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GEORGIA'S ORDINANCE OF SECESSION.
from the withdrawal of other States, whereby Resolved, unanimously, As a response to the Resothe Republicans have a majority in Congress, lutions of the Legislature of the State of New-York, it is proposed to hold a Congress of Slave that this Convention highly approves of the enerStates at Atlanta, near the middle of Feb- getic and patriotic conduct of the Governor of Georruary; at this Congress, certain amendments gia, in taking possession of Fort Pulaski, by the to the Constitution of the United States
Georgia troops ; that this Convention request him
to hold possession of said fort until the relations of would be insisted on; these were, chiefly, to Georgia with the Federal Government shall be deterprevent the abolition of Slavery in the Terri- mined, and that a copy of this resolution be transtories, to provide for the sure return of, or mitted to the Governor of the State of New-York.” payment for fugitive slaves, to punish those
The Ordinance of Secession was signed, who seek to entice away slaves, to protect the Monday, by most of the members, including internal Slave trade, to protect Slave owners A. H. Stephens, Judge Linton Stephens, from loss if they carry their slaves into a
Benj. Hill, and ex-Governor Johnson. These Free State, to take from all negroes the right gentlemen had prepared, and introduced, of suffrage. This Congress would not ask Monday afternoon, the following, which was the Northern States to repeal their Personal
adopted, almost unanimously :Liberty bills—they would only swear not to stay in the Union unless they were repealed; this Convention, on the passage of the Ordinance of
“ Whereas, The lack of unanimity in the action of it was also proposed to adjourn the Conven- Secession, indicates a difference of opinion existing tion till after this Congress had held its ses- among the members of this Convention, which is sion." A correspondent present wrote of the owing not so much to the rights which Georgia proceedings, at this point :
"After a strong, even violent, discussion, this ter, virtually declared war; and Whereas, the forts, substitute was rejected by a majority of 31, four less and property of the United States Government in than that which passed the test vote of Friday. Georgia, Alabama, and Louisiana, have been unlawThen an attempt was made to have a motion pat fully seized with hostile intentions; and Wherens, providing that the Ordinance should be submitted to further, Senators in Congress avow and maintain the people for ratification, but the previous question
their treasonable acts, Therefore was sprung, and the final vote on the Secession Or
" Resolved, If the Senate concur, that the Legisladinance was taken, after some sharp debate ; during ture of New-York profoundly impressed with the vathe calling of the yeas and nays, several members lue of the Union, and determined to preserve it unimchanged their votes, so as to be on the side of the paired, hail with joy the recent firm, dignified and majority, thus bringing the Convention somewhat patriotic special message of the President of the Dearer unanimity. Judge Linton Stephens, of Han United States, and that we tender to him through cock, very warmly declared that he saw no sufficient the Chief Magistrate of our State whatever aid in cause for a withdrawal from the Union, and that he
men and money he may require to enable him to enwould neither vote for nor sign the Ordinance. This force the laws and uphold the authority of the Feddeclaration provoked much warm comment and eral Government, and that in defense of the more many savage wishes from the outsiders when it be perfect Union” which bas conferred prosperity and came known.”
happiness upon the American people, renewing the
pledge given and redeemed by our fathers, we are Monday, Mr. Toombs introduced the fol
ready to devote" our fortunes our lives and our salowing resolution, in response to the Resolu- cred honor” in upholding the Union and the Contions passed by the New-York Legislature, stitution. January 11th—a copy of which had been Resolved, That the Union-loving Representatives transmitted to the Governors of all the and citizens of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North
Carolina, Kentucky, Missouri, and Tennessee, who
labor with devoted courage and patriotism to with* The New York Legislature resolutions were as hold their States from the vortex of Secession, are
entitled to the gratitude and admiration of the whole " Whereas, The insurgent State of South Carolina, people. after seizing the Post-office, Custom-house, moneys, Resolved, That the Governor be respectfully reand fortifications of the Federal Government, has, quested to forward forthwith copies of the foregoing by firing into a vessel ordered by the Govern- resolutions to the President of the nation and the ment to convey troops and provisions to Fort Sum. Governors of all the States of the Union."
claims or the wrongs of which she complains, as it is gain--this contract—they have never sought to to the remedy and its application before resorting evade any of its obligations--they have never hithto other means of redress, and
erto sought to establish any new Government. " Whereas, It is desirable to give expression to the They have struggled to maintain the ancient rights intention which really exists among all the members of themselves and the human race through and 13of this Convention to sustain the State in the course der the Constitution. But they know the value of of action which she has pronounced to be proper for parchment rights in treacherous hands, and therethe occasion; therefore
fore they refuse to commit their own to the rulers “ Resolved, That all the members of this Conven- whom the North offer us. Why? Because by their tion, including those who voted against the Ordin- declared principle and policy they have outlawed ance as well as those who voted for it, will sign the three thousand millions of our property in the comsame as a pledge of the unanimous determination of mon Territories of the Union-put it under the ban this Convention to sustain and defend the State in of the Republic in the States where it exists, and her course and remedy."
out of the protection of judicial law everywhereSix delegates entered their protest against because they give sanctuary to thieves and incenthe Ordinance of Secession, but pledged their diaries who assail it, to the whole extent of their lives, their fortunes, and their honor in the power, in spite of their most solemn obligations and defense of Georgia against coercion and inva- covenants. Because their avowed purpose is to sion.
subvert our society, and subject us not only to the Tuesday, an Ordinance was adopted, pro- loss of our property, but the destruction of ourselves, viding for the execution of sentences passed by our altars and firesides. To avoid these evils we
our wives, and our children, and the desolation of the Federal Courts ; for the execution of pro- resume the powers which our fathers delegated to cesses issued by the same Courts; and to the Government of the United States, and henceforth preserve the indictments.
will seek new safeguards for our liberty, security, In view of the early formation of a Central and tranquillity.” Government, by the Seceded States, the State
Delegates were elected, January 24th, to Conventions legislated as little as possible, the Convention of States to be held at Montpreferring to make as few changes as circum
gomery, February 4th. Toombs, Howell stances would admit.
