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L. Yancey, Jefferson Davis, Robert Toombs | vention bill was adopted—December 6th be U. S. Senator Iverson, U. S. Senator Benjamin ing fixed as the day for the election of deleU. S. Senator Wigfall, U. S. Senator Cling- gates, the Convention to meet December 17th. man, U. S. Senator Clay, Jr., and Messrs. Ma- These “precipitate” deson, Wise and Hunter, of Virginia.

monstrations gave especial Virginia's Protest. By the middle of Novem- alarm to the Union men in. The DramaUnfolding. Hon

13. ber the progress of the the South, who were rapidly becoming power

the progress of th movement was perceptible, as will be indicat- less before the growing feeling against any ared by the dispatches of the 15th, viz. : rangement with the North. In Virginia, al

CHARLESTON, S. C. though the disunion sentiment largely preSouth Carolina is decidedly in earnest. There is vailed, the disinclination to precipitate steps but one voice here now; it is for secession. Union was so strong as to call forth such protests as and conservative parties are dead. Visible excite the following, from the Alexandria Gazette, ment has abated, but resolves are more intense than

| against the course of South Carolina : ever. South Carolinians are done arguing; they act

“ Throwing aside the question of Constitutional now. The Mayor of Charleston has forbidden steer

right to secede at all, there is something due to age passengers to land, unless steamship companies

comity, to neighborhood associations, to propriety. enter into bonds to support them in event of becom

No man has a right,' by setting fire to his own in g incumbrances.

MONTGOMERY, Ala.

house, to endanger the house of his neighbor. Vir

ginia, in this Union, or out of it as a sovereign, and Gov. Moore, of Alabama, awaits the election of

as potential as South Carolina, and has her own inLincoln by the electoral college, on the fifth of De

terests to look after, her own rights to be secured, cember, before calling a State Convention. He will

her own feelings to be respected—and she will de. issue his call on the 6th of December, fixing election

mand this from South Carolina, just as much as she of delegates for the 24th. The Convention assembles

would from any other State in the present United 7th January, 1861. The Convention will be compos

States. It would seem as if in the course now ed of one hundred members. From the indications

pursued, fearing the conservative action of Virginia, given in private correspondence from leading men

and not desiring, in truth,' a United South,' certain in each county, at least seventy-five members of the

Cotton States were for going off by themselves, for Convention will be for unconditional disunion.

the mere sake of forming a Cotton Confederacy,' MILLEDGE VILLE, Ga.

totally irrespective of other Southern States which The leading men of all parties had a conference

do not recognize Cotton as their King, and totally to-day, and unanimously agreed to a State Conven

regardless of any interests or any views but their tion. They recommend resistance, the time and

own. It used to be a “ United South !" It was formode to be settled by the Convention. Good feeling

merly Disunion and Secession for aggression by the prevailed.

TALLAHASSE, Fla.

General Government. It is now a disunited South“Florida is with the gallant Palmetto flag,” said a

secession on account of the untoward result of a dispatch from Governor Perry, of that State, to Gov.

Presidential election! This is not the way to uphold ernor Gist, of South Carolina.

the rights of the States, and the rights of the South.

It is weakening our own position, and destroying our

RICHMOND, Va. Governor Letcher has called an extra session of

own strength.” the Legislature for the 7th of January, to take into

To this view of the case

The Iron Rule. consideration the condition of public affairs, and de- | the Charleston Mercury retermine calmly and wisely what action is necessary | plied : in this emergency.

“ Virginia and the other frontier States may as November 10th, in the

well at once understand their position with the Cot

| ton States. They are not expected to aid the Cotton South Carolina Acts. South Carolina Legislature,

States in protecting themselves and redeeming their important action was had

liberties. They will practically aid the Northern A bill was reported for the immediate en

States in attempting to obtain in the South an acqui. rolment of 10,000 volunteers. November 21st

escence in the rule of Abolitionists at Washington. was fixed as a day of humiliation, fasting | The Southern States, however, will disregard their and prayer. The resignations of Messrs. Ham-counsels. They want no conference but in the con. mond and Chestnut, United States Senators, vention which will assemble to frame the Constituwere accepted “enthusiastically.” The Con- tion, and complete the organization of a Southern

ACTION OF

GOVERNORS ÁND LEGISLATURES.

