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been robbed of his property by the failure of such | merce, in effect levying tribute, and the declaration faithless State to discharge its constitutional obliga of the Montgomery Congress in opening the Southtions, and forthwith to notify the Governor of such ern ports free to foreign commerce, John Cochrane, State of the seizure. In case the Governor of such of New York, will call up on Monday, and press to State shall fail, within thirty days from the time he a passage, the bill heretofore introduced by him, receives such notice, to cause the property of our [see page 305,) providing for the thorough execution own citizen to be returned to him, or its full value of the Federal Revenue laws, and for the protection paid to him, that it shall then be the duty of the of the commercial interests of the nation against fiaGovernor of this state to deliver such quantity of gitious attacks apon them by the Seceded States." the property so seized to the injured citizen of this State as may be sufficient fully to indemnify him Brown, both from Montgomery and Washing

The pressure brought to bear on Governor against all damages sustained by him.” The Legislature, how

ton, by the directing conspirators, induced an Governor Brown's ever, refused to grant the

early release of the vessels. February 8th Orders. required authority, and the

they were discharged from his Executive Governor acted without it. The Governor's

keeping, upon being informed, as he said, order for the act of reprisal was as follows:

that the arms were restored, and “the honor

of Georgia vindicated.” But the fact was, “EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, MILLEDGEVILLE, “February 5, 1861.

} the arms consigned to private parties in Colonel H. R. Jackson, A. D. C.:

Alabama were delivered over to the Sheriff, “Sir: I have demanded of the Governor of New Feb. 7th, as stated, while the Police held posYork the prompt delivery to my agent, for D. C. session of the ten eases belonging to Georgia Hodgkins & Sons, citizens of this state, of their citizens for some days after the release of the guns, seized by the police of New York on board vessels, and were finally released only upon the Monticello, and deposited in the arsenal of that proof of their being private property of citiState. The demand has been delivered to him; he zens who could not be proven disloyal. A has had a reasonable time, and has made no reply. second reprisal was made by Gov. Brown, I am determined to protect the persons and property which will be referred to hereafter. of the citizens of this state against all such lawless violence, at all hazards. In doing so, I will, if ne

This seizure, and the excitement which cessary, meet force by force. I feel it my duty in grew out of it, called public attention to the this case to order reprisals. You will, therefore, fact that Northern manufacturers and dealdirect Colonel Lawton to order out sufficient mili- ers had heavy orders from tary force, and seize and hold, subject to my order, all of the Southern States

Northern Cupidity every ship now in the harbor of Savannah belonging for arms of all kinds.

Patriotism. to citizens of the State of New York.

States did not order direct, " When the property of which our citizens have but accomplished their purpose through been robbed is returned to them, the ships will be individuals; and thus, under the guise of delivered to the citizens of New York who own them.

"private property," swords, sabres, pistols, “I am, sir, your obedient servant, rifles, muskets, ammunition, military goods,

“JOSEPH E. BROWN.": and, in some instances, even field-pieces and This act of open assault on the property of heavy ordnance, all passed, in a steady loyal citizens of course created much excite-stream, from the North to the South. The ment in political as well as commercial cir- gold which should have been paid on debts cles, since it gave the Federal Administration over-due manufacturers and merchants in a just casus belli. Southern leaders were Northern cities, was used to purchase arms alarmed at the catastrophe which it threat- with which to resist the collection of those ened. As indicative of the course to be pur- debts; and the cupidity of the manufacturers sued, a dispatch from Washington announced, of, and dealers in arms was such that, though (Feb. 9th :)

they well knew the purposes of the great " By reason of the receipt of information to-day orders, a chronic love of money forbade them of the seizure of New York ships at Savannah, to- to say "nay” even to avowed traitors. These gether with the recent action of the New Orleans purchases, and the rich store providently Custom-house, in obstructing the interior com- placed, by Floyd, in the Southern arsenals for

versus

OUTRA G ES ON NORTHERN MEN.

333

seizure, gave the different States arms enough conspiracy was said to have been discovered to equip several divisions each for immediate just previous to the holidays, which caused service. Had it not been for these sales by apprehension for a while, and only ended by Northern men, during December, January, the hanging of several negroes, by a self-conFebruary and March, and the filling up of stituted court, and the most terrible punishthe Southern arsenals, during the summer ment of flogging administered to others of of 1860, the rebellion would have been the blacks supposed to be implicated. The almost powerless for want of arms.

various communities in the Cotton States The condition of mone- were qui vive in regard to the negroes; and Sad Condition of Monetary Affairs.

tary affairs throughout all the extraordinary precautions taken by plant

the Seceded States grew ers, by committees of safety, and by the daily more oppressive, as the winter advanced. minute-men organizations, prove that, pracMoney became of extreme scarcity. The tically, the Southern people regarded their general suspension of specie payment by human" property" in any other light than as Southern banks had not given any percepti- cattle and horses.* ble relief to the community. Property so

