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or prohibited, as they right of secession did not Hamilton's Speech. thought fit. He supported exist under the Constitu Stokes' Speech

the views advanced by Mr. tion, nor was there any Adams, of Massachusetts, with regard to Slav- right of revolution, except for intolerable ery in New Mexico, taking the ground that the oppression, and when all constitutional remSouth have a right to go into the Territories edies had failed. with their property. He said, if gentlemen He had sworn to support the Constitution, would consent never to interfere with Slavery and he should be true to his oath. States in the States, and solemnly forego interference bad equally pledged themselves to the United with the inter-State slave-trade, that would States, and could not sunder their relations do much to secure the friendship of every at will. No power on earth should induce man who is willing to see the Union pre- him to utter one word to encourage, in any served.

way whatever, a State to secede. Tennessee Stanton, of Ohio, knew of none who claim- and other States were asked to join the ed any right to interfere. Hamilton was Southern Confederacy; but, as the seceded not sure that this was so; but he knew States had proved faithless by withdrawing it to be true that the South believed that from Congress, when it was in their power to a party was about to succeed to the prevent mischief, and would not stand by the Government which actually was going to remaining Slave States, how could the latter interfere with Slavery where it then exist- rely upon them if they went into a Southern ed. Only satisfy the South that this is Confederacy? The plan of this disunion was not so, and peace would be restored. When concocted and agreed on two years ago by · he left his home, two thousand miles dis- the leaders of the Democratic party in the tant, for Washington, his foot pressed no Cotton States. If certain demands were not foreign territory, his eye rested throughout granted by the Charleston Convention, then his journey on po material object that it was to be broken up, and a separate Conwas not part and parcel of his own coun- federacy established, whose object was to try ; and when Congress assembled, every open the slave-trade, conquer Mexico, and anState and Territory was represented on the nex Cuba. Disunion was a scheme of a few floor. If he returned to his home, he must excited madmen and politicians ambitious traverse four foreign Governments. The men seeking for power. He admitted that Temple of Liberty was lately completed in he was a submissionist, and would rather be all its parts-every pillar in its place, and the called this than rebel and traitor. He was apparently devout worshipers were gathered for the Union, the Constitution, and the enaround its altar; but, the storm burst, and, forcement of the laws. He was not for coerproud and majestic as the temple was, its cing a State, but would not submit to South foundations were moved as if by an earth Carolina coercing other States. Firmness quake, and now its dome reels like a drunk and moderation ought to be exercised. He en man. He had been called on here and at believed that the difficulties can and would home to “

come out," and he had been be adjusted to the satisfaction of the Border threatened and entreated to that course; but, States, but not to that of South Carolina and no threats and danger should tear him away the other seceded States. The working-men, from the Union until he had saved the horn farmers, tradesmen, and others in the remainof the altar, and implored Heaven to allay the ing Slave States were struggling, as if for life storm and again uprear the same pillars and death, to remain in the Union. He which sustain the weight and add their would not be true to himself and to the counmounted beauty to the structure.

try if he did not take a stand against the This most excellent and patriotic speech secession movement. In the name of God was followed by one equally patriotic from and high Heaven, pass something to hold Mr. Stokes, (Am.,) of Tennessee. He thought these States together, and preserve all that is with Mr. Hamilton, that there existed no dear to us in rights, persons, and property! just cause for sundering the Union. The If we cannot settle the difficulty now, while

KILLINGER, QUARLES, AND WILSON'S SPEECIES.

313

we are friendly, how could we do it after the try looked down from his pedestal, he would Union is hopelessly dissolved ? In conclu- plead trumpet-tongued for the maintenance sion, he earnestly appealed to the Republi- of the Union and Constitution, cans to give, by amendments to the Consti Quarles, (Am.,) of Tentution, the rights and the safety to the South nessee, followed. He said Quarles’ and Wilson's

Speeches. which they say they are willing to secure, that no person sympathized ind spoke in commendation of the Border less with disunion than himself. There was States and Crittenden propositions. How- no warrant for it in the Constitution. He ever, any plan of settlement would meet with believed, however, in the sacred right of revhis most hearty approbation,

olution, maintaining that when a GovernAt the evening session ment became oppressive it was a duty to Killinger's Speech of the House, Friday, Kil- overthrow it. He spoke of the generosity of

linger, (Rep.,) of Pennsyl- the South, which had given to the North vania, delivered an able and considerate three-fourths of what had been acquired as speech. He would fellowship with the Border Slave Territory. He advocated the restoraStates, and was prepared to meet them half tion of the Missouri line, protecting Slavery way. It is no time for partisanship. Mere south of it by constitutional amendment. platforms, hastily constructed in the excite- This would restore peace as it did in a former ment of crowded Conventions, would not dis- time. He preferred Mr. Crittenden's plan, charge men from the responsibilities they and believed if it were adopted, the Seceding owe before God and their country. When States would return to the Union, and Tennext the ballot-boxes open and send forth nessee remain firm. This would settle the their thunders of vengeance, it would shake Slavery question forever. all the platforms and parties which reject ob Wilson, (Rep.,) of Indiana, did not regard stinately all propositions of conciliation and conciliation" as potent enough to heal the peace. The hope of relief to the suffering wounds inflicted by Slavery. There was no industrial interests, and confidence in the cause whatever in this wicked rebellion-it honesty of Mr. Lincoln, carried Pennsylva- was the offspring of the hateful spirit of nia, as well as the popular opposition to Slavery. Until the wrong itself disappears, Slavery extension. The mere Abolition ele- there can be no settlement. Its very breath ment sympathized with the nullifiers, and is poison to peace, and to free institutions. rejoiced in the fulfillment of their joint pur- It cannot live in the air purified by the strong pose--the dissolution of the Union. He blasts from the North; and was bent on disdeprecated changes in the organic law, and organization to perpetuate its too long preferred Congressional legislation to consti- ascendency. His views were decidedly tutional amendments. Once open the door, against compromise. The Constitution alfools would rush in where angels fear to ready gave but too much power to the South, tread. The controversy must have a peace and he was willing to make no further conful solution. The gulf was not so wide that cessions to it. Be firm! Sustain the Conit cannot be spanned by conciliation ; nor yet stitution and uphold the laws to the end, and so deep that it cannot be fathomed by mu- God will bless the right! tual forbearance. He eulogized Mr. Critten

In the Senate, Saturday, den as the last of the statesmen which the (February 20,) Chandler,

A Wolverine Docu.

ment. Whig party gave to the country. He was (Rep.,) of Michigan, preworthy to wear the mantle of the immortal sented a petition from citizens of that State Clay. He complimented Maryland. Penn- asking the Senate: First, to ascertain whether sylvania will stand shoulder to shoulder with they have a Government de facto or not; secher patriotic Governor. He gazed with pride ond, that if so, measures be taken for the on the memorials of patriotism which adorn apprehension of all persons presenting themher Monumental City like altars of devotion, selves at the seat of Government under preand prayed God that so long as the mute tence of being Commissioners from indebut eloquent statue of the Father of his Coun-pendent Governments, on charge of treason;

third, that measures' be taken to protect the In the House, Saturday, archives of the Government; fourth, that the Mr. Sherman called up the Important Loan BIL forts, while in the possession of the Govern- bill authorizing the Presiment, in the South, be promptly supplied dent, at any time before the 1st of July, to with men; fifth, that a sufficient number of borrow, on the credit of the United States, vessels be placed in Southern ports to protect not exceeding $25,000,000; certificates to be commerce and collect the revenue. Of course issued for not less than $1,000, with coupons this received no consideration, but it was payable, semi-annually, with interest, and the felt, by the Northern Senators, to express the faith of the United States pledged for the true feeling of the majority of people in the payment of the interest and principal. Sefgreat North-west-so rapidly was the senti- eral substitutes were offered and much oppoment of resistance to revolution taking deter- sition manifested by the Democrats and mined shape.

Southerners to the loan. It passed, 124 to 46.

CHAPTER XXI.

FEBRUARY 18T. NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN ULTIMATUMS.

THE RELATIVE POSITIONS OF TIE REPUBLICANS AND THE 0 PP 0: SITION. OVERTURES OF MESSRS. SEWARD AND ADAMS. VIEWS OF MR. DOUGLAS AND JOIN P. HALE. REPLIES OF MASON,

OF VIRGINIA, AND WIG FALL, O'F TEXAS. THE UNION IN

Τ ΗΕ BALANCE PROPERTY IN MAN THE ISSUE FORCED. .

THURSDAY, January 31st, Mr. Seward pre- | same day, in the House of

Seward's Vuion sented to the Senate the memorial of the Representatives, added to

Speech New York Chamber of Commerce, bearing the significance of the day, 38,000 signatures, petitioning for a settlement in its historical relations. We shall, therefore, of national differences by compromise. The quote quite at length from their efforts, and report, instructing the Committee of Twenty- thus place within the reader's reach the five, who bore the memorial to Washington, means for forming a correct judgment upon commended the proposition of the Border the great issues, as they were shaped FebStates Committee as the basis of adjustment, ruary 1st. (see page 172.) In presenting it, Mr. Seward Mr. Seward said, in reference to the memodelivered his views, at length, on the crisis. rial, that it was an embodiment of the feelHis speech drew out Mason, of Virginia, Mr. ings of that eminent class which controls the Douglas, John P. Hale, and Wigfall, of commerce of the nation's greatest emporium. Texas. Their several speeches canvassed the The memorial might, he said, also be reentire question of Union and disunion. Being garded as a fair exponent of the wishes and the recognized exponents of their parties and views of the whole commercial interest of the sections, their declarations are to be re-country. Such a memorial would command garded as landmarks in the legislative his- obedience in England, France, Russia, Prustory of the revolution, and will be referred to sia, or Germany-where the will of commerce by historians as authority for their conclu- decides questions of peace or war. Happily sions respecting the relations of the contest for the United States, commerce was but one ants, and the accountability of each for the of several interests entitled to a controlling results which followed to the country. The influence. Agriculture, manufactures, mining, speech of Charles Francis Adams, on the each are entitled to, and receive, equal re

SEWARD'S UNION

APEECH.

315

Seward's Union

spect. As representatives of to the Union. TheseBeward's Union Speech. the interest of commerce, whether you call them Se

Speech. the memorialists are wor- cession or Revolution on the thy of the Senate's consideration.

one side, or coercion or defiance on the other Mr. Seward ḥad waited anxiously for prop- are all to subside and pass away before Union, ositions which the seceding States might which is to become the grand absorbing oboffer as terms to the adhering States; or, to ject of interest, affection, and duty upon the state the proposition in its other form, he part of the citizens of the United States. A had seen nothing which would justify him great many partisan interests are to be rein believing that any of the propositions sub- pressed and suppressed to give peace to the mitted by the adhering States would be ac- partisan interests expressed by the Charleston cepted by the seceding States. He had held Platform, the Baltimore Platform, the Chicago himself open and ready for the best adjust- Platform, by the Popular Sovereignty Platment which could be practically made. He form, if, indeed, the Union is in danger, and approved the spirit of conciliation, of fraternal is to be saved. With these interests and with kindness, of affection, adopted by so large these platforms, everybody standing upon *a portion of the people of his State towards them or connected with them is to pass away, the various sections of the country, and, in if the Union is in danger and is to be saved. return for acting as their spokesman, in pre- He added: “But it will require a very short senting their memorial to the Senate, he time, if this Union is in danger and does reshould advise them to continue to manifest quire to be saved, for all these interests, all the same spirit, to show forth their devotion these platforms, and all these men to disapto the Union by voting for it; and, if it pear. You, everybody who shall oppose, reshould be demanded, by lending or even giv- sist, or stand in the way of the preservation ing their money to it; by fighting for it in of this Union, will appear as moths on a sumit, if it must come as a last resort for its main- mer's eve, when the whirlwind of popular intenance, taking care that speaking always dignation arises that shall be excited at the goes before voting, voting goes before the full discovery that this Union is endangered giving of money, and all go before a resort to through faction, and even impracticability, arms, which, at best, was hazardous and pain on the one part. I have hope and confidence ful, and therefore should be the last measure that this is to come around just as I have to be resorted to for the salvation of the said; and quite soon enough, because I perUnion. This was the spirit in which he had ceive, although we may shut our eyes to it, determined to come up to the great ques that the country and mankind cannot shut tion, which he thought would yet be peace their eyes to the true nature of this crisis.” fully settled. He had not expected the great He then adverted to the issue actually precontroversy to be settled in the sixty days of sented. The vital. question of antagonism Congressional action already had; nor did he between the North and South was sprung expect the allotted ninety days of the session upon the country twelve years ago, but was would see the differences adjusted, peace re- strongest in its development in 1850, when stored, and the Union firmly reestablished. all the Pacific coast, and all the Territory in- . It was not time enough for the people to ap- tervening between it and the Louisiana purpreciate the danger and to agree upon the chase, was thrown suddenly upon our hands, remedy. A great many and various interests for the purpose of our organizing in and elements are brought into conflict in this them free and independent Republican Govsudden crisis, a great many personal ambi- ernments as a basis of future States. It had tions, and a great many sectional interests, been an earnest-nay, an angry controversy, and it would be strange if they would all be but it was closed, on the previous day, by the accommodated, arranged, and harmonized so admission of Kansas as a State. The vital as to admit and give full effect to the one issues were closed—though there remained profoundest and most enduring sentiment or the passions which the lon contest hall enpassion of the Cnited States——that of devotion gendered. He said:

“Kansas is in the Union, | ence, and subject to dissolution Seward's Union

Seward's Union
California and Oregon are in by their action. But that assent
Speech.