85

Terms of Settlement

!

Confederacy. They intend to secede from the Union, The conservative element and construct a Union amongst themselves, and will in the South, it was hoped,

to be proposed. be glad to find Virginia and the other Border States would rally around a proin counsel with them, after this great Revolution. position of this kind; but, no concerted symBut if these value their own dignity ,or respect our

pathy was expressed, and all hopes of the prowishes, let them keep aloof from us until they are

posed Conference were abandoned at an early prepared to dissolve their connection with the present Union, and to unite their destinies with that of day. Under the influence of an ever-increasthe other Southern States. If they will not be our

ing sentiment for disunion and “further indefriends, let them not be our enemies, by unsolicited pendence,” the Unionists in Alabama, Georand undesired efforts under whatever amiable pre- gia, and Mississippi were soon left in the text-of preserving an abolished Union, to subject small minority. The immediate Secessionists us to the sectional despotism of a consolidated gov- began at length to speak of them derisively ernment under the control of abolitionists at Wash as “submissionists,” began to use them disington. The day for new guarantees is gone. courteously at first, but soon proceeded to Henceforth we are two peoples.”

intimidate by threats. Before South CaroThe Conference demanded by Virginia lina had actually seceded, in the cotton growlooked to a united effort before Congress, and ing States a strong Unionist was regarded as all action for secession was to be withheld an enemy to the South, and was treated with until after the failure to obtain from Con- such opposition as made it impolitic for a. gress the necessary guarantees. It was un citizen to speak his sentiments if they were derstood by her leading men that the Repub- averse to precipitate action. It was given licans in Congress would patiently and will-out, and became the generally received opiningly consider plans for compromise, and ion, that " in view of the increasing power Virginia, if she could stay the revolution be- of the Disunionists in the South, the conserfore it passed beyond the actual point of se- vatives of that quarter, headed by Henry S. cession, had fair hopes of still preserving the Foote of Mississippi, Alexander H. Stephens Union. The programme determined upon of Georgia, Isaac E. Morse of Louisiana, Gen. by the Virginia leaders embraced, first, a re- Sam Houston of Texas, George W. Jones of peal of the statutes nullifying the Fugitive Tennessee, the Hon. John M. Botts, Timothy Slave law by those States which have passed Rives, and William C: Rives of Virginia, Alsuch statutes, with a guarantee of a faithful bert Rust of Arkansas, and James Guthrie of enforcement of that law in the future; second, Kentucky,intend issuing a manifesto, assuring a concession that the Constitution authorizes the conservative people of the Free States the carrying of slaves into the common terri- that in no event will the constitutional electory, and consequent protection for slave pro- tion of Mr. Lincoln be regarded as a cause perty therein; and, third, that neither Con- for breaking up the Union, unless he should gress nor the Executive shall interfere with attack the rights of the South.” But, if slavery in the States or Territories, except for such an address ever was contemplated or its protection in the latter when necessary.

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proposed, it never was published.

CHAPTER IV.

ACTION OF GOVERNORS, LEGISLATURES, &C..

All attention now be- of offence. The bill appropriating one milGeorgia Convention ordered.

came centered in the action lion dollars, to arm and equip the State, be

of the Southern State Legis- came a law, November 13th. On the 18th latures. Georgia followed South Carolina in the Convention bill passed unanimously—the calling a Convention. A special message of election of delegates being ordered for JanuGovernor Brown had paved the way for such ary 2d (1861); to meet Jan. 9th. The preamlegislation as placed the State in an attitude ble of the Convention bill read :

