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sideration, embodied the feelings and wishes he trusted, as returnless as that of James II. of the vast majority of the people of his He vindicated Massachusetts; she would be really conservative State.

true to all her constitutional obligations, Mr. Alley, (Rep.) of Her fidelity to the Union was but the record Alley's Speech. Massachusetts, followed. of her history. He vindicated her Governor,

He wondered at disunion, and said that Massachusetts had had twentysince, to the South especially, it was suicide. one Governors since 1780—all of them able The North, he conceded, would at first suf- and distinguished-most of them eminentfer, but her gigantic resources would soon some of them illustrious men, and, in everyrecover from the changes of trade, when she thing that constituted true greatness of mind would open for herself new channels equal to and character, not one among them all was all her requirements. Indeed, he thought superior to John A. Andrew. He had faith the North would be better off, commercially, in the wisdom and patriotism of the Ameriso long as there was such a want of harmony can people, and if they were true to their and confidence between the two sections. convictions, they had a future most hopeful, To expect the North, which stood upon the a mission most important, a destiny most Constitution, which adopted the old and glorious, long-settled views of Washington, Jefferson A review of this week's and other fathers of the Government on the proceedings will show that question of Slavery, was going to humble it- the disunion movement had self before the arrogance of the Slave power bitter opponents in Southern men, and that, was simply preposterous. The North stood, could they have been heard effectually by the on that question, precisely where the great people of the Border States, both Virginia men of the South had always stood until and North Carolina would have been spared within a very recent period. Because the the dreadful plunge. But, so true is it that South had changed front was no reason why the machinations of the Evil One are more the North should do the same, and abandon potent with men than the quiet promises of its deep-rooted convictions in giving consti- Angels, that the revolution gained force even tutional guarantees and protection to Sla- as there dawned hope of staying it. The very. The North had no power, no desire disunion leaders at Washington fairly burto interfere with Slavery in the States, but dened the mails to the South with their treathey would be degenerate sons of most wor- sonable and baleful correspondence and docuthy sires if they consented to the extension ments. Did a member from a Slave State of Slavery in the Territories. The South, he make a Union speech, immediately there was said, had had possession of the National Gov- dispatched to his district such a counter-flood ernment for more than half a century, and of falsehood and calumny as not only impairher sons had monopolized a large share of ed his own standing with his constituents, the offices and emoluments, and received the but added immeasurably to the disunion senlion's share of appropriations. The North timent. It was by such means—means whose had paid for many years more than three invention would have added new lustre to fourths of the revenue, and most of it had Machiavel's crown of dishonor—that Tenbeen spent for the benefit of the South. The i nessee, North Carolina and Virginia were South, in its arbitrary exercise of power and given up to the embraces of the monster its propagandism, had a parallel in the reign whose very breath was political and social of James II., who was a propagandist of poison. We can imagine that the Angels of the Roman Catholic religion- To serve that Darkness bore to Lucifer's court glad tidings interest, he abused his power

, violated the during those eventful days—that his galleries Constitution, and was driven into exile as a of glory became lustrous with the records reward for his tyranny. So it was with the of America's dishonored and dishonoring Slave Power-it had been driven into exile, sons.

CHAPTER XIX.

PRESSURE FOR COMPROMISE. MR. LINCOLN'S POLICY. THE PEACE

CONGRESS APPOINTMENTS. MEN ACING ATTITUDE OF AFFAIRS IN CHARLES TON. COLONEL HAYNE'S FINAL DEMANDS. HIS LETTER TO TIE PRESIDENT. MR. HOLT'S REPLY. THE POSITION OF THE GOVERNMENT.

Events of the closing I though no definite proposition grew out of Outside Pressure for

week of January, tended to the Conference, it was conceived to have done Compromise.

demonstrate the improba- much good in lessening the divisions between bility of any settlement of the vexed questions the widely dissevered parties. between the North and South. A very strong Dispatches to the Assopressure was brought to bear on Congress, by ciated Press, from Wash- News Dispatches. petitions, by letters, by special deputations, ington, January 28th, made, and by eminent men who gathered at the among others, the following announcements: Capital to lend their influence to compro- “ Affairs wear a more hopeful aspect. A large mise. A delegation of thirty-three citizens, number of distinguished gentlemen, from all parts from Philadelphia, representing fifty thousand of the country, are encouraged by the prospect of working men of that city, visited Washing- / being able to contribute to a restoration of good ton January 30th. In a call upon Senator

feeling between the two sections. The repeal of Crittenden, they stated their object to be to

the Personal Liberty bill in Rhode Island and the

| late action of the Ohio Legislature on the same subtestify their love for the Union and their de

ject are hailed by the friends of the Union as liarsire to urge the adoption of the Crittenden

bingers of peace. Compromise by Congress. Delegations were

“The Boards of Trade of Milwaukee and Chicago also present from New York and Boston, un

paid their respects, to-day, to President Buchanan derstood to represent the commercial inter

and to Senators Douglas, Seward and others. In ests of those great business centres. They, their interview with the President he said: “If Mr. too, favored the Crittenden propositions, Lincolu shall enjoy his accession to power as much and urged powerful monetary reasons why as I do my retirement from it, he will be a happy a settlement should be made. Great in- man.” Senator Seward, in the course of his confluence was exerted by the voice from versation with the Members of the Boards, said: Wall street. A conference of members of “Heretofore the cry has been raised to save the the Border States was held, January 30th,

