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CHAPTER XVIII. Proceedings of Congress

continued. Eighth Week. Im-

portant and Excitng Week.

Withdrawal Speeches of Jef-

ferson Davis, Yulee, Clay, etc.

Corwin's Speech in Support of

his Report. Speeches of Big-

ler, Clemens, Etheridge, Nel-

son, Rust, Gilmer, and Others. 257

XIX. Pressure for Compromise. Mr.

Lincoln's Policy. The Peace

Congress Appointments. Men-

acing Attitude of Affairs in

Charleston, Colonel Hayne's

Final Demands. His Letter to

the President. Mr. Holt's Re-

ply. The Position of the Gov-

ernment....

288

XX. Proceedings of Congress contin-

ued. Ninth Week. Compro-

mise Impossible. Iverson's

Farewell, Virginia's Position.

Texas Sentiment. Various

Propositions. The Speeches of

Pryor, Stevens, Harris, Wins-

low, Van Wyck, Conkling,

Latham, Hamilton, and Others.

Cochrane's Impost Bill. Kel-

logg's Resolutions, etc., etc... 295

XXI. February 1st. Northern and

Southern Ultimatums. The

Relative Position of the Repub-

lieans and the Opposition:

Overtures of Messrs. Seward

and Adams. Views of Mr.

Douglas. Of John P. Hale.

Replies of Mason, of Virginia,

and Wigfall, of Texas. The

Union in the Balance. Pro-

perty in Man the Issue Forced. 314

XXII. The Georgia Bill of Rights. Seizure

of Georgia Arms in New York.

Reprisals by Governor Brown,

Northern Cupidity. Distressing

Monetary Condition of the

South. Outrages Committed

on Northern Persons and Prop-

erty. A Dark Record........ 329

XXIII. Congress of the Seceded States.

Names of Delegates. North

Carolina Commissioners. How-

ell Cobb's Speech from the

Chair. Constitution Adopted.

Its Special Clauses. Election

of President and Vice-Presi-

dent. Mr. Stephen's Speeches.

CHAPTER XXIII.- Continued.

Proceedings up to February

16th. ...

334

XXIV. Proceedings of Congress con-

tinued. Tenth Week. The With-

drawal of Lousiana Members

Speeches of Slidel, Benjamin,

Clingman, Andrew Johnson,

Henry Winter Davis, Kellogg,

and Others

341

XXV. The Peace Convention. Its Pro-

ceedings up to February 16th.

State of Public Sentiment at

that Date. Centralization of

Sentiment Against Compro.

mise. The Democracy Opposed

to Coercion......

359

XXVI. Government's Attitude of De-

fence. Mr. Holt's Letter to

the President. Army and Navy

Resignations. Commodore Por-

ter's Patriotism. Interesting

Statement ....

.... 364

XXVII. The Ceremony of President-

Making. Counting the Elect-

oral Votes. Graphic Picture of

the Occasion, and of its Nota-

bilities. The Electoral Vote .. 369

XXVIII. Journey of the President-Elect to

Washington. Incidents by the

Way, Speeches at Indian-

apolis, Cincinnati, Columbus,

Pittsburg, Cleveland, Buffalo,

Albany, New York, Trenton,

Philadelphia, and Harrisburg.

Immense Popular Ovations.

The Rumor of Assassination.

Night-ride through Baltimore.

The Genial Reception at Wash-

ington.....

.... 372

XXIX. The Treasury. Its Condition in

February. The Twenty-five

Million Loan. Guarantees of

States. Howell Cobb's Crim-

inalty. The House Report on

Floyd's Case. The Ex-Secre-

tary's Disgrace. State of the

Country February 15th....... 389

XXX. Proceedings of Congress Contin-

ued. Eleventh Week. Virginia

shows her Colors. Interesting

Resolutions. Speeches of Feg-

senden, Mason, King, Camp-

bell, Vandever, De Jarnette,

and Others. The Seven Sloops

of War. The Republican De.

PAGE,

CHAPTER XXXVII. Proceedings of Congress

continued. Thirteenth Week.

The Volunteer Bill. Final Vote

on the Report of the Committee

of Thirty-Three. Its Adoption.

Intense Excitement prevailing.

The Senate Action on the Peace

Constitution Propositions. The

End Foreshadowed. ......... 457

XXXVIII. Important Reports of the Select

(House) Committee of Five.
Report on the President's Cor.
respondence with the South
Carolina Commissioners. The
Minority Report, (Dissenting.)
Report on the Secession Revo-
lution, and the Duty of the Gov.

ernment.

479

XXXIX. Condition Affairs during the

Last Week of Mr. Buchanan's

Term. Mr. Lincoln's Cabinet.

The Virginia Convention. John

Tyler with his Mask off. The

Missouri State Convention. Mr.

Buchanan's Message. Prepar.

ations for the Inauguration.