Whereas, The present crisis in national affairs, in Whereas, In consequence of the appointment of the judgment of this General Assembly, demands re- Electors, a majority of whom are known to be favorsistance; and

able to the election of sectional candidates as PresiWhereas, It is the privilege of the people to deter- dent and Vice-President of the United States, whose mine the mode, measure, and time of such resistance: principles and views are believed (by a large portherefore,

tion of the Southern States) to be in direct hostility The General Assembly enacts that the Governor to their constitutional rights and interests, and in issue his proclamation, ordering the election on the consequence thereof great excitement prevails in 2d of January

the public mind, and prudence requires that the reIts powers were defined in the fourth sec- presentatives of the people of this Commonwealth tion of the bill, which read:-"Said Conven- should take into consideration the condition of pubtion, when assembled, may consider all grie- lic affairs, and determine, calmly and wisely, what vances impairing or affecting the equality of action is necessary in this emergency, therefore, I, rights of the people of Georgia as members John Letcher, Governor, by virtue of the authority of the United States , and determine the mode, aforesaid, do hereby require the Senators and Dele

gates of the two Houses of the General Assembly of measure, and time of redress.”

the Commonwealth to convene at the Capitol, in the The Governor of Missis-city of Richmond, on Monday, the 7th day of JanuaMississippi Legisla

sippi called the Legislature ry, A. D. 1861, at 12 o'clock, M., to legislate upon ture Convened.

of that State to meet on such subjects as they may deem necessary and prothe 26th of November. His proclamation per.” read :

This was accompanied by an announcement Whereas, The people of the Non-Slaveholding in the Dispatch, of Richmond, to the effect States have in various forms, declared purposes hos that the State could efficiently arm 25,000 tile to the institutions of the Slaveholding States, troops. The editor further stated that she and the State Governments of nearly all the Northern had at least sixty bronze and rified field States have evinced a settled purpose to evade their pieces and howitzers. “A contract has been constitutional obligations, and disregard their oaths in carrying on this war on the rights and institutions made for 3,000 shells and shrapnells, in addi

tion to those purchased with the Parrott of Southern States; and

Whereas, The recent election of Messrs. Lincoln guns. Five hundred barrels of Dupont powand Hamlin demonstrates that those who neither der has been purchased and stored in magareverence the Constitution, obey the laws, nor re

zines built for the purpose. The model of a gard their oaths, have now the power to elect to the new Virginia musket is determined on. Othhighest offices in the Confederacy men who sympa er warlike preparations are also in progress.” thize with them in all their mad zeal to destroy the The Dispatch, referring to the Governor's call, peace, property and prosperity of the Southern sec. and the crisis which the Legislature would tion, and who will use the powers of the Federal have to meet, said:Government to defeat all the purposes for which it

"By the time they meet, the crisis will be suffiwas formed; and

ciently developed, no doubt, to demand some action “Whereas, The dearest rights of the people depend on the part of Virginia. She will then find, very for protection, under our Constitution, on the fidelity probably, that the question for her to debate is ripe. to their oaths of those who administer the Govern. Ten days have very much changed the appearance ment:

of things. The signs from the South leave little “Now, therefore, that the State of Mississippi may room to hope that the Union will long remain unbe enabled to take into consideration the propriety broken. If there is a possibility of preserving it, or and necessity of providing surer and better safeguards of prevailing upon States which may secede to rejoin for the lives, liberties, and property of her citizens the Union, we cannot long postpone deliberation than have been found, or are to be hoped for, in upon the means by which either is to be done. There Black Republican oaths:

may be yet another question for Virginia, and that “I, John J. Pettus, Governor of the State of Mis- is, if secession cannot be avoided, and the Seceding sissippi, exercising the powers in me vested," &c.,&c. States cannot be induced to return, what course is

Governor Letcher's pro- left her to pursue ? It is probable that Governor Virginia Legislature clamation next followed. Letcher will renew his proposition to the last LegisConvened.

