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six millions of dollars in coin received during the with the United States, leave Charleston for Washweek.
ington. -Great demonstrations of enthusiasm throughout -Gov. Moore convenes the Legislature of Alathe Cotton States over South Carolina secession. In bama for January 14th, to provide for any emergency the leading cities of these States salutes were fired, that may arise from the action of the Convention, Palmetto and State flags were displayed, bells were which meets January 7th. rung, and large meetings of citizens were held. No
Dec. 25.---Among other important transactions of Union sentiment appeared. No Stars and Stripes the South Carolina Convention was the reception of flags to be seen. Salutes were also fired in many three resolutions from the Committee on Relations cities of the Border Slave States.
with the Slaveholding States of North America. The Dec. 21, -As indicative of the course the Repub- first resolution provides that the Convention appoint lican mombers of Congress are to pursue in regard Commissioners to proceed to each Slaveholding to compromise measures, the speech of Senator State that may assemble in Convention, for the purWade, of Ohio, before the Senate Select Committee pose of laying before them the ordinance of secesof Thirteen, on the Crisis, is the first declaratory ex sion and respectfully to invite their co-operation in pression. It took ground against any amendments forming a Southern Confederacy. The second resoof the Constitution, and generally expressed oppo-lution authorises the said Commissioners to submit sition to compromises which looked to giving slavery the Federal Constitution as the basis for a provisional any constitutional protection or recognition. He Government for such States as shall have withdrawn said Mr. Lincoln was constitutionally elected and from the connection with the Government of the should be constitutionally inaugurated.
United States of North America. The third resolu- Judge Douglas made important statements be- tion provides that the said Commissioners be authorfore the Senate Select Committee of Thirteen. He ized to invite seceding States to meet in convention is reported as saying, “that he was ready now to at such a time and place as may be agreed upon for unite in recommending such amendments to the Con- the purpose of forming a permanent Government for stitution as will take the Slavery question out of these States. All of which were acted upon affirmaCongress. In view of the dangers which threaten tively, after considerable discussion. They are rethe Repuplic with disunion, revolution, and civil garded as having been arranged by the secession war, he was prepared to act upon the matters in leaders, long since, and look to a co-operative union controversy without any regard to his previous ac- among the slave seceding States. tion, and as if he had never made a speech or given Dec. 26.-The three South Carolina Commissioners, a vote on the subject."
viz. : Messrs. R. W. Barnwell, James L. Orr, and ExDec. 22.- The North Carolina Legislature ad-Gov. Adams arrive in Washington. journed to January 7th. The bill to arm the State A resolution offered in the South Carolina Confailed to pass the House.
vention, that the Governor be requested to commu--Caleb Cushing, special messenger of the Presi- nicate to the Convention in secret session, any infordent to South Carolina, to induce the postponement mation he possesses in reference to the condition of of the adoption of the ordinance of secession, returns Forts Moultrie and Sumter, and Castle Pinckney, the and reports the passage of the ordinance, and reports number of guns in each, the number of workmen and no hopes of any arrangement of the pending differ- kind of labor employed, the number of soldiers in A Cabinet meeting was called.
each, and what additions, if any, have been made Dec. 23.-Intense excitement in Washington, con
since the 20th inst. ; also, whether any assurance has
been given that the forts will not be re-enforced, and sequent upon the discovery of a heavy defalcation if so, to what extent; also, what police or other rein the Department of the Interior, by abstraction of gulations have been made, if any, in reference to the bonds and coupons belonging to the Indian Trust defenses of the harbor of Charleston, the coast and Fund. The amount abstracted is confessed by Go
the State. dard Bailey, the guilty clerk, to have been $830,000. Mr. Floyd, Secretary of War, is said to be deeply Gov. Houston will convene an extra session of the
- It is now announced by advices from Texas, that implicated by the revelations made. Dec. 24.- The Speaker of the House directs the the present crisis. The Convention of the people
Texas Legislature on the 21st of January, to consider names of the “withdrawn” South Carolina members will be held on the 28th of January. The secession to be retained on the roll and to be regularly called. element'is rapidly gaining the ascendancy. It will
---Great excitement in Pittsburg in consequence carry all before it in the Convention.
Dec. 27.--Gov. Magoffin calls an extra session of
-It is ascertained at Charleston that Fort Moulwill oppose their removal by force.
trie is evacuated. The evacuation took place during -The South Carolina Convention adopts a “De- force (about eighty men) ·with stores, munitions,
the night, Major Anderson transferring his entire claration of Immediate Causes which Justified the movable arms, &c., to Fort Sumter. Most intense Secession of South Carolina from the Union."
excitement in consequence throughout the entire --The Special Commissioners, appointed by the country. The military in Charleston ordered out. South Carolina Convention to negotiate a settlement Troops tendered by Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, of differences and a treaty of amnity and commerce and Florida.
The True Reason.
THE Secession movement, 1 gia and the Indians for the same purpose.
which took form and con- Alabama was made out of Georgia and Missistency by the action of South Carolina, sissippi territory, to increase the representaimmediately after the election of Mr. Lincoln, tion. Tennessee was cut out of Kentucky was not the conception of an hour. It was territory for the same purpose. Florida was not the result of the election of a “ sectional” purchased of Spain, at great expense, to the President. It was not the result of wrongs same end. Then followed a step over the inflicted upon the South by the Free States. Mississippi river, to appropriate territory lyIt was not because the North had perverted ing to the west of the territory given to free the Constitution from its original intent and labor by the ordinance of Mr. Jefferson; and purposes.
Missouri, with her lines running as far North It is urged, by the leaders of the move- as the centres of Ohio, Indiana and Minois, ment, that these were their reasons for was given up to Slavery and a Slave reprethe attempt to dissolve the Union, and the sentation in Congress. Arkansas, ere long, mass of our people doubtless have regarded was added. Then the soil fitted for Slave these as the true grounds of complaint; but, labor, and accessible for Slave settlement, it is the merest surface view of the question. seemed exhausted, and the South, for a while, Were these the only excuses to offer for the stood still to witness the onward march of the Rebellion and all its train of blood, what a North. Even these enormous accessions of miserable pretence of justification the move- domain scarcely served to maintain the ment would have!
Southern preponderance in the Government, The motive which underlies all is the numer- so rapidly had the Free States grown in poical preponderance of the North, and, under pulation, both in the old and the three new the Constitution, its ability hereafter to control States added. the legislation of Congress by virtue of its re Thus matters stood in sistless majority.
1840. The census of that Schemes of Conquest
has shown that the increase renewed efforts for further extension of the
of population in the North- “ peculiar institution.” To the North they ern, or Free States, was in a ratio soon to could not go, for soil, climate and sentiment snatch from the Slave States their almost were alike inimical to the existence of slaves unbroken control of the Government; hence in the territory of Iowa. To the West they from that time the study has been to avert could not proceed, for Government had the impending minority by the introduc- pledged that section to the Indians. Contion of new Slave States to the Union. Lou- quest alone must come to the rescue. Texas, isiana was purchased at an enormous price, an immense domain, fitted to make five not more to open the mouths of the Mis- States, must be won. The scheme of its “ ansissippi than to send to Congress two Slave nexation” was soon conceived and perfected. Senators and her due quota of Representa- War was declared upon a flimsy pretext tives. Mississippi was purchased from Geor- against a weak and distracted neighbor.-One
hundred millions of dollars were spent, and But, the love of the t'nion
act with great circumspection in setting on But, even this absorbtion of an empire did foot their movement for disunion. The old not suffice. The census of 1850 again sent themes of wrongs endured—of slaves stolenconsternation into the “balance of power" of unjust imposition of taxes by way of tariff ranks, and excited their leaders to renewed levies--of unconstitutional Personal Liberty zeal. More territory must be had, at any sac-acts by Northern States--were augmented in rifice. Kansas and Nebraska alone offered force by the evident fact that the institution the soil, but there stood the Gibraltar of Hen- of Slavery was to be excluded from the Terry Clay's “Compromise Act” of 1821, guaran-ritories in the West, thus seemingly denying teeing all that region to Freedom forever. the rights of the South in the unsettled and Still, the emergency was imperative. Kan- common domain; while, to crown the list of sas at least must be represented on the floors motives for non-submission, the North had of Congress by a Slave delegation. The tre- become so far estranged and inimical to the mendous strides of the North, in Iowa, Wis- South as to elect a “sectional” President. consin, Michigan and Minnesota, threatened, This catalogue of indignities, if properly reby their very growth, to leap at once into an presented to the excitable and sensitive peouncontrolled majority. Kansas lost, all was ple of the South, could not fail to answer the lost, since Texas could not, for years, gain ends designed; hence, separately and collecpopulation enough to allow of her subdivi- tively, they have been put forward as the real sion into several States.