Union, when the Union was not in danger. I tell at the request of the delegation from New

you, my friends, the question of Slavery is not now

to be taken into account. We must save the Union. York city. The delegation urged that, as

Then we save all that is worth saving. the Republicans would not receive the Crit

“ The great point now aimed at by the friends of tenden resolutions, some other practical pro

the Union is to avoid all pretext for a collission by position should be devised which did not re

the Seceding States, in the hope that the sober, quire any surrender of principle at their hands.

second thought of the people,' if adjustment measSeveral members from the Border Slave States

ures shall be presented, will induce them to resume expressed a willingness to accept the Corwin their connection with the Federal Government. propositions, “with proper modifications,” | " The friends of the Union are much encouand even the lately belligerent Rust, of Ar- raged by the prompt responses to the invitation kansas, is represented as having exhibited a for Commissioners from the several States to meet conciliatory disposition-so humanizing and in Convention here on the 4th of February, and it is harmonizing was the power of gold. Al-believed the action of the Convention will command

POSITION

OF

MR. LINCOLN'S PARTY.

289

the support of a large majority of both branches of The same journal added, as to the real attiCongress.

tude of the party : ** It is now certain that private letters have been

“ This is not only to be taken as Mr. Lincoln's dereceived from Mr. Lincoln, urging his friends to conclaration of his own views, but it amply expresses ciliation and compromise, and it is stated that he the conviction of every unshaken Republican as to indicates the Border State resolutions as a reason the duty of the hour. First inaugurate the new Adable basis of adjustment. The assurance is given ministration and determine the question of questions that this information is reliable. Soon after the whether we have a Government, or only a Mexican Electoral vote shall be counted in the presence of anarchy; and when that problem is disposed of, it the two Houses of Congress, on the second Wednes will be time enough to consider and settle matters day in February, Mr. Lincoln will acquaint the of inferior consequence.” public with his views on the pending crisis. Here

The speeches made, durtofore he has not felt that it was proper for him, in ing the week, by leading Position of his Party. advance of the official declaration of his election, to take a prominent part in the direction of political

Republicans confirmed this affairs.”

view. Wilson, of Massachusetts, Thaddeus This latter dispatch crea- Stevens, of Pennsylvania, Adams, of MassaMr. Lincoln's Position.

ted much remark, particu- chusetts, Seward, of New York, Conkling, of

larly in Republican circles, New York, and others, while they deprecated with whom compromise by concession was a course likely to precipitate matters, still rapidly becoming unpopular. It received, were so firm in their Union sentiments, and however, an early rejoinder from Springfield, so resolute in demanding the fullest obedience III. The Journal, of that city, understood to to the laws, that the country felt their minds speak for Mr. Lincoln, in its issue of January were made up against concessions to the ex29th, said: “The country may rest assured tent demanded. Both Messrs. Seward and that in Abraham Lincoln they have a Repub-Adams were eminently conciliatory; both lican President-one who will give them a strove so to harmonize feelings as to place Republican Administration. Mr. Lincoln is the responsibility of further revolution on the not committed to the Border State Compro- Border Slave States. But, the stern fact that mise, nor to any other. He stands immovably South Carolina disdained to be represented on the Chicago Platform, and he will neither at the “Peace Congress” [see page 256,) and, acquiesce in, nor counsel his friends to acqui- speaking for the States soon to gather at esce in, any compromise that surrenders one Montgomery to establish a new Confederacy, iota of it."

gave indications that no settlement was wantThis was confirmed by an editorial in a ed or was possible,* the declarations of withleading Republican journal of New York city, drawing members, and of Pryor, of Virginia, which, in its issue of the 30th, said of the proving that concessions would prove futile news dispatch: "We do not hesitate to say that these statements

* The Charleston Mercury, in its issue of January are false and calumnious. We have the best author- 25th, expressed the feeling of its partisans as reity for saying that Mr. Lincoln is opposed to all con. garded compromise in these words :-“What remains cessions of the sort. We know that his views are

to us still, to be surrendered by compromise? Our fully expressed in his own language as follows ::

homesteads, agriculture, slaves, wives, and children. "I will suffer death before I will consent or advise my and these may very soon go, where a people are friends to consent to any concession or compromise which represented by those who seem to have compromised looks like buying the privilege of taking possession of the away their own manhood. Verily, the attitude they Government to which we have a constitutional right; be.