Hostile Attitude of the Confed-

erate Government........... 489
XL. State of Feeling in Europe during

January and February Regard-

ing American Affairs......... 492
XLI. The Spirit of Violence in the

South. Evidences of Demoral-
ized Moral Sentiment. The
Repudiated Debts and Violence
towards Creditors. The Rich-
mond Whig's Confession. A
Brutal Alabama Sentiment.
Numerous Cases of Outrage
and Persecution of “Suspect-

ed" Persons. The Results to

Civilization of that Reign of

Terror ...

496

XLII. The Final Issue Mr. Buchanan

and his Errors.

504

PAGE.

CHAPTER XXX.-Continued.

claration on Slavery in the

States ....

395

XXXXI. The New Power in the South.

Jefferson Davis' Progress to

Montgomery, (Ala.) Significant

Speech. His Inaugural. His

Cabinet. Proceedings of the

Confederate Congress up to

March 2d. .....

409
XXXII. Resistance to Tyranny in the Se-

ceded States. South Carolina
Dissatisfied. Evidences of Dis-
satisfaction in Georgia, Ala-
bama, and Mississippi. The
Union Feeling in the Border
Slave States.....

417

XXXIII. Proceedings of Congress Contin-

ued. Twelfth Week. The Vol-
unteer Bill. Exciting Debates.

The Seven Steam Sloops of War.

Offensive Attitude of the Vir.

ginia Members, Growing Firm-

ness of the Republicans. Mails

Discontinued in the Seceded

States. Singular Opposition.

Speeches of Wilson and Others. 421

XXXIV. Report of the Special Committee

on the Navý. List of the United
States Naval Force, and its Dis-
position, January 16th. Secre-
tary Toucey's Complicity with
the Enemies of the Government.
The Resignations. The Minor-

ity Report of Mr. Branch...... 440
XXXV. The Peace Convention. Its Pro-

ceedings up to Adjournment,
February 27th. Adoption of
the Franklin-Summers-Guthrie
Proposition. Dissatisfied Feel-

ing of the Virginians.......... 464

XXXVI. The Treason of Major-General

Twiggs. Documents of the

“ Transfer." Amount of Prop-

erty“ Transferred.” The With-

drawal of the Troops. Gov.

ernor Brown's Second Seizure

of New York Ships as Repri-

sals. Facts of the case.

... 453

APPENDIX, The Secret History of the Buchan..

an Administration.... ... 509

INTRODUCTION.

The unexampled prosperity of the United States of America has been pronounced one of the wonders of modern civilization. As the “Great Republic,” it has stood apart and above all other Governments of Christendom. The vastness of its territory, the freedom of its laws, the extent of its intelligence, and the spirit of progress which animated its people, all have contributed to arrest a world's attention--to command a world's respect. Guaranteeing to every citizen liberty of conscience and speech—to every press the utmost freedom of expression--to every individual perfect protection of property and immunity from oppression of person or possessions—the Constitution of the United States had so grown in the esteem of Christian men, of all lands, as to be regarded in the light of a Gospel of Government. Animated by its spirit, guided by its system, secure under its allpervading powers, the country had so perfected in material greatness. as to astonish economists, and to challenge the admiration even of Monarchs. Here. Liberty had its perfect embodiment. Here Humanity stood forth in its dignity and truth. Here Intelligence became the birthright of each and all. Here Peace reigned supreme; while, over boundless leagues of hills, vallies, plains, rivers, and lakes, the jubilate of a happy people went up ceaselessly. To be an American was an honor above titles of nobility or stars of an Emperor's approbation.

Circumstances, potent enough to change all this to dissever the bonds of union among the States—to repudiate a Constitution which embodied so much wisdom, and liberty, and happiness—to arrest the progress and paralyze the energy of the country—to banish peace, and sound the alarums of war throughout the land—to marshal twice five hundred thousand Americans on the field in fratricidal strife, might well excite astonishment in the dullest brain, and alarm the friends of liberal ideas throughout the world.

Never, since the revolt of Lucifer, has there been a more causeless rebellion against a justly-constituted and beneficent Government. Never has civilization known a more reckless abuse of its prerogatives to demoralize and cripple its own development. In the height of its prosperity, the “Great Democratic Experiment” is arrested by a mere faction of unscrupulous men, through whose efforts, aided by the weakness of a Chief Magistrate, the country is humiliated in its pride, abased in its glory, and made to feel a weight of woe which it will take generations to forget.