causes of the uprising and of the abjuration The repeal of the Missouri Compromise of the Constitution, and have been so often Act alone would open the Territory for Slave and variously repeated that the original and incursion. That repeal was made, through prime cause of the movement is almost igthe co-operation of the Northern Democratic nored. party with the South. But, the hand of Des In contemplating the events which have tiny seemed to interfere. The entire scheme transpired in the attempt to dismember the of Southern settlement miscarried, and Kan- Union, it is necessary to accept the bill of sas not only became a Free State, but the complaint preferred in the various resolutions, struggle to make it such called into existence ordinances and declarations of the seceded the Republican party, which, in a brief pe- States' Conventions and Legislatures; but, a riod, elected its candidate to the Chief Magis- comprehensive understanding of the revolutracy-so fatally were the tables turned. tion can only be had by striking at the ulti
Dismayed at the storm created by the ef- mate causes which originated the desire for a fort to secure Kansas, mortified at their de- separate Confederacy. Even though those feat, cut off from any further extension of first causes may not be confessed nor set Slave representation, the Southern States saw forth by any of the parties implicated—a conbefore them their long-apprehended disaster fession which would concede defeat in the of a minority in the Government. If they re- struggle for power— they nevertheless are mained in the Union it must be as the weaker readily demonstrable. half. At this not only their pride revolted,
The increase in the pop
The Increase of Popbut, as it appeared to them, their material ulation of the country since
ulation, interests forbade submission. With some 1800 has been in singularly hesitancy, as if feeling the way, the long con- regular ratio. Thus, for 1810 it was entered templated scheme of Southern independence as being 36.45 per cent.; 1820, 33.13; 1830, was revived and its agitation determinedly 33.49; 1840, 82.67; 1850, 35.87; 1860, 35.53, entered upon.
making the average 34.57, or nearly 3per
cent. per annum. This ratio being so defini- | ulation, these three States lose four Repretively marked, rendered it an easy matter for sentatives. . New York alone has nearly any section to indicate, in advance, its popu- double the free population of the six original lation and consequent Congressional repre- “ Seceded States," and yet she has only thirsentation. Hence, the South, growing more ty-one Representatives to their twenty-eight, slowly in population than the energetic, This simple fact proves how largely slaves are competitive North, discovering itself beat-represented in Congress—the negroes entering en in the race of numbers, sought to make into "population" in the proportion of five up in territorial acquisition what it failed negroes for three in count, thus obtaining a to obtain by popular increase.
Congressional apportionment without any of In 1850 it was conclusive that the South the rights of citizenship appertaining to must be cast into a minority if new acquisi- them. If the Slave States were apportioned tions were not secured during the decade fol- Representatives on their free white populalowing. The attempt was made on Kansas and tion alone, their representation in Congress failed; and the South has had to witness the would decrease about forty per cent; or, as long threatened ascendency of the Free States Slaves are property, if the Free States were in the returns and apportionment of the represented on property in the apportionment census of 1860, with no power to modify the of three persons for every five thousand dolresult.
lars, their Congressional delegations would To apprehend, at a immeasurably be increased. * The Census. glance, the particular strength of each section
States. 1850. 1860. Reps. Loss. Gain. of the Union, and thus to demonstrate the Ohio. .1,980,429 2,339,599 18 fact of the ascendancy of the Free States, we
Michigan 397,654 749,112
Indiana... 968,416 1,350,479 11 will classify the States, and give the Congres- Illinois 851,470 1,711,753 13 sional representation of each, under the new Wisconsin.... 305,391 775,873
Iowa... apportionment rendered necessary in order to
Minnesota. 6,077 162,022 keep the number of Representatives in Con- Kansas......
107,110 gress down to 233.
Total... 4,721,551 7,870,896 61
Gain for 10 ys.3,149,345, or about 67 per cent. States.
1850. 1860. Reps. Loss. Gain. Maine. ......583,169 628,276 5
Ohio, notwithstanding her heavy gain, New Hampshire.317,976 326,072
loses three Representatives, though the NorthVermont. ......314,120 315,116
1 0 Massachusetts..994,514 1,231,065 10
Western States collectively add nine to their
1 0 Rhode Island ...147,545 174,621 1' 1 0 delegation. Ohio alone has more free white Connecticut ... 370,792 460,151
population than the whole six States of South Total ....2,728,116 3,135,301 25
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, MissisGain in 10 years, 407,185, or 15 per cent nearly. sippi, and Louisiana; yet she has but eighteen New England, it will thus be seen, loses
* There is something so paradoxical in the confour members of Congress, notwithstanding structive and the active relations of the Slave to the her gain has been over four hundred thou-government as to excite the wonder of a foreigner. sand in population.