now exhibit, supplicants at the feet of Black Repubcause, whatever I might think of the merit of the various licanism, for simple words of fraud and evasion, propositions before Congress, I should regard any concession in the face of menace as the destruction of the Govern. which will enable them still to compromise away ment itself, and a consent on all bands that our system shall the rights and securities of a people, strips them of be brought*down to a level with the existing disorganized all claim, whether as men of sense or men of honor; state of affairs in Mexico. But this thing will hereafter be, and, if Black Republicans should spurn them, as An. as it is now, in the hands of the people ; and if they desire tonio spurned and spat upon Shylock, their proper to call a Convention to remove any grievances complained of, or to give new guarantees for the permanence of vested speech would be, in the language of Maworm in the rights, it is not mine to oppose. "

play: ‘We loves to be contemptible !!"

290

THE SOUTHERN REBELLION.

to restore the seceded States--all tended to Indiana : Hon. Caleb B. Smith, P. A. confirm the conviction prevailing, to a great Huckleman, G. S. Orth, E. W. H. Lewis, and extent, in all the Free States, that compro- | T.C. Sloughton, mise would not only prove useless but would Massachusetts: Jno. B. Goodrich, Chas. savor of weakness, and must, therefore, in no Allen, Ex-Gov. Boutwell, M. Forbes, Francis small degree, commit the new Administration B. Crowningshield, Theo. P. Chandler, and to a line of policy at once embarrassing and Richard P. Waters. humiliating. Mr. Lincoln's position unques- New York: David Dudley Field, Wm. tionably was wisely chosen, so far as he was Curtis Noyes, James C. Smith, Amaziah B. concerned ; and daily the public mind be- James, James S. Wadsworth, Erastus Corning, came convinced that his “non-committalism,” at least, was prudent and sagacious.

up under Mr. Lincoln's supervision. They were The appointment, by the Governors and

adopted February 1st, and read as follows:

Whereas, Resolutions of the State of Virginia Legislatures of the several States, of “Com

have been communicated to the General Assembly missioners” to the “Peace Congress," pretty

of this State, proposing the appointment of Commis. clearly indicated the character of that assem

sioners by the several States, to meet in Convention blage of men. As a general thing “conser

on the 4th day of February, 1861, at Washington. vatives” were chosen. So decidedly did the " Resolved, by the Senate, the House of Representcool and cautious element predominate that atives concurring herein, That with the earnest de it was called “the Old Gentlemen's" Con- sire for the return of harmony and kind relations gress. The appointments, as announced, were among our States, and out of respect to the comas follows:

monwealth of Virginia, the Governor of the State be Pennsylvania : Wm. M. Meredith, Ex-Gov.

requested to appoint five Commissioners on the part Pollock, David Wilmot, Judge Thos. White,

of Illinois to confer and consult with the Com mis

sioners of other States who shall meet at WashingThos. E. Franklin, A. W. Loomis, and Wm.

ton; provided, that said Commissioners shall at all McKennan.

times be subject to the control of the General AsOhio: Ex-Gov. Salmon P. Chase, Hon.

sembly of the State of Illinois. Thos. Ewing, Judge J. C. Wright, Wm.

ment of CommissionGroesbeck, Judge Reuben Hitchcock, Judge ers by the State of Illinois in response to the invitaJ. T. Backus, and V. B. Horton.

tion of the State of Virginia, is not an expression of Kentucky: Hon. James Guthrie, Gen. Wm. opinion on the part of this State that any amend. 0, Butler, Ex-Gov. Wickliffe, Ex-Gov. Moore ment of the Federal Constitution is requisite to afford head, Joshua F. Bell, and James B. Clay. to the people of the Slaveholding States adequate

Maryland : Reverdy Johnson, Aug. W. guarantees for security of their rights, nor an apBradford, Wm. S. Goldsborough, Jno. W.

proval of the basis of settlement of our difficulties Crisfield, and J. Dixon Roman,

proposed by the State of Virginia, but it is an es. Missouri: Waldo P. Johnson, Judge Hough,

pression of our willingness to unite with the State

of Virginia in an earnest effort to adjust the present Col. Doniphan, Judge Berckner, and John D.

unhappy controversy in the spirit in which the ConCoulter.

stitution was originally framed and consistently with New Hampshire : Amos Tuck, Asa Fowler, lits principles. and Levi Chamberlain.