The excitement against

Outrages perpetrated rapidly depreciated as to have no longer any Northern men became so

on Northern Men. fixed value. Real estate in Charleston, New great, that, when the secesOrleans, Savannah, &c., commanded no sale, sion movement took the shape of certainty at any price; while the inexorable tax levies in its accomplishment, persecutions were so daily aggregated in their demands until the generally inflicted as to cause a perfect hegira prospect of oppression as well as of ruin of Northern mechanics and agents, as well as stared property-holders in the face. The of those entertaining Union sentiments. Altwo hundred millions due to the North most every steamer from Charleston, Savanwas, by the acts of secession and the general nah, and New Orleans, during the months of suspension of Federal Courts, as well as by February, March, April, and May, brought " stay laws" passed by most of the "original numbers of persons of Northern birth, seyen,” placed upon the retired list—“to be fleeing from the South for their lives. In paid when amicable relations with the North some instances great amounts of property should be restored." Yet, this enormous vir- were left behind-the "Committee of Safety" tual repudiation scarcely affected the masses allowing no time for a man to close his affairs -it only gave immunity from pressure to the prior to leaving. The summons to leave gencommercial class; but, even merchants, with erally stipulated twenty-four hours as the restores stuffed by Northern goods, for which quired time in which to escape from threatonly Southern promises-to-pay were given, ened “consequences.” The history of some could find no sale for their stocks except by of these cases is peculiarly revolting, and exextending credits, which, in turn, filled their cites in the mind a feeling of incredulity that hands with promises-to-pay, liable to be as

* It is denied, in some quarters, that the negroes sessed as so much taxable property, upon are a source of weakness. Under military and civil which assessments must be paid in coin. pressure they may be regarded as-docile and tractSlaves, in common with other property, de-able; but, the presence of an overawing power is preciated; and, in all districts they were reconsidered, by the Southerners themselves, as their garded as a source of weakness rather than of only safety. The history of the Denmark Vesey instrength in event of a state of war. Several surrection in South Carolina -of the Nat. Turner inmillions of bondmen, ignorant to a degree surrection in Southampton County, Virginia—prove almost bordering on barbarism, but with

na- that in the black breasts of the negroes there is a tive instincts which rendered them a shrewd The Charleston papers said their slaves would do the

slumbering fire which no power on earth may quench. and persevering race, were not calculated to food-raising, the intrenching, &c., while the young inspire their masters with a feeling of security; men of the South would do the fighting ; but, it is hence, we find alarms of insurrections greatly to be doubted if any community in the South, during exciting the States of Alabama and Georgia, 1861, was left without its available guard against during the winter. In the former State a uprisings.

such wrongs could have been perpetrated in several instances, when the victim was hangany civilized community. The case stated on ed, the papers recorded the event in a humorpage 134 was almost daily confirmed, during ous strain. We shall recur to this feature of the months named, by the story of the wrongs the revolution in a future chapter, giving of some wretched sufferer, at the hands of a such accredited statements as will place the self-constituted "committee” in the revolu- fact and nature of these outrages beyond all tionary sections. Southern papers occasion- controversy. They will cast a shadow across ally would chronicle these outrages, and even the darkness of the dark record of the would not fail, in all cases, to affix the stigma revolution, and will serve to give both the of " abolitionist" to the persecuted party as a Christian philanthropist and the politician full and only justification for the violence suggestive mile-stones by which to direct perpetrated “by a body of our citizens.” In their future steps.

CHAPTER XXIII.

CONGRESS OF THE SECEDED ST-ATES. NAMES OF DELEGATE8.

NORTI CAROLINA COMMISSIONERS. HOWELL COBB's SPEECH FROM THE CIAIR. CONSTITUTION ADOPTED. ITS SPECIAL CLAUS ES, ELECTION OF PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT. MR. STEPHENS' SPEECHES. PROCEEDINGS UP TO FEBRUARY 16TH.