He used, among other ex- lature for a Convention of the States, ander the fifth pressions, the following:

article of the Constitution, to consider the state of

THE

GOVERNOR OF KENTUCKY'S VIEWS,

87

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the country, and see if some measure cannot be be governed by a party who entertain the most taken, which will restore harmony to the Union and deadly hostility toward them and their institution of protect the rights and equality of the States from Slavery. They are loyal and true to the Union, but fanaticism and radicalism."

will never consent to remain degraded and disGovernor Moore, of Louisiana, yielding to honored members of it.” the pressure of the State, issued his call, Governor Magoffin, of Ken

The Governor of Ken (November 19th,) for the Convention of the tucky, in an address to his

tucky's Views. Legislature, December 10th.

people, took a position adGovernor Moore, of Ala- verse to the secession movement. His words Alabama Governor's Views.

bama, in answer to inqui- were strong in condemning the unconstitu

ries of leading citizens of tionality of the Personal Liberty acts, and the State in regard to his views, answered by those other acts which had done injury to an elaborate paper, under date of November the South. He regarded Slavery as neces14th, taking the ground that secession was sary to the prosperity of the North. He said, not only a right—but a necessity. He took among other things : the position that the President had no power,

“ To South Carolina, and such other States as under the Constitution, to coerce a state, say- may wish to secede from the Union, I would say: ing:—“ If a State withdraws from the Union, The geography of this country will not admit of a the Federal Government has no power, under division; the mouth and sources of the Mississippi.

River cannot be separated without the horrors of the Constitution, to use the military force

civil war. We cannot sustain you in this movement against her, for there is no law to enforce the merely on account of the election of Lincoln. Do submission of a sovereign State, nor would not precipitate us, by premature action, into a revosuch a withdrawal be either an insurrection lution or civil war, the consequences of which will or an invasion.” This view of the want of be most frightful to all of us. It may yet be avoidpower in the Executive to coerce a State, we ed. There is still hope, faint though it be. Kenmay add, was that quite generally entertained tucky is a border State, and has suffered more than at the South, and it is certain the precipitate all of you. She claims that, standing upon the same Secessionists regarded that fact as one so im- sound platform, you will sympathize with her, and portant, that their wish was to get out of the stand by her, and not desert her in her exposed, Union before Mr. Lincoln came into power, that her voice, and the voice of reason, and modera

perilous, border position. She has a right to claim not knowing to what extent he might resort to force against them. Mr. Buchanan, it was

tion, and patriotism, shall be heard and heeded by

you. If you secede, your Representatives will go felt and understood, would not attempt coer

out of Congress, and leave us at the mercy of a Black cion, let the result be what it might.

Republican Government. Mr. Lincoln will have no Governor Moore's address added: check. He can appoint his Cabinet and have it con"We should remember that Alabama must act and firmed. The Congress will then be Republican, and decide the great question of resistance or submission he will be able to pass such laws as he may suggest. for herself. No other State has the right or the The Supreme Court will be powerless to protect us. power to decide it for her. She may, and should, We implore you to stand by us, and by our friends consult with other Slaveholding States to secure in the Free States, and let us all, the bold, the true, concert of action, but still she must decide the ques- and just men in the Free and the Slave States, with a tion for herself, and co-operate afterward.

united front stand by each other, by our principles, ** The contemplated Convention will not be the place by our rights, our equality, our honor, and by the for the timid or the rash. It should be composed of Union under the Constitution. I believe this is the men of wisdom and experience-men who have the only way to save it, and we can do it." capacity to determine what the honor of the State

The Arkansas Legislature met Nov. 13th, and the security of her people demand ; and patriot- but Governor Conway did not, in his message, ism and moral courage sufficient to carry out the dic- refer to the National troubles

. His silence tates of their honest judgments. “What will the intelligent and patriotic people or was variously construed, but it was underAlabama do in the impending crisis ? Judging of the stood that the people of the State were opfuture by the past, I believe they will prove them- posed to disunion. selves equal to the present, or any future emergency,

On the 14th of November, Mr. Alexander and never will consent to affiliate with, or submit to H. Stephens, afterwards Vice-President of the