1 " Resolved, That while we are willing to appoint Rhode Island: Chief-Justice Ames, Alex. Commissioners to meet in Convention with those of Duncan, Ex-Gov. Hoppin, Geo. H. Browne, other States for consultation upon matters which at and Saml. Y. Arnold.

present distract our harmony as a nation, we also Vermont : Ex-Gov. Hiland Hall, Lieut. insist that the appropriate constitutional method of Gov. Levi Underwood, Gen. H. Henny Bax considering and acting upon the grievances como ter, Hons. L. E. Chittenden and D. B. Harris.

plained of by our sister States would be by the call Illinois : John Wood, Gustavus A. Korner,

of a Convention for the amendment of the ConstituStephen T. Logan, Thos. J. Turner, and Bur

tion in the manner contemplated by the fifth article ton C. Cook.*

of that instrument; and if the States deeming them

selves aggrieved shall request Congress to call such * The Illinois Legislature resolves relating to the Convention, the Legislature of Minois will and does Commission, were understood to have been drawn I concur in such call.”

That th

N

COL. HAYNE'S FINAL DEMAND.

291

Demand.

Addison Gardiner, Greene C. Bronson, Wm. Government that it would in

Col. Hayne's Final E. Dodge, Ex-Gov. John A. King, and Maj. evitably lead to immediate hosGen. John E. Wool.

tilities in which property on all Iowa, New Jersey, Connecticut, Delaware sides would necessarily suffer. South Carolina has and North Carolina were also properly re- every disposition to preserve the public peace, and presented.

feels, I am sure, in full force, those high Christian and Affairs at Fort Sumter moral duties referred to by your Secretary; and it is Warlike Attitude of Charleston Harbor.

submitted that on her part there is scarcely any conremained unchanged at the assembling of the Confede

sideration of mere property, apart from honor and

safety, which could induce her to do aught to the rate Congress, February 4th. Anderson's industry had enabled him to mount sufficient protracted and bloody civil war. She holds her po

prejudice of that peace, still less to inaugurate a guns, bearing on the opposing fortifications, sition on something higher than mere property. It to make a stern defence in event of an as-is in consideration of her own dignity as a sovereign, sault. Works continued to go up on Morris,' and the safety of her people, which prompts her to Sullivans' and James' Islands. The activity demand that the property should not longer be used of South Carolinians betokened a stubborn as a military post by a Government she no longer spirit of war. Among other instruments of acknowledges. She feels this to be her imperative offense a floating battery was under construc- duty—it has, in fact, become an absolute necessity tion, during January, which gave promise of of her condition. Repudiating; as you do, the idea proving a formidable engine of destruction. of coercion, avowing peaceful intentions, and exIt was designed to mount a number of heavy strife, among those who were once brethren, it is

pressing a patriot's horror of civil war and bloody guns, and to be worked at any convenient hoped that, on further consideration, you will not, point. Being constructed of green pine and on a mere question of property, refuse the reasonpalmetto logs and ribbed with heavy railroad able demand of South Carolina, which bonor and iron, it was regarded as impervious to shot. necessity alike compel her to indicate. Should you Its construction, as well as the erection of disappoint this hope, the responsibility for the result several elaborate batteries and defences on surely does not rest with her. If the evils of war the islands named, proved that the belea-are to be encountered, especially the calamities of gured eighty men would experience the civil war, elevated statesmanship would seem to rehazard of a terrific assault, when the word quire that it should be accepted as the unavoidable

alternative of something still more disastrous, such was given to open fire on Sumter.

as national dishonor, or measures materially affecting Colonel Hayne, the South Carolina Commissioner to the Federal Government, made it should be a choice deliberately made and entered

the safety or permanent interests of a people; that his final demand of the President, Thursday, upon--war and its set purpose. But that war January 31st. His first call was made on the should be the incident or accident attendant on a President, January 15th (see page 244.] He policy professedly peaceful, and not required to was, however, induced, by the influence of effect the object which is avowed as the only end Jefferson Davis and nine other Senators, to intended, can only be excused where there has make no formal demand, as at that time his been no warning given as to the consequences. I orders seemed to require; and the telegraph to am instructed, further, to say that South Carolina Charleston was freely used by these parties, in cannot, by her silence, appear to acquiesce in the their endeavors to hold the matter in abeyance. imputation that she was guilty of an act of unproThese gentlemen opened, in the stead of voked aggression, in firing on the Star of the West.

Though an unarmed vessel she was filled with armed Colonel Haynes, a correspondence with the

men, entering her territories against her will, with President, which was turned over to Secretary the purpose of reenforcing a garrison held within Holt to answer (see page 254, &c.] Colonel | her limits and against her protest. She forbears to Haynes' final demand, however, was made recriminate by discussing the question of the proJanuary 31st. The concluding portion of priety of attempting such reenforcement at all, as his letter to the President read as follows: well as of the disguised and secret manner in which

“ To send reenforcements to Fort Sumter, could it was intended to be effected, and on this occasion not serve as a means of protecting and preserv. she will say nothing as to the manner in which Fort ing the property, for it must be known to your Sumter was taken into the possession of its present

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