THE Montgomery Con- | towards them by their reExtraordinary Charvention of Delegates as- spective Conventions. This

Extraordinary Character of the Congress.

acter of the Congress sembled Monday, February Montgomery Convention 4th. The plans and policy of the Conven- was composed of delegates elected by the sertion appear to have been quite generally eral State Conventions. How they were comunderstood by the people to be a recon- posed the reader has already been informed, struction of the Union of Slave States upon (see p. 203-4.] It thus represented an organthe basis of the Federal Constitution.* This ized revolution, solely-one which, in all cases, understanding, indeed, made the people tol- refused to allow the people to decide for erant of the open-handed usurpation practiced themselves, (see Yancey's speech, page 205,

* Thus, the Memphis (Tenn.,) Inquirer used the will not be touched at present, any further than to following language, to induce the Tennessee people be rendered perfectly unambiguous as to the domesto join in the movement for a Southern Confed- tie institutions of the South. Has anybody in the eracy:

South any objection to this? The very crisis that “It is well known beforehand that the Constitu- now weighs like lead on every man's mind has arisen tion, as it is, will be readopted, and such explana- from a diversity in the interpretation of certain tions of contested sections of that instrument added clauses in the Constitution; or, which is the same as amendments, as to leave not the shadow of a thing, the fanaticism of the North has been wheedled doubt concerning their effect on the Southern social into the idea that its sectional character is, at least, system. That is, it will be the same as though the not adverse to the Constitution itself. It will now Constitution of the United States were taken up and at once be seen that the Constitution of the United amended, at the discretion of Southern statesmen, States, thus explained and amended, would still so far as it affects Southern rights, all without the authorize the reception of States, just as it has opposition or interruption of Northern members. It always done; and should Tennessee secede, she

PROCEEDINGS

OF

THE MONTGOMERY CONGRESS.

335

for the justification of Alabama-R. W. Walker, R. Extraordinary Char

Proceedings of the acter of the Congress. this tyrannical usurpation.] H. Smith, J. L. M. Curry, W.

Congress. Convening to organize a P. Chilton, S. F. Hale, Colon government, these forty-two delegates pro

J. McRae, John Gill Shorter, David P. Lewis, Thomas

Fearn. ceeded to their work with all the authority of

Florida--James B. Owens, J. Patton Anderson. umpires from whom there was no appeal. They

(Jackson Morton was not present.) were to adopt articles of confederation, a Con

Georgia--Robert Toombs, Howell Cobb, F. S. Barstitution, organize departments, elect a Presi

tow, M. J. Crawford, E. A. Nisbet, B. H. Hill, A. R. dent and Vice-President, confirm cabinet Wright, Thomas R. R. Cobb, A. H. Kenan, A. H. and ministerial appointments—in fact, to Stephens. place a fully-developed and powerful govern Louisiana John Perkins, Jr., A. Declonet, Charles ment in operation over the people. There is M. Conrad, D. F. Kenner, G. E. Sparrow, Henry no parallel for such usurpation, under the Marshall. guise of freedom, on the whole page of history, Mississippi-W.P. Harris, Walter Brooke, N. S. The people had nothing to do in the organ- Wilson, A. M. Clayton, W. S. Barry, J. T. Harrison. ization of the government-no voice in the

South Carolina-R. B. Rhett, Sr., R. W. Barnwell, election of its officers—no option or judgment L. M. Keitt

, James Chesnut, Jr., C. G. Memminger, to exercise in the matter. They were as

Porcher Miles, Thomas J. Withers, W. W. Boyce. * thoroughly ignored as if no power rested in

Mr. Rhett, of South Carolina, then suggestthem. A self-elected assembly gave them the ed the election of a President of the Convenlaw, gave them rulers, gave them inter-State tion, saying :-“On the part of the deputies obligations, voted war for them, imposed

from South Carolina, I present the name of a taxes, appropriated their property, impressed gentleman for that office who has been illusthem to serve in the ranks; and, so cleverly was trious on the arena of the General Governthe entire scheme managed that, notwithstand- ment--whose name is coextensive with the ing all this glaring outrage of the first prin- length and breadth of this whole country-I ciples of a republican government, the people nominate the Hon. Howell Cobb, of Georgia, were led as obediently into the movement as for President of this Convention. [Applause.] their own slaves would have been led into I am sure that his election will be unanimous. the shambles.

I therefore propose that he be declared Pres

And the motion The Convention was organized February ident by acclamation.” 4th, when the following delegates presented prevailed. Mr. Cobb assumed the chair, to their credentials and signed the roll:

pronounce from it the following address :

Accept, gentlemen of the Convention, my sinwould of course have no objection to the acknowl- cere thanks for the honor which you have conferred edgment of the Constitution, made secure against on me. I shall endeavor, by a faithful and impartial any misunderstanding, which is held by some to jus- discharge of the duties of the Chair, to merit, in some tify, if it does not originate, the divisions now rife in degree, at least, the confidence which you have rethe country. Any other State or States which posed in me. The occasion which assembles us tomight be willing to accept the Constitution thus gether is one of no ordinary character. We meet as amended in a Southern Convention, could of course the representatives of sovereign and independent be fairly received. It may be recollected that Mis- States, who by their solemn judgment have dissolved sissippi refused, by a vote of sixty-seven to twenty- all the political associations which connected them three, to say that she would never receive any Free with the Government of the United States. Of the States into a Southern Confederacy. The Southern causes which have led to this decision it is unneces. Rights advocates have no objection to secure exact sary now to speak: it is enough to announce that, equality under their Constitution. And to a reconstruction, on this basis, they are not opposed, so far * Texas seceded February 1st, and appointed deleas we know. Many a man, it is true, may doubt gates to the Montgomery Convention February 11th, whether this can ever be done ; but certainly no one notwithstanding her Ordinance of Secession was not has any objection to it if it can be done. And the to be considered as binding until February 23d, way to test whether it is practicable, is to make the when the people were to be permitted to vote on it! trial, as the Montgomery Convention will proceed | This is only another instance in the category of usurdirectly to give an opportunity."