The circumstances of this gigantic conspiracy it will not take generations to fathom. Great revolutions, like those recorded of Europe during the fifteenth, and sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries, had their origin in causes so remote, and their results were so ramified to society and Governments, that, even to this day, their story is not wholly told. But, in the American Pro-Slavery Rebellion, there are no long trains of circumstances, no widely diffused and deeply-seated causes of discontent, growing and developing through a series of years, until the final open resort to arms. Were it thus, its History could not now be written. It sprung up almost in a day, against the wishes, the demands, the hopes, of those

whom it most concerned. It was the scheme of a few daring leaders, and of a few led men blinded by their own passions, having for their Cause no foundation in truth, no defence, in law or equity, no justification, even if the ends proposed and promised had been attained. It came of the restless souls of restless spirits, and has no long-past history to be investigated in order to write the story of its drama correctly. The proceedings of the second session of the XXXVIth Congress contain all the legal facts necessary to form, at this moment, a perfectly just opinion and estimate of the entire revolution.

It is only required to reproduce the official records of the events of the winter of 1860–61, in order to place the reader in possession of means by which to arrive at correct conclusions regarding men and their acts. To lay the repository of facts before the people is the prime object of our present work. But, as the entire structure of the Republic has been on trial, in the ordeal forced, we have, in defence of the Union, and of the policy pursued to sustain it, sought to cover the entire ground of the questions involved, viz.: the powers of the Constitution, the nature of the Federal consolidation, the powers of Congress, the relations of Slavery to the Government, the rights of the majority and the minority, the statns of the States, &c., &c. In considering these varied and interesting questions, we have necessarily reproduced much of our past political history, have given the opinions of the fathers of the Constitution on that instrument, have adverted to such collateral and corresponding circumstances as would serve to throw light upon the whole subject.

We have sought to render our work, in spirit and in truth, such a narrative as the great events seemed to demand. The office of the historian is to record events as they are, not to become the counsel of one party in a controversy and seek to write down an opponent. Still, the historian must assume, to a great degree, the office of arbiter and judge. The great case has been laid before him; he has studied it in all its lights and shades; he has heard the arguments of able counsel and listened to the evidence of innumerable witnesses ; and it remains for him, as a disinterested umpire, to give such a summary of facts, events, and opinions as will enable his jury, the public, to arrive at a correct' verdict. Being a Northern man in feeling, and a Unionist in sentiment, our work, of course, will assume the stand-point of loyalty to the Federal Government as a sine qua non for its praise, and the contrary for its blame; but we desire and expect that the present and the future will submit all to the crucible of truth. If, in statements of opinion or dictums of judgment we shall err by too great devotion to our feeling of loyalty, we only challenge a successful contradiction, and will thus succeed in eliminating the truth. Truth should know no reserve ; the historian who fears its revelations is unworthy to write for his countrymen to read.

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IF, as Mr. Alexander H. Stephens asserts, | ing admirer of it as not to perceive it is tincour government is one of the most beneficent tured with some real, though not radical, the world has ever known," it has not escaped defects." the fortunes incident to all governments-of Pending discussion of the merits and defierce opposition and attempted revolutions. merits of the new Constitution, two great parThe Constitution of the Union was not ties sprang into full and spirited life, viz. : adopted without extraordinary manifestations the “ Federalists,” sustained by Washington, of opposition in the Convention, in Congress, and led by John Adams and Hamilton; and in State Legislatures, and among the people. the “anti-Federalists," who afterwards asIt was regarded in the various lights of an ex- sumed the more distinctive appellation of periment," a "consolidated tyranny,” a cen- “Democrats," under the leadership of Thotralization fatal to State independence,” &c. mas Jefferson, Aaron Burr, and others. The Washington said of the instrument:“There differences between those two parties were are some things in it which never did and those of quality rather than of kind. Both never will obtain my cordial approbation.” wanted a Republican form of government; Patrick Henry denounced it as inimical to the both favored a Union; both had in view the liberties of the people. Franklin said, in the best mode of developing the vast resources of Convention: “I consent to this Constitution the country; bóth sought to guard the intebecause I expect no better.” The attempt to rests of the people; and it was the intense construct a consolidated government out of patriotism of both parties which rendered States, diverse in interests, each jealous of its them such bitter partisans. Each sought to sovereignty, was “an experiment;" and Wash- prove the other an enemy to good governington's expression of surprise, that any ar- ment; and, failing to reconcile their respective rangement had been made, was justified by ideas, they became as irreconcilable in their the result eventually achieved in the adoption animosities as the Whigs and Tories of the of the Federal compact. He said: “It ap- Revolution. pears to me little short of a miracle that the It is not, therefore, a matter of surprise that delegates from so many States, different from a government, ordained under such discordeach other in their manners, circumstances ant circumstances, should have retained some and prejudices, should unite in forming a sys- of its elements of discord, nor that each genetem of national government so little liable to ration should witness violent opposition, if well-founded objections;" uttering, however, not actual resistance, to the Constitution and in the same paragraph, his own qualified ac- the Laws, both by individuals and by States. ceptance of the instrument:—“Nor am I yet It is to be doubted, indeed, if the Federal such an enthusiastic, partial or indiscriminat- | Government would have succeeded as a go

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