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ADDRESSES OF CONGRESSMEN.

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made to produce estrangement between the different concurred in the Senate amendments of the
sections of the country, or to inflame popular preju- report of the Committee on Federal Relations,
dices. Their example is worthy of imitation when as above given ; when the following resolu-
events are hurrying us on so rapidly into civil tion was adopted :
strife.
“Nothing but a sense of duty has induced me to

" Resolved, That the interests of Virginia are those
transmit this preamble and resolutions to the two of her Southern sisters, and no reconstruction of the
Houses of General Assembly. The threat which Union can be permanent which will not secure to
is conveyed in them can inspire no terror with each section self-protecting power against any in-
Freemen.
" JOHN LETCHER."

vasion of the Federal Union upon the reserved rights

of either.” The message and accompanying resolutions were read, when, on motion of Mr. Anderson, by their delegation in Congress. Acting un

The people of the State were approached it was unanimously

" Resolved, That the Governor of Virginia return der the “ central power” of Mason, Toombs, the resolutions of the Legislature of New York to Hunter and Davis, ten members signed and the Executive of that State, with the request that sent out an “ Address to the Virginia peono such resolutions be again sent to this General ple,” giving a review of the proceedings and Assembly."

the probable action of Con

Address of the The House of Delegates passed a bill, gress in regard to the pre

Congressmen. January 18th, appropriating one million sent state of affairs. They dollars for the defense of the State. In the said: “It is vain to hope for any measures of Senate, Jan. 19th, the consideration of the re-conciliation or adjustment from Congress, port on Federal resolutions, contemplating which the people can accept. Also, that a National Convention, was resumed. The they are satisfied that the Republican party second resolution in the report was amended designs, by a civil war alone, to coerce by appointing John Tyler, William C. Rives, the Southern States, under the pretext of John W. Brockenbrough, George W. Sum- enforcement of the laws,' unless it shall bemer and James A. Seddon, Commissioners come speedily apparent that the Seceding

to Washington, on the 4th States are so numerous,' determined and The Peace Congress of February, to procure a united, as to make such an attempt hopeless.

delay of Federal action, The address concluded by expressing the sollooking toward coercion.

emn conviction, that prompt and decided The fifth resolution was amended by modi-action by the people of Virginia in Convenfying Mr. Crittenden's proposition, so as to tion will afford the surest means, under the give additional protection and security to providence of God, of averting the impending slave property.

civil war, and of preserving a hope of reconThe sixth resolution was amended by ap-structing a Union already dissolved.” This pointing John Tyler a Commissioner to wait was devised to create a new fever for hasty on the President of the United States, and action in the Legislature. The tendency of Judge John Robertson a Commissioner to things towards the “peace” policy alarmed South Carolina and the other Seceding States, the conspirators at headquarters; they, hence, to request them to abstain from hostile acts sought to restore the immediate secession during the pendency of proceedings.

sentiment to its destined ascendancy ere the The report was then passed by yeas 40, Peace Congress could proceed to arrange a nays 5.

scheme of adjustment. The Address was one The following was then introduced, and of several plots emanating from Washingpassed unanimously :

ton to drive the people into the revolution. Resolved, That if all efforts to reconcile the differ- That this was the sole purpose of the Adences between the two sections of the country shall dress was soon evident in other extraordinary prove abortive, then every consideration of honor exertions made by the Secessionists to reand interest demands that Virginia shall unite her cover their lost ground. A leading member destinies with her sister Slaveholding States." of the Legislature, on the Conservative side,

The House of Delegates, January 19th, wrote as follows, under date of January 23d:

* Recent developments have encouraged me to | Virginia. If she secedes, and no speedy combelieve that the action of Virginia will be decidedly promise is made by Congress similar to Mr. conservative. There was a violent and unnatural Crittenden's proposition, I have positive excitement here, produced by the systematic efforts knowledge that the people of Maryland are of disunion politicians. The sober second thought preparing, independent of the Governor, to has begun to operate, and a more wholesome condi- elect and convene a Sovereign Convention, tion of feeling prevails. I think a large majority of which will certainly withdraw the State from the Convention will be opposed to immediate seces, the Union before Mr. Lincoln's inauguration." sion. “ The position of the conservatives in our General

Delaware showed herself Assembly has been a trying one. At the earlier pe

Delaware loyal.

to be loyal. Her Legislariod of the session we were overwhelmed by the de- ture approved the Critstructives. But we rallied our forces, and, after a tenden resolves, January 17th. The followresolute fight, we have beaten them, and so shaped ing among other resolves, though not acted the action of the Legislature as to render it decided on affirmatively, still reflected the tone of ly conservative. Virginia now occupies the position feeling which was uppermost with the of mediator, holding back the belligerents and ten- people : dering the olive branch of peace."