Cobb, Crawford, A, H. Stephens, and BenjaMr. Toombs was called upon to prepare a min Hill, were among those chosen. report, setting forth the reasons why the Or
The forts in Savannah harbor were seized dinance of Secession was adopted by the as early as January 4th, as we have already State Convention. A Committee, to whom noted. [See page 175.] The Arsenal at Authe matter had been referred, deferred to Mr.
gusta was surrounded, on the morning of JanToombs the task of preparing the document.
uary 24th, by several hundred State troops, It was not reported until January 29th. The and a surrender demanded by Gov. Brown “ Address” was long, historically weak, and in person. The surrender was made; resistexceedingly discursive, for a State document ance would have only sacrificed the mere of its nature. It read very much like its
guard in keeping of the property. Georgia author's last speech in the United States Sen- thus became possessed of a large store of valate, not quite as burdened with invective, but, uable arms and munitions, placed there by like it, peculiarly marked with the perver- the sagacious Ex-Secretary for the purpose of sions of a heated Southern imagination. Its being turned, at the proper moment, against tenor and spirit were embodied in its closing the Government. paragraph :
The Louisiana State Con“Such are the opinions, and such are the prac-vention
met at Baton Louisiana, tices of the Republican party, who have been
Rouge, Wednesday, Jancalled, by their own votes, to administer the Federal Government under the Constitution of the United uary 23d. Ex Governor Mouton was elected States. We know their treachery-we know the permanent President, as an avowed immeshallow pretences under which they daily disregard diate Secessionist, by a vote of 81 to 41. A its plainest obligations. If we submit to them, it committee of fifteen was nominated by the will be our fault and not theirs. The people of chair to report an Ordinance of Secession. Georgia have ever been willing to stand by this bar- By this nomination the powerful opposition
LOUISIANA'S ORDINANCE OF SECESSION.
was instantly excluded from the committee. enter into stipulations to guarantee the exercise of The Ordinance was reported January 24th, those rights.” and discussion on it postponed to the suc After the adoption was announced, Gov. ceeding day. A resolution, to thank the Moore and his staff, in military dress, entered Governor for seizing the forts at the mouths the hall, and formally presented the President of the Mississippi, and the arsenal at Baton of the Convention with the Pelican flag. One Rouge, was offered. A warm discussion hundred guns were fired from the State-house followed, when a message was received from grounds. The Commissioners of Alabama and the Governor, giving particulars of the acts South Carolina were present, and, on Friday, of seizure. The resolution was finally adopt- made “powerful addresses,” urging innmedied—118 to 5. The discussion on the Ordi- ate secession, and the sending of delegates to nance was continued through Friday. Satur- the Montgomery Convention. Their influence day, the proposition to submit the Ordinance contributed much toward suppressing the coto a vote of the people, was rejected by a vote operationist or delay sentiment in the Conof-yeas, 45 ; nays, 84. The Ordinance it- vention. Saturday, the Convention adjourned, self was then put upon its direct passage, to meet at New Orleans on Tuesday. Wedand was adopted, by the vote of 113 to 17. nesday, Jan. 30th, delegates were elected to It read :
the Montgomery Congress. Slidell and Ben"An Ordinance to dissolve the Union between the State jamin, the telegraph reported, were defeated
of Louisiana and the other States united with her, for delegates. It should here be said, howunder the compact entitled the Constitution of the ever, that they preferred not to be deputized. United States of America.
It was understood that both of these gentle“We, the people of the State of Louisiana, in Con- men entertained a scheme for a Confederacy, vention assembled, do declare and ordain, and it is to embrace the original “Louisiana purchase” hereby declared and ordained, that the Ordinance and Texas-of which, they, of course, were to passed by this State on the 22d of November, 1807, become chiefs; but, the influence of the Comwhereby the Constitution of the United States of
missioners from other States, and the desire America and the amendments of said Constitution were adopted, and all the laws and ordinances by
of the delegates to throw the responsibilities which Louisiana became a member of the Federal of reorganization upon a Congress of States, Union, be, and the same are, hereby repealed and prevailed to induce the representation of Louabrogated, and the union now subsisting between isiana in that Congress. Benjamin and SliLouisiana and the other States, under the name of the dell, thus presented the spectacle so frequentUnited States of America, is hereby dissolved. ly recorded in history, of having built a
"We further declare and ordain, that the State of house only to be turned out of it. Louisiana hereby resumes the rights and powers
On the 29th, the United States revenue heretofore delegated to the Government of the Unit- cutter McClelland, one of the best vessels in ed States of America, and its citizens absolved from allegiance to the said Government; and she is in full
the Customs' service, was handed over to the possession of all the rights and sovereignty that ap- Breshwood, a Virginian. