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CHAPTER II.

TIE OBJECTS OF SECESSION.

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As early as in 1858, the preme Court, under the laws, and under the Pre determination to

results of the new census people, has no power to oppress or wrong any Socede.

having been anticipated, section, and his election could afford no just the leaders of the rebellion began to canvass cause for alarm, even if he were a Monarchist. the subject of immediate secession. Jefferson None better knew this than the speaker quoDavis, in a speech at Jackson, Mississippi, in ted from above; but he, and all those who the fall of that year, assumed the position of have since acted with him, chose to asa direct secession advocate. He said : sume a fallacy as a fact, in order to aid and

" If an Abolitionist be chosen President of the forward the pre-determined design of a disUnited States, you will have presented to you the solution of the Union; and the election of question of whether you will permit the Government an“ Abolitionist”—that is,any Northern man, to pass into the hands of your avowed and implaca- with Northern or Freesoil principles—was to ble enemies? Without pausing for an answer, I will be the signal for the effort to cast off allestate my own position to be, that such a result would

giance to the Constitution. be a species of revolution by which the purposes of

Governor Hicks, in his address to the peothe Government would be destroyed, and the observance of its mere forms entitled to no respect. In ple of Maryland, said :—“ We are told by the that event, in such a manner as should be most ex

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leading spirits of the South Carolina Convenpedient, I should deem it your duty to provide for tion, that, neither the election of Mr. Lincoln, your safety outside of the Union, with those who nor the non-execution of the Fugitive Slave have already shown the will, and would have ac- law, nor both combined, constitute their quired the power, to deprive you of your birthright, grievances. They declare that the real cause and to reduce you to worse than the Colonial de- of their discontent dates as far back as 1833." pendence of your fathers."

We shall give the South Carolina Declaration The sentiment, it will be seen, covered the of Causes, in its proper order in this History, whole ground of the right and propriety of a and quote from Governor Hicks, to show how secession from the Union. “If an Abolition- a Southerner, not a Secessionist, viewed and ist be chosen President,” proves that the con- understood the movement. Mr. Davis, in his tingency of a Northern triumph was appre- address to the Senate, (January 21st,) after hended, and what follows indicates the line arguing that the equality spoken of in the of argument to be pursued before the people Declaration of Independin justification of the movement for a dissolu-ence was the equality of a

Rights. tion of the Confederacy. If an “ Abolition-class of political rights, said: ist” had not been elected ? Probably the “But we have proclaimed our independence. contemplated movement would not have been This is done with no hostility or any desire made in 1860, as the right pretext would have to injure, any section of the country, nor even been wanting with which to go before the for our pecuniary benefit, but from the high people. Not that the election of any Presi- and solid foundation of defending and prodent could in any way change the Constitu- tecting the rights we inherited, and transtion, could control Congress, could affect that mitting them unshorn to our posterity." bulwark of our institutions, the United States As the Declaration, in his view, secured only Supreme Court, could deprive any State, or a class of political rights, the succeeding avowany people, or any man of a birth-right:-theal that the step of recession was taken “from President being the mere temporary head of the high and solid foundation of defending the nation, under Congress, under the Su- and protecting the rights we inherited," &c.,

Southern View of

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gives the reader a glimpse of the true purpo- | the opposite idea ; its foundations are laid, its corses in view-not to recognize an equality of ner-stone rests, upon the great truth that the negro rights of persons, but to secure, to the domi- is not equal to the white man. That Slavery-sunant class, the “rights” it “inherited."

bordination to the superior race, is his natural and

moral condition. This, our new Government, is the All this, however, is not first, in the history of the world, based upon this Mr. Stephens' Expo sition.

only clearly stated by the great physical and moral truth. This truth has been

Vice-President of the “Con- slow in the process of its development, like all other federate States,” but the curtain is drawn truths in the various departments of science. It has aside, and we are permitted to see the moving been so even amongst us. Many who hear me, perwill of the ambitious scheme of the Secession- haps, can recollect well, that this truth was not geneists. Mr. Stephens' exposition of the powers rally admitted, even within their day. The errors of of their Constitution and the purposes had in the past generation still clung to many as late as view in its formation, was made at Savan- twenty years ago. Those at the North who still nah, March 21st, 1861. We may, therefore, cling to these errors, with a zeal above knowledge,

we justly denominate fanatics. here give place to such portions of his speech as will serve to illustrate our chapter subject, side, complete throughout the length and breadth of

• In the conflict thus far, success has been, on our viz. :-“The objects of Secession,” which it is the Confederate States. It is upon this, as I have highly important to understand as a prelimi- stated, our actual fabric is firmly planted ; and I cannary to a just comprehension of all the events not permit myself to doubt the ultimate success of which have followed upon the rupture of old a full recognition of this prineiple throughout the relations:

civilized and enlightened world. ** The new Constitution has put at rest forever all * As I have stated, the truth of this principle may the agitating questions relating to our peculiar insti- be slow in development, as all truths are, and ever tutions-African Slavery as it exists among us—the have been in the various branches of science. It proper status of the negro in our form of civilization. was so with the principles announced by Gallileo--it This was the immediate cause of the late rupture and was so with Adam Smith and his principles of politipresent revolution. Jefferson, in his forecast, had cal economy-it was so with Harvey and his theory anticipated this as the rock upon which the old of the circulation of the blood. It is stated that not Union would split.' He was right. What was con a single one of the medical profession, living at the jecture with him, is now a realized fact. But whether time of the announcement of the truths made by he fully comprehended the great truth upon which him, admitted them. Now they are universally acthat rock stood and stands, may be doubted. The knowledged. May we not, therefore, look with con. prevailing ideas entertained by him and most of the fidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgement leading statesmen at the time of the formation of the of the truths upon which our system rests. It is the old Constitution, were that the enslavement of the first government ever instituted upon principles of African was in violation of the laws of nature : that strict conformity to nature, and the ordination of it was wrong in principle, socially, morally, and po- Providence, in furnishing the materials of human bolitically. It was an evil they knew not well how ciety. Many governments have been founded upon to deal with, but the general opinion of the men of the principle of certain classes; but the classes thus that day was, that somehow or other, in the order of enslaved, were of the same race, and in violation of Providence, the institution would be evanescent and the laws of natnre. Our system commits no such pass away. This idea, though not incorporated in violation of nature's laws. The negro, by nature, or the Constitution, was the prevailing idea at the time. by the curse against Canaan, is fitted for that condiThe Constitution, it is true, secured every essential tion which he occupies in our system. The 'archiguarantee to the institution while it should last, and tect, in the construction of buildings, lays the founhence no argument can be justly used against the dation with the proper materials, the granite ; then constitutional guarantees thus secured, because of the comes the brick or the marble. The substratum of common sentiment of the day. Those ideas, how our society is made of the material fitted by nature ever, were fundamentally wrong. They rested upon for it, and by experience we know that it is best, not the assumption of the equality of races.' This was only for the superior, but for the inferior race that it an error. It was a sandy foundation, and the idea of should be so. It is, indeed, in conformity with the a government built upon it; when the storm came ordinance of the Creator. It is not for us to inquire , and the wind blew, it fell.'

into the wisdom of His ordinances, or to question “Our new Government is founded upon exactly them. For His own purposes He has made one race

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to differ from another, as He has made one star to tainty. We are now the nucleus of a growing power, differ from another star in glory.'

which, if we are true to ourselves, our destiny and • "The great objects of humanity are best attained high mission, will become the controlling power on when conformed to His laws and decrees, in the for- this continent. To what extent accessions will go on mation of governments, as well as in all things else. in the process of time, or where it will end, the future Our Confederacy is founded upon principles in strict will determine.” conformity with these laws. This stone which was This sets at rest all doubts in regard to the rejected by the first builders 'is become the chief distinctive objects in view in severing relations stone of the corner' in our new edifice.

with the old Confederacy; while it also de“ The progress of disintegration in the old Union monstrates the moral and political spirit may be expected to go on with almost absolute cer-' which will direct the new Government.

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ances.

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ELECTIONS held in the think available for meeting it (the issue) is Treasonable Utter

several Northern States, just to tear the Constitution of the United

during September and Oc- States, trample it under foot, and form a tober, indicated pretty clearly that Mr. Lin- Southern Confederacy, every State of which coln, the Republican nominee, would carry shall be a slaveholding State. I believe it as each of those States, with a fair prospect, also, I stand in the face of my Maker-I believe it of obtaining a majority in California and Or- on my responsibility to you as your honored egon. This indication served to awaken the representative that the only hope of the South slumbering disunion feeling, and various pro- is in the South, and that the only available jects were agitated, by Southern papers,“ to means of making that hope effective is to cut meet a common danger.” In South Carolina asunder the bonds that tie us together, and there was but one sentiment—that of seces- take our separate position in the family of sion. The election of a Republican to the nations.” Presidency was not urged as the sąle, or even This speech, violent as it was considered the leading, cause of the disunion feeling; at the time, in the North, really reflected the but the course of events seemed to have de- sentiment of his State. A sympathy with monstrated that the people were rife for the that sentiment prevailed, to a great extent, formation of a Slave Confederacy, and the throughout all the Cotton States; but, up to leaders prepared, even before the 6th of No- the date named, (Nov. 6th,) except in South vember, the programme of this disunion Carolina, no action was taken which looked movement.

to immediate secession. Even in Virginia. As early as 1856, one of the South Carolina the feeling against "submission” was representatives in Congress, Mr. Preston strong that Governor Letcher, in his Message Brooks—who, but a few weeks previously, to the Legislature said :—“It is useless to had assaulted United States Senator Sumner attempt to conceal the fact that in the pre-in a speech made at an ovation given in his sent temper of the Southern people, it (the honor said among other things :

election of a Republican President) cannot "I tell you, fellow-citizens, from the bot- and will not be submitted to. The tom of my heart, that the only mode which I'idea of permitting such a man to have the

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303

Dem.

Dem.

The Temocratic Con

vintions.

Bell.

control and direction of the army and navy | For John Bell, of Tennessee, President, and Ed-
of the United States, and the appointment of

ward Everett, of Massachusetts, Vice-Presi-
dent....

39 high judicial and executive officers, postmasters included, cannot be entertained by the South for a moment."

The popular vote was largely against Mr. The Democratic party, Lincoln, as will be perceived. Had all the The Grand Vote for President.

by being divided upon two opposition been united the vote would have

candidates, rendered the stood :Republican nominee's chances all the better; Opposition

.2,804,560

.1,857,610 while a fourth, or “Union” candidate, in the For the Republican candidates. person of John Bell, of Tennessee, being at a Majority against the Republicans. ....... 946,950 late hour brought forward, added certainty Or, had the Democracy been united, the mato Mr. Lincoln's hopes of success, since none jority would have been heavily against the of the candidates named against him could, Republicans, viz. :to any material degree, distract the Republi- For Douglas and Breckenridge tickets.......2,213,929 can vote.

For the Republican candidates.... .1,857,610 The election resulted, as gloomily anticipated by the Southern States, in Mr. Lin

Majority in favor of the Democracy, 356,319 coln's triumph. The vote stood :

These figures are of par-
STATES. Rep.

Union.

ticular interest as proving Lincoln. Douglas, Breck'e.

that the election was lost Alabama

13,651 48,831 27,875 Arkansas,

5,227 28,732 20,094

to the Democrats by their own divisions, for California 39,173 34,516 34,334 6,817 which the South alone was responsible. The Connecticut .. 43,792 15,522 14,641 3,291 Charleston Convention, (April 23d,) packed Delaware..... 3,815 1,023 7,337 3,864 Florida.

367 8,543 5,437

with disunionists, sought to drive the NorthGeorgia..

11,599 51,889 42,886 ern Democrats into declarations on the subIllinois

172,161 160,215 2,404 4,193 Indiana 139,033 115,509

12,295 5,306

ject of Slavery at once distasteful and hosIowa.... 70,409

1,048 1,673 tile to their convictions,; and, by their efforts Kentucky. 1,364 25,651 53,143 66,058 to force Mr. Douglas from the list of candiLouisiana

7,625 22,681 20,204 Maine .... 62,111 76,693 6,398 2,046

dates, incurred the hostility of his friends to Maryland. 2,294 5,966 42,482 41,760 such a degree that further co-operation was Massachu's... 106,533 34,372 5,939 22,331 impossible without a compromise of self-reMichigan.. 88,480 65,057

405 Minnesota.. 22,069 11,920 748 62 spect. The malcontents, thwarted in their Mississippi

3,283 40,797 25,040 plans for the demoralization of the Northern Missouri

17,028 58,801 31,317 58,372 N. Hampshire.

Democrats, on the question of Slavery, with37,519 25,881 2,112 441 New Jersey .. 58,324 62,801

drew, or “seceded,” to prevent a nomination. New York ... 353,804 303,329

The Convention failing of a nomination adN. Carolina

2,701 48,539 44,990 Ohio.... 231,610 187,2:2 11,405 12,194

journed to meet at Baltimore, June 18thOregon

5,270 3,951 5,006 183 the “Seceders” having adjourned to meet at Pennsylvania. 268,030 16,765 178,871 12,776 Richmond, June 11th. The Convention at Rhode Island. 12,2444 7,707 S. Carolina....Electors chosen by Legislature.

Baltimore was beset by the “ Seceders" and Tennessee.

11,350 64,709 69,274 their unaccredited delegates; but, after much Texas...

47,548 15,438 Vermont..

discussion and voting they were ruled out, 33,808 6,849 218 1,969 Virginia.

1,929 1,6290 74,323 74,681 when Mr. Douglas received the nomination. Wisconsin 86,110 65,021

161 The “Seceders,” headed by Caleb Cushing, Total..... 1,857,610 1,365,976 847,953 590,631 gathered at the Front Street Theatre, in BalFor Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois, and Hannibal

timore and nominated John C. Breckenridge. Hamlin, of Maine, Vice-President...p... 180 Twelve States were not represented at all, in For Stephen Arnold Douglas, of Illinois, President, and Herschel V. Johnson, of Georgia,

that gathering. The “Seceders” at RichVice-President

12 mond—composed entirely of delegates from For John J. Breckenridge, of Kentucky, Presi

the Cotton growing States, with one from dent, and Joseph Lane, of Oregon, Vice-President..

72 Tennessee and one from Virginia-having ad

55,111

805

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GROWTH OF SECESSION.

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journed to await the action of the Baltimore election at Charleston, was received with long-conConvention, " ratified" the nomination of tinued cheering for a Southern confederacy. Mr. Breckenridge, who thus became a candi WASHINGTON, D. C., Wednesday, Nov. 7, 1860. date of the extremists, or disunionists. That

There is a good deal of excitement here. Several Mr. Douglas was the regular and just nomi- extreme Southern men in office have donned the

cockade, and declared themselves ready to march nee is evident from the fullness of the delega

South. tions in the Convention and by the popular

COLUMBIA, S. C., Thursday, Nov. 8th. vote.

The Speaker of the House last night received a The election of Mr. Lincoln was, therefore, dispatch from Virginia, tendering the services of a owing to the disorganization of the opposi- volunteer corps in the event of South Carolina’s setion by the Southern men, and that these dis- cession. Edmund Ruffin spoke last night. He said organizers should have proceeded to organ- Southern independence conld only be secured by the ize a scheme of treason against the Govern- secession of South Carolina. His speech was raptument, using their defeat as a pretext, demon- rously applauded. strates the wisdom of the course pursued by

CHARLESTON, S. C., Thursday, Nov. 7, 1860. the Douglas, men in repudiating the dicta

The bark James Gray, owned by Cushing's Boston tion of the extremists.

Line, lying at our wharves, under instructions from

her owners, has hoisted the Palmetto flag, and fired For the election of a Republican President

a salute of fifteen guns. the country is indebted to the extremists of

NEW ORLEANS, La., Thursday, Nov. 8, 1860. the South

Placards are posted about the city, calling a ConFrom the unity of senti- vention of those favorable to the organization of a South Carolina to lead.

ment which prevailed in corps of " Minute Men.”

South Carolina on the ques WASHINGTON, D. C., Friday, Nov. 9, 1860. tion of a dissolution of her relations with the The President is still in doubt what to do. He is Union, that State was looked to by the Seces apprehensive of troubles in the South, but does not sionists to take the initiative in the rebellion. know how to meet them. His feelings are with the She did not shrink from the responsibility. South, but he is afraid to assist them openly. Before the day of election her Governor had

A large quantity of arms was yesterday shipped

from our arsenal to the South. But the place of deslaid a strong disunion message before the

tination remains a secret. Legislature, advising the calling of a Conven

The proclamation of Gov. Brown, of Georgia, has tion of Delegates to act for the State in dis- created much excitement. It is the most unconstisolving her relations with the Union.

tutional manifesto ever published in the United Such dispatches as the States, and it- depends now upon the President How the Election was regarded.

over the whether he will use his authority, and enforce the following flew

wires on the days succeed- laws of the United States. ing the Presidential election:

Each day added to the

Growth of the SecesRaLEIGH. N, C., Wednesday, Nov. 7, 1860.

intensity of the excitement.

sion Sentiment The Governor and Council are in session. The The press of the South, people are very much excited. North Carolina is early in November, was widely divided, even ready to secede.

in the Gulf States. In New Orleans, the maCOLUMBIA, S. C., Wednesday, Nov. 7, 1860. jority of press and people seemed to regard William W. Boyce, member of Congress, spoke the threats of disunion with disfavor. So in from the steps of the Congaree House, on Tuesday Savannah, Mobile, Memphis, Nashville, &c., night,urging secession in case of Mr. Lincoln's elec- there were found stern and strong voices for tion. He was followed by other prominent Caro- the Union. “Wait until Mr. Lincoln is inlinians. MONTGOMERY, Ala., Wednesday, Nov. 7, 1860.

augurated, and commits the overt act,” the Large numbers of the Bell men, headed by T. H. Union men urged; but, it soon became eviWatts, have declared for secession, since the an dent that the antipathy to the North and to nouncement of Lincoln's election. The State will the Union gained in fervor ; and, day by day, andoubtedly secede.

the public mind of the South became more AUGUSTA, Ga., Wednesday, Nov. 7, 1860. reconciled to the views of the few men who The Charleston Mercury says the news of Lincoln's I assumed 'a leadership in the crisis, viz. : Wm.

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