pations.

by the judgment of our constit "Whereas, The States of South Proceedings of the uents, they have been ample and Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Ala

Proceedings of the Congress. sufficient. It is now a fact-ir- bama, Mississippi, and Louisi

Congrese. revocable fact--the separation is perfect, complete, ana have dissevered the political ties which bound and perpetual. [Applause.] The great duty is now them to a compact known as the United States of imposed on us to provide for these States a Govern- America, and, through duly authorized delegates, are ment for their future security and protection. We can now assembled in Congress to provide measures for and should extend to our sister States—who are the welfare of those States, and to establish an eridentified with us in interest, feeling, and institutions during government, whereby their rights may be -a cordial invitation to unite with us in a common maintained ; and whereas, it is important that a destiny ; desirous, at the same time, of maintaining Provisional Government shall be formed before s with the rest of our late confederates, as with the permanent one can be constructed: therefore, world, the most peaceful and friendly relations, both Resolved, That the President appoint a Committee political and commercial. Our responsibilities, gen- of one from each State, to report a plan for a Provitlemen, are great, and I doubt not we shall prove sional Government as soon as possible.” equal to the occasion. Let us assume all the re

They were considered in secret session, sponsibility which may be necessary for the success

February 6th, the North Carolina Commisful completion of the great work committed to our

sioners presented their credentials in the trust, placing before our countrymen and the world our acts and their results as the justification of the shape of the following resolutions, passed by course which we may pursue and adopt. With a their General Assembly, January 29th : consciousness of the justice of our cause, and with a “1. Resolved, That for the purpose of effecting an confidence in the guidance and blessings of a kind honorable and amicable adjastment of all the diffProvidence, we will this day inaugurate for the culties that disturb the country, upon the basis of South a new era of peace, security and prosperity." the Crittenden resolutions, as modified by the Legis.

The proceedings of the Convention were lature of Virginia, and for the purpose of consulting done in secret session, and so little tran- for our common peace, honor, and safety, the Hon.

Thomas Griffin, of Alamance, D. M. Barringer, David spired that we are but partially informed

S. Reid, John M. Morehead, and George Davis, be, in regard to its daily legislation. The State and they are hereby appointed Commissioners to reConventions had sat in secret sessions, and the present North Carolina in the proposed consultation people were aware of the results of their pro- to be held at Washington City, on the 4th of Februceedings only when the edicts were promul ary, 1861. And, gated. This was found to work so favorably “Whereas, The State of North Carolina has been that the rule was adopted at Montgomery invited by the State of Alabama to meet at the City -to cover all important legislation.

of Montgomery, on the 14th of February, 1861, for February 5th, Memminger, of South Caro- the purpose of framing a provisional as well as perlina, presented the following resolutions : manent government; and,

Whereas, North Carolina, as a part of the Fed"Resolved, That this Convention deem it expedient forth with to form a Confederacy of the States which eral Union, has no right to send delegates for such a have seceded from the Federal Union, and that a

purpose: therefore, be it Committee be appointed to report a plan for a Pro

2. Resolved, That for the purpose of effecting an visional Government upon the basis of the Constitu- honorable and amicable adjustment of all the diffition of the United States.

culties that distract the country, upon the basis of ** Resolved, That a Committee of thirteen members the Crittenden resolutions, as modified by the Legisbe appointed as follows: namely, the Chairman by lature of Virginia, and for the purpose of consulting the Convention, and two members from each State for our common peace, honor, and safety, the Hon. to be nominated by the deputies of that State.

David L. Swain, M. W. Ransom, and John L. BridgResolved, That all propositions in reference to a

ers, are appointed Commissioners to visit MontgomProvisional Government be referred to this Comery, Alabama, for the purpose above indicated." mittee."

Messrs. Swain, Ransom, and Bridgers were Stephens, of Georgia, moved to substitute invited to occupy seats in the Congress durthe word “Congress” for “Convention” — to ing open sessions. During the day very little which Mr. M. agreed. A substitute for the was done. The Committee on Provisional resolutions was offered by Bartow, of Georgia, Government was hard at work maturing its namely:

report.

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