett's resolution to tion, we may give a summary of their reappoint a Committee of Thirteen for the pur- marks; pose of providing for the assemblage of a Mr Magrath-I think the special matter of Convention of the Seceding States, and to the ordinance should be immediately conform a constitution, was adopted. A report sidered. To my understanding there is no from the Committee to prepare and draft an collector of the port nor postmaster now

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INTERESTING

DEBATE.

95

within the limits of South Carolina. What Mr. Maseyck-There is no duty for the you have done to-day has extinguished the Collector of the port to do. The Post-office authority of every man in Carolina deriving has been swept off. My opinion is that the authority from the General Government. I present system of postai arrangement is a am in favor of this body making such pro- nuisance. The public can be better served visional arrangements as may be necessary, in by private parties between cities like Philathe interval which may exist between this delphia and New York for one cent instead moment and the time when the Legislature of three, and between less important, ten or may act, I am not, however, to be implicated more cents. as sanctioning the idea that there is no lawful Mr. Calhoun-We have pulled a temple authority, within the limits of the State, ex- down that has been built three-quarters of a cept the General Government.

century. We must clear the rubbish away to Mr. Gregg--After South Carolina abroga- reconstruct another. We are now houseless ted the Constitution of the United States, and homeless, and we must secure ourselves are its laws still in force ? I think not. All against storms. the laws of Congress fall instantly to the Mr. Dunkin-If that ordinance be passed, ground, on the act of secession.

things will go on in the Custom-house and Mr. Cheves-As an immense chasm will be Post-office exactly as now, until other armade in the law, and as it is necessary, to rangements can be made by this Convention. avoid inconvenience to the people, we must There is nothing in the ordinance to affect make some temporary arrangements to carry the dignity, honor, and welfare of the State on the government.

of South Carolina. We must keep the wheels Mr. Gregg—There is no law on the subject of the Government going. The Constitution of the collection of the duties in South Caro- of the United States is not entirely abrogated lina now. We have now accomplished the by the ordinance. What is legal tender in work after forty years.

the payment of debts? Is it not gold and Mr. Flaynes—The Congress of the United silver of the United States? In the case of States is no longer our government. It will clearing and entry of vessels, we are very be for our Legislature to say what laws of liable to have the same confiscated. the United States shall be continued, and Mr. Carroll—The present revenue would be what not. The simple act of secession does continued till an act of the Legislature aunot abrogate all the laws. We have a great thorized otherwise. many laws on our statute books, which were Mr. Brown—There is no longer communipassed by the Governor and the Privy Council. cation with the Government from which we

Mr. Gregg-The Congressional laws for the are just separated. collection of revenue, are for the support of Mr. Dunkin-The spirit of the ordinance the Federal Government at Washington, and must be temporarily sustained till we treat all our Post-Office laws fall, on our dissolu- with the General Government. tion with that Government.

Mr. Gregg—The President of the United Mr Miles-We have to deal with facts and States has thrown down the gauntlet in his stern realities. We must prevent confusion, Message. He has said that it was his duty to anarchy and the derangement of our Govern- collect the revenue, and that he would do it. ment affairs. Things must, for the present, On one side, the Federal Government claims remain in statu quo, or confusion will arise. the right and declares its intention to execute

Mr. Hayne-Sudden action is injurious. the powers of collecting revenue in our ports;

Mr. Chestnut—Two questions are involved on the other side we have declared that we -power and duty. We must preserve our are free. I desire no compromise. Is it necespeople, not only from inconvenience but cha- sary to maintain the 15 to 40 per cent. duties otic condition. We must revivify such laws imposed by the Congress of the United States ? as will best preserve us from calamities. As Should these duties continue to be levied, to duty, if you turn the ship of State adrift our people will suffer a terrible calamity. For what will become of the officers ?

carrying the mails, let the present contracts

The Declaration of

Causes

Causes.

be assumed by South Carolina instead of the this State, to exercise the office to which I have been United States.

appointed, and will, to the best of my ability, disMr. Rhett—This great revolution must go charge the duty of the office, and preserve, protect, on with as little anger as possible to the and defend the Constitution of this state, so help me

God." country. By making the Federal agents ours, the machinery will move on.

As the Convention sat, on all important oc

The Federal laws of taxation must not exist over us. Icasions, in secret session, much of its protrust that the present system of taxation has ceedings are veiled in mystery. By a special fallen forever.

vote a reporter was rejected, and a resolution Mr. Barnwell—We have seceded from the not to have the proceedings printed, passed United States, and established our indepen

with only three negative votes. dence. We can't allow the United States to

The Declaration of Cauexercise authority over us any more. Let

ses was not definitively postal convenience be sacrificed if necessary. accepted until the evening There never was anything purchased worth session of Monday, December 24th. It was having unless it cost a sacrifice.

amended, verbally, in several cases, and, as Mr. Maseyck said in regard to the mail, all adopted, reads as follows :restrictions must be removed. Let us appoint DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH CAROLINA. our own officers. Let the Collector of the

Done in Convention, December 24, 1860. port battle with the difficulties as they come.

" The State of South Carolina, having determined At 3:40 P. M., the Convention took a recess, to resume her separate and equal place among nato meet at Institute Hall at 6 o'clock, for the tions, deems it due to herself, to the remaining United purpose of signing the ordinance.

States of America, and to the

The Declaration of As the Convention was leaving St. An- nations of the world, that she drew's Hall, the chimes of St. Michael's Epis- should declare the causes which copal Church pealed forth “Old Lang Syne,” have led to this act. and other tunes.

“In the year 1765, that portion of the British EmOn the 21st, Mr. Rhett, pire embracing Great Britain, undertook to make Further Acts. Chairman of the Commit- | laws for the government of that portion composed

tee on an address on the of the thirteen American Colonies. A struggle for causes of the Secession of the State, report- the right of self-government ensued, which resulted

on the 4th of July, 1776, in a Declaration by the Coed. The Commissioners were elected “to treat with the United States,” viz:-Ex-Gov- and independent States, and that, as free and inde

lonies,'t that they are, and of right ought to be, free ernor J. H. Adams, Ex-Congressman J. L. pendent States, they have full power to levy war, to Orr and Mr. R. W. Barnwell, who were au conclude peace, contract alliances, establish comthorized to proceed immediately to Wash-merce, and to do all other acts and things which inington, to enter upon negotiations for a dependent States may of right do.. peaceful settlement of the relations between "They further solemnly declared, that whenever the United States and the “sovereign” State any form of government becomes destruetive of the of South Carolina, including the transfer of ends for which it was established, it is the right of the forts, &c. A Committee reported a mod

* See page 48, “A queer case.” The modificaification of the Constitution of the State,* so tion of the oath was in defiance of the State Constitufar as to substitute a new oath of allegiance, tion, which positively stipulated that no part of that viz:

instrument should be altered, "unless a bill to alter “ All persons who shall be elected or appointed the same shall have been read three times, &c., and to any office of profit or trust, before entering into agreed to by two-thirds of both branches, &o.; the execution thereof, shall take, besides special neither shall any alteration take place until the bill, oaths not repugnant to this Constitution prescribed as agreed to, be published three months previous to a by the General Assembly, the following oath : new election,” &c., &c. The delegates doubtless

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will bear assumed the principle that desperate emergencies faithful and true allegiance to South Carolina, so require desperate resorts. The entire proceedings long as I may continue a citizen thereof, and that I of the Convention were illegal according to the Con. am duly qualified, according to the Constitution of stitution of the State.

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