Whereas, The present crisis in national affairs, in "Whereas, In consequence of the appointment of the judgment of this General Assembly, demands re- Electors, a majority of whom are known to be favor. sistance; and

able to the election of sectional candidates as PresiWhereas, It is the privilege of the people to deter- dent and Vice-President of the United States, whose mine the mode, measure, and time of such resistance: principles and views are believed (by a large portherefore,

tion of the Southern States) to be in direct hostility The General Assembly enacts that the Governor to their constitutional rights and interests, and in issue his proclamation, ordering the election on the consequence thereof great excitement prevails in 2d of January.

the public mind, and prudence requires that the reIts powers were defined in the fourth sec- presentatives of the people of this Commonwealth tion of the bill, which read:—"Said Conven- should take into consideration the condition of pubtion, when assembled, may consider all grie- lic affairs, and determine, calmly and wisely, what vances impairing or affecting the equality of action is necessary in this emergency, therefore, I, rights of the people of Georgia as members John Letcher, Governor, by virtue of the authority

aforesaid, do hereby require the Senators and Dele. of the United States, and determine the mode,

gates of the two Houses of the General Assembly of measure, and time of redress."

the Commonwealth to convene at the Capitol, in the The Governor of Missis

city of Richmond, on Monday, the 7th day of JanuaMississippi Legisla

sippi called the Legislature ry, A. D. 1861, at 12 o'clock, M., to legislate upon ture Convened.

of that State to meet on such subjects as they may deem necessary and prothe 26th of November. His proclamation per." read:

This was accompanied by an announcement " Whereas, The people of the Non-Slaveholding in the Dispatch, of Richmond, to the effect States have in various forms, declared purposes hos- that the State could efficiently arm 25,000 tile to the institutions of the Slaveholding States, troops. The editor further stated that she and the State Governments of nearly all the Northern had at least sixty bronze and rifled field States have evinced a settled purpose to evade their pieces and howitzers. “A contract has been constitutional obligations, and disregard their oaths in carrying on this war on the rights and institutions made for 3,000 shells and shrapnells, in addi

tion to those purchased with the Parrott of Southern States; and

"Whereas, The recent election of Messrs. Lincoln guns. Five hundred barrels of Dupont powand Hamlin demonstrates that those who neither der has been purchased and stored in magareverence the Constitution, obey the laws, nor re-zines built for the purpose. The model of a gard their oaths, have now the power to elect to the new Virginia musket is determined on. Othhighest offices in the Confederacy men who sympa- er warlike preparations are also in progress." thize with them in all their mad zeal to destroy the The Dispatch, referring to the Governor's call, peace, property and prosperity of the Southern sec- and the crisis which the Legislature would tion, and who will use the powers of the Federal have to meet, said:Government to defeat all the purposes for which it

"By the time they meet, the crisis will be suffiwas formed; and

ciently developed, no doubt, to demand some action “Whereas, The dearest rights of the people depend

on the part of Virginia. She will then find, very for protection, under our Constitution, on the fidelity probably, that the question for her to debate is ripe. to their oaths of those who administer the Govern. Ten days have very much changed the appearance ment:

of things. The signs from the South leave little "Now, therefore, that the State of Mississippi may room to hope that the Union will long remain unbe enabled to take into consideration the propriety broken. If there is a possibility of preserving it, or and necessity of providing surer and better safeguards of prevailing upon States which may secede to rejoin for the lives, liberties, and property of her citizens the Union, we cannot long postpone deliberation than have been found, or are to be hoped for, in upon the means by which either is to be done. There Black Republican oaths:

may be yet another question for Virginia, and that “ I, John J. Pettus, Governor of the State of Mis- is, if secession cannot be avoided, and the Seceding sissippi, exercising the powers in me vested," &c., &o. States cannot be induced to return, what course is

Governor Letcher's pro- left her to pursue ? It is probable that Governor Virginia Legislature clamation next followed. Leteher will renew his proposition to the last LegisConvened.

He used, among other ex- lature for a Convention of the States, under the fifth pressions, the following:

article of the Constitution, to consider the state of

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