Resolved, That we believe solemnly that the ConMaryland continued stitution and the laws of the United States faithfully Maryland still frm. steadfast to the Union un- administered and implicitly obeyed are fully equal

der the firm guidance of to heal all grievances, coming from what portion of Governor Hicks. On the 20th it was stated, the country they may. in a dispatch from Baltimore, that the great Resolved, That Delaware knows no North, no mass of the people approved the course pur- South, no East, no West, but only the Union, Consued by the Governor in refusing to call the stitution and Laws, and earnestly desires that the Legislature. Another statement was pub

laws be fully and faithfully enforced in every por

tion of our Union. lished to the effect that “Union meetings

"Resolved, That we earnestly recommend to our held in almost every county approve his Senators and Representatives in Congress, under no course, and pronounce against disunion. The circumstances to countenance or sanction the withassociation of Minute Men of Baltimore have drawal of any ate from the Union, but in the lantaken a noble stand in support of Governor guage of Jackson, this · Union must and shall be Hicks and the Union. This organization, preserved.?” formed about a month before the Presidential In North Carolina much

North Carolina Hesi. election, numbers about thirty-two hundred opposition was manifested

tating. active members in the city, and is affiliated to the secession of the State. with kindred organizations in every county One party was unmistakably Union at all in the State. They are divided into compa- events; another favored compromise, which, nies of sixty-four men each. To their efforts if not conceded, should be cause for secesis due the brilliant success of the recent Union sion; another was for cooperation with Virmeeting in Baltimore. Upon the very day ginia. The number of unconditional separawhen the forty United States marines were tionists was comparatively small, but powersent to take possession of Fort McHenry, it ful enough, with the outside pressure of South was intended by the Minute Men to occupy Carolina, to keep the State moving quietly and hold it, until relieved by the Federal but surely toward the point of open action. troops, and thus to keep the property safe The Legislature of the State was in session from the possibility of seizure by the rapidly during January. January 16th, anti-coercion organizing Secession association called the resolutions passed to a second reading. They “ Southern Volunteers.” A dispatch from were opposed to coercion even to pledging another source, dated the 21st, expressed less the whole power of the State to resist any sanguine views of the Union strength in the attempt of the General Government to use State. It said : "Georgia's secession has arms against a seceding State. The Convenstruck a melancholy blow to the hopes of tion bill was also under consideration. Maryland. We are now at the mercy of The Arkansas Legislature, January 16th,

TENNESSEE'S ACTION.

249

unanimously passed a bill submitting the of the Chicago platform—a condition of our country question of calling a Convention to the peo- most likely near at hand—what attitude will Kenple on the 28th of February. If a majority tucky hold, and by virtue of what authority shall her favored a Convention, the Governor was to external relations be determined ? Herein are in

volved issues of momentous consequence to the appoint the day. The Missouri State Legis

people. It is of vital importance to our own Missouri.

safety and domestic peace, that these questions be lature continued in excited

solved in accordance with the will of a majority of session during the month. our people. How have our neighboring States preIts Senate, January 16th, passed a Convention pared to meet this emergency? Tennessee has, bill, yeas 31, nays 2. The bill left the entire through the action of her Legislature, referred the matter, however, to the people. The voters whole subject to her people, to be passed upon in were to decide at the time the delegates were their sovereign capacity. Virginia and North Caroelected, whether the Secession Ordinance, if | lina are discussing the propriety of a similar course, passed, should be submitted to the people and will most probably authorize the people, through for ratification. The election of delegates sovereignty Conventions, to dispose of questions so was set for February 18th, the Convention to deeply and vitally concerning their interests. Mismeet on the 28th.

souri seems likely to adopt a similar policy. These The Governor of Ken- States wisely recognize the fact that the country is Kentucky.

in a state of revolution; and, it seems to me, there tucky submitted (Jan. 17th)

is an eminent propriety, at such a time, in a direct a long message to the extra

appeal to the people. The ordinary departments of session of the Legislature convened by him to the Government are vested with no power to conconsider the crisis. He adverted at length duct the State through such a revolution. Any atto the facts of the secession movement, the tempt, by either of these departments, to change means of adjustment proposed, the action our present external relations, would involve a desirable for the Border States to urge, &c. usurpation of power, and might not command that He recommended for the Legislature, as a confidence and secure the unanimity so essential to body, to endorse the Crittenden resolves, and our internal safety. Thus encompassed by embaralso advised the calling of a State Conven-rassment, complication and doubt, assailed by a tion, saying:

diversity of counsels, and encountering much variety “We, the people of the United of opinion, it seems to me the wisest, as, certainly, Governor McGoffin's States, are no longer one people, the safest mode of meeting tbe extraordinary emer

united and friendly,«The ties of gency, is to adopt the course pursued by our neighfraternal love and concord which once bound us to boring States, and refer these great questions to the gether are sundered. Though the Union of the arbitrament of the people, whose happiness and desStates may, by the abstract reasoning of a class, be tinies they so deeply affect. We should, in this construed still to exist, it is really and practically, mode, secure unity among ourselves, and attract the to an extent at least, fatally impaired. The Confedcordial loyalty of all our citizens to Kentucky, eracy is rapidly resolving into its original integral wherever she may cast her lot. I, therefore submit parts, and its loyal members are intent upon con

to your consideration the propriety of providing for tracting wholly new relations. Reluctant as we may the election of delegates to a Convention, to be asbe to realize the dread calamity, the great fact of sembled at an early day, to whom shall be referred, revolution stares us in the face, demands recogni- for full and final determination, the future Federal tion, and will not be theorized away. Nor is the and inter-State relations of Kentucky.” Worst yet told. We are not yet encouraged to hope The Legislature, however, refused to call a that this revolution will be bloodless. A collision Convention. It was decidedly averse to any of arms has even occurred between the Federal Gov- action looking to Secession. ernment and the authorities of a late member of the Union, and the issue threatens to involve the whole

Tennessee was laboring in the throes of the country in fratricidal war. It is under these circum- revolution. The following joint resolutions stances of peculiar gloom that you have been sum

were adopted January 20th:

Resolved, By the General Assembly of the State In view of the partial disruption of the Union, the of Tennessee, that this General Assembly has heard secession of eight or ten States, the establishment with profound regret, of the resolutions adopted by of a Southern Confederated Republic, and the ad- the State of New York, tendering men and money ministration of this Government upon the principles to the President of the United States, to be used in

moned.

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THE SOUTHERN REBELLION,

coercing certain sovereign States of the South into slaveholding, in the manner following: It should obedience to the Federal Government.

invite all the States friendly to such plan of adjustResolved, That this General Assembly receives ment to elect delegates in such manner as to reflect the action of the Legislature of New York as the in- the popular will to assemble in a Constitutional Condication of a purpose upon the part of the people of vention of all the States, North and South, to be that State to further complicate existing difficulties, held at Richmond, Virginia, on the day of Feb. by forcing the people of the South to the extremity ruary, 1861, to revise and perfect said plan of adof submission or resistance, and, so regarding it, the justment for its reference for final ratification and Governor of the State of Tennessee is hereby re-adoption by Conventions of the States respectively. quested to inform the Executive of the State of New Resolved, That should a plan of adjustment satisYork that it is the opinion of this General Assembly factory to the South not be acceded to by the requithat whenever the authorities of that State shall site number of States to perfect amendments to the send armed forces to the South for the purposes indi- Constitution of the United States, it is the opinion of cated in said resolutions, the people of Tennessee, this General Assembly that the Slaveholding States united with their brethren of the South, will, as one should adopt for themselves the Constitution of the man, resist such invasion of the soil of the South at United States, with such amendments as may be satall hazards, and to the last extremity.”

isfactory to the Slaveholding States, and that they The Lower House adopted, on the 21st,

should invite into a Union with them all the States without dissent, its plan of Convention and

hout dissent its plan of Convention and of the North which are willing to abide such compromise as follows:

amended Constitution and frame of Government,

severing at once all connection with the States re“1. Resolved, by the General Assembly of Tennessee,

fusing such reasonable guarantees to our future That a Convention of Delegates from all the Slave

safety—such renewed conditions of Federal Union holding States should assemble at Nashville, Ten

being first submitted for ratification to the Convennessee, or such other place as a majority of the

tions of all the States respectively." States cooperating may designate, on the 4th of February, to digest and define a basis upon which, if pos- |

The attitude of the Northern States was sible, a Federal Union and the constitutional rights of not less belligerent at the close of January the Slave States may be preserved and perpetuated. / than at its opening. The various legisla

2. Resolved, That the General Assembly of Ten tures not only passed patriotic resolves, but nessee appoint a number of delegates to said Con- almost without exception provided the “sinvention, of our ablest and wisest men, equal to our ews of war" in the way of military appropriwhole delegation in Congress; and that the Gover | ations and bills for a reconstruction of the nor of Tennessee immediately furnish copies of these

militia systems so as to render a call for resolutions to the Governors of the Slaveholding

troops immediately available. In New York States, and urge the participation of such States in

State the military system was, already, very said Convention. 3. Resolved, That, in the opinion of the General

perfect. New York city alone could muster Assembly of Tennessee, such plan of adjustment

at twelve hours notice fully twenty thousand should embrace the following propositions as amend perfectly armed and disciplined troops. A ments to the Constitution of the United States." portion of these, comprising the 1st Division, The schedule then cited nine sections, em

about 7000 strong, were offered to the Presibracing chiefly the Crittenden basis. with | dent through General Scott by Major Genefurther stringent provisions for the reclama

ral Sandford, commanding the divisiontion of slaves—the permanent right of transit

to be ready for service at an hour's warning. through Non-slaveholding States with slave

Other equally significant tenders were made property, and providing that no further to the Governor of companies and regiments, amendments of the Constitution should in

The State Military Convention in session at validate or controvert the amendments sug

Albany acted in a patriotic and determined gested. The proposition closed with the fol

manner. The Special Committee to report lowing resolutions :

what arms were necessary for the State to 4. Resolved, That said Convention of the Slave

purchase without delay, recommended the holding States, having agreed upon a basis of ad

immediate purchase by the State of 25,000 justment satisfactory to themselves, should, in the

arms, to be increased to 50,000 as soon as opinion of this General Assembly, refer it to a Con practicable; and also 5,000 pairs of cavalry vention of all the States, Slaveholding and Non- pistols and 5,000 sabers.

TIE PRESIDENT - ELECT.

251

The Pennsylvania Legislature, fully alive New Jersey leaned visibly toward comproto the crisis, was not less patriotic than New mise and peace. The House of its LegislaYork and Massachusetts. Resolves were ture, January 25th, considered resolutions passed, complimentary of Major Anderson, embracing the Crittenden proposition, or reapproving the conduct of Governor Hicks, in commending some other conciliatory measure, refusing to call the Maryland Legislature, and appointing Charles S. Olden, Peter D. and pledging to him the sympathy and sup-Vroom, Robert F. Stockton, Benjamin Wilport of Pennsylvania. The military organi- liamson, Joseph F. Randolph, Frederick T. zation was rendered very complete, and, Frelinghuysen, Rodney M. Price, Thomas J. under Governor Curtin's active cooperation, Stryker and William C. Alexander, Commisarms and equipments were being rapidly se- sioners to go to Washington and join Vircured.

ginia, and other State Commissioners, in Governor Andrew, of Massachusetts, sent bringing about a reconciliation, in order to to the State Legislature, (January 23d), a save the Union. After a whole day's sesmessage, inclosing a communication from sion, without adjournment, they were passed Colonel Jones of the 6th Regiment, tender- 31 to 11. The Republicans offered amending the services of the Regiment to the Gov- ments, but they were voted down. They ernment; also a similar offer from Major- afterwards published a pamphlet address, General Sutton and staff. The Light Artil- setting forth their total dissent from the resolery, National Lancers, and numerous other lutions, and printed a minority protest to efficient military corps of Boston city and the propositions. They also resolved to send the State, voted, nearly unanimously, to res- a counter-deputation to Washington, to reprepond to a call for active service.

| sent their views.

CHAPTER XVII.

THE PRESIDENT-ELECT. HIS VIEWS AND WISHES. THE PRESI

DENT IN FACT. HIS VIEWS AND PURPOSES. CORRESPONDENCE GROWING OUT OF COLONEL HAYNE'S MISSION. TIE PE ACE CONGRESS. RESPONSE OF THE STATES.

The movements of the people, the views office approached, the impression prevailed of Mr. Lincoln, the choice of the new Cabinet, that his prudence and kindness would dicall became matters of absorbing interest, dur- tate the true steps to pursue in the crisis. ing the middle and latter part of January. To stay secession, of course, was impossible, They were the “straws," whose direction since, ere he could come into office, a Southseemed to indicate the line of conduct which ern Confederacy would be formed and in acwas to be pursued by the incoming power. tive operation. With no army, no navy, a

Mr. Lincoln remained in Springfield during depleted treasury, a Government thoroughly the entire month of January, receiving visit- demoralized by its late terrible mismanageors, office-seekers, agents of candidates for ment, it did not appear possible for him to positions, &c., &c.; while, not a few of the pursue any other course than that seemingly most eminent persons in the country ap- dictated by his circumstances-of forbearance proached him, either in person or by letter, toward the revolutionists and a peaceful polin regard to the troubles distracting the na- icy looking to reconstruction. Yet, he gave tion. To all he gave a patient and candid very little indication of his line of conduct. hearing. His good-nature seemed equal to His lips were not sealed, but they did not his visitors' pertinacity, curiosity and solici- " blab the Statesman's secret;" and, though tude, since all seemed to leave his audience the public daily expected some declaration pleased. As the hour for his instalment to from him, which should act as oil upon the

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