Speech. the Union, and now the same is to be always taken by virtue contest divides and distracts this Union for Freedom of the original assent, and held until, in the form preand Slavery in the Territories of the United States just scribed by the Constitution itself, and in the time, and as before. What is the extent of the Territories which in the manner, and with all the conditions which the remain, after the admission of Minnesota, Oregon, and Constitution prescribes; and those who constitute the of Kansas? One million, sixty-three thousand, five Union shall declare that it shall be no longer that hundred square miles--an area twenty-four times thirty days, and sixty days, and ninety days, giren that of the State of New York, the largest of the old us by the disunionists; it may not be enough for and fully developed States. Twenty-four such their policy and their purposes. I hope and wish States as this of New York are yet to be fully or that it may be time enough for the policy and porganized within the remaining Territories of the poses of the Union. God grant that it may be so; United States. Now, under what is accepted by the but if thirteen shall turn out not to be enough, then Administration and the Government as a judicial de. I see how and when all these great controversies cree, upheld by it, and put in practical operation by will be settled, just as our forefathers saw when they it, every inch of that Territory is Slave Territory. framed the Constitution. They provided, seventy I speak of that decision not as I accept it, but as it years ago, this present controversy. This whole is accepted and enforced by the existing Adminis. controversy shall be submitted to the people of the tration. Every foot of it is Slave Territory as much United States, in a Convention called according to as South Carolina. Over a considerable portion of the forms of the Constitution, and acting in the man. it a Slave Code, made by a Government created by ner prescribed by it. Then, sir, this country will the Congress of the United States, is enforced; so find sudden relief in the prompt and unanimous that, according to the claims of those who insist adoption of measures necessary for its salvation, upon their rights in the Territory of the United and the world will see how well and how wisely a States for Slavery, the whole of this 1,063,000 square great, enlightened, educated, Christian people, conmiles is Slave Territory. How many slaves are there sisting of thirty-four sovereign States, can adjust in it? How many have been brought into it during difficulties which had seemed, even to themselves, these twelve years in which it has been not only re- as well as to mankind, to be insurmountable." linquished to Slavery, but in which the Supreme

Mason, of Virginia, followed. He said: Court, the Legislature, and the Administration have maintained, protected, and guaranteed Slavery “When the Government is

Mason's Declaratory there? Twenty-four African slaves! One slave for in progress of disintegration;

Speech. every forty-four thousand square miles. One slave when there are six States for every one of the twenty-four States which, sup that have separated from the others, and are now posing them each to be of the dimensions of New arming themselves upon a large scale ; when my York, or Pennsylvania, or Indiana, cover that por own State appropriated, twelve months ago, in antion of the area of our Republic. Sir, I have fol. ticipation of what now seems to be occurring, the lowed this thing in good faith, and with zeal and en- very large sum, for a single State, of half a million ergy, but I confess that I have no fears of Slavery of dollars to purchase arms; and when, within a few anywhere. In the peculiar condition of things days, another appropriation was made of $1,000,000 which has existed, Slavery has succeeded in plant for the same purpose ; when we find that other States ing only one slave upon every 44,000 square miles have done the same thing; when we find that the of Territory.

people themselves are arming; when counties and “ This, then, has ceased to be a practical ques. towns are exercising their municipal authority, tion. In lieu of it comes up a great, and vital, and are raising money for this same purpose-while and fearful question---the question of union, or these things are going on, and while the public of dissolution of the Union--the question of country mind is engaged in the Slave States that are not yet or of no country--the question of hope--tre question separated in devising some mode by which the Amer. of greatness, or the question of sinking forever under ican mind can again be united in a common union, the contempt of mankind. Why, then, should I despair | what do we hear from the Senator from New York, that a great nation of thirty millions will be able to (Mr. Seward?) What do we hear from that Senator meet this crisis ? I have no fear. This is a Confederacy. who now occupies the position before the country It is not an imperial government, or the government which he now does, acknowledged to be the head of of a single State. It is a Confederacy, and it is, as it the political combination which is to bring into power ought to be, dependent upon the continued assent the incoming Administration, said by the newspaper of all the members of the Confederacy to its exist- ' press to be the probable right hand of that Admin

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