Thus, by the Constitution, the principle of represen
tation on property is forbidden, yet it gives the Slave States.
1860. Reps. Loss. Gain. States a representation as stated. This would seem New York...3,097,394 3,887,542 31 2
to settle, beyond question, the fact that the ConstiNew Jersey.. 489,791 672,031
tution does not recognize Slaves as property. Yet, Pennsylvania 2,311,726 2,906,370 23
here comes the decision of the United States SuTotal.......5,898,911 7,465,943 4
preme Court, in the celebrated Dred Scott Slave Gain in 10 ys.. 1,566,972, or 264 per cent.
Case, that Slaves are property, and property only,
not men. It will be hard for a stickler for consisHere we have still more remarkable re- tency to reconcile this discordance. He will have to sults. Notwithstanding the enormous in- be satisfied with the fact without understanding its crease of over one and a half million, in pop- propriety.
0 2 0 4 3 3 0 0
6 5 1 1
0 0 1 0
NEW ENGLAND STATES.
THE LOYAL SLAVE STATES.
Representatives in Congress, while they have New England States..
Middle States.... tuenty-ei jht. Few even of our own people re
7,465,943 North Western States..
7,870,896 alize how enormous this discrepancy has Pacific States.....
432,479 been; but, figures here are incontrovertible The Free Territories..
213,292 witnesses, and prove how largely Slaves are Total pop. of Free States and Territories...19,117,911 represented in our National councils. The Add loyal Slave States.....
2,698,841 fact thus expressed it is necessary to weigh
21,816,752 well in any argument which may arise on the Eleven Seceded States, disloyal..
Total loyal population.......
5,581,630 relative favors which the Constitution be- 'Excess of loyal population... 16,235,122 stows upon particular sections.
These are the figures de-
duced from the Census re- Effects of the Census. States.
1850 1860. Reps. Loss. Gain. turns for 1860, prepared California.... 92,597 380,015
1 Oregon... 12,294 52,464 1
under the supervision of a Southern man.
That they are correct admits of no doubt. Total......104,891 432,479
The results, gratifying to the North, disconGain in 10 years 326,588, or nearly 310 per cent.
cert the South, since they prove it to be Both of these States are loyal to the Union helplessly in the minority. In the Union the and are classed with the Free States in all power of the Slave States is forever gone, excomparative estimates.
cept, acting as a unit, they can take advantage of party divisions in the North to name
certain single measures, or elect certain men; -1860.
but, without a very strong co-operating party Free. Slave. Reps. Loss.Gain. in the Free States, the Pro-Slavery propagandMaryland.... 599,848 87,188
ists are perfectly powerless to secure more Kentucky. 930,223 225,490 Missouri.....1,058,352 114,965
soil, to command the Executive, to direct the Delaware.... 110,420 1,798 1
revenues and appropriations, or to control Total..... 2,698,841 429,441
legislation in their favor. The Constitution may be regarded by the Northern States to
the letter-the Fugitive Slave Act may be Virginia......1,105,196 490,887 11
enforced against every runaway negro slaveN. Carolina .. 661,588 331,081
the right to slave transit through the Free Tennessee.... 834,036 275,784
States may be conceded; but these will not 324,323 111,104
avail to appease the Southern mind. The Total......2,925,143. 1,208,856 29
facts of their minority—that Slavery is circumscribed in the Union—that the Free soil
and Free labor party is immensely in the asS. Carolina... 301,271 402,641 4 2
cendant-impelled the Southern people into Georgia.... 595,097 462,230 7 1 Florida... 78,686 61,753 1
the scheme for founding a pure Slave ConAlabama...... 529,164 435,132
federacy, and no “compromise" will restore Mississippi... 354,699 436,69 5 Louisiana.... 376,913 332,520 5
them to the Union except it be such a comTexas. 420,651 180,388 4
promise as will abjure the old Constitution
so far as to give the Slave States an equal Total ......2,656,481 2,311,260 32
share in the General Government at all times, This classification gives interesting results, an equal share in the common territory, the which it will be well for the reader to con- right of Slave transit through Free soil, the sider. Thus, the total free white population, use of local officers and jails to arrest fugiof the eleven seceded States is 5,581,630, or tives, &c., &c. Other terms than these they 1,884,313 less than the population of the three | will not, cannot, peaceably accept, and if Middle States alone, or 2,289,266 less than the brought back into the Union again it must eight North Western States.
be vi et armis. Or, add the aggregate as follows:
2 0 0
0 0 0 0
SECEDED BORDER SLAVE STATES.
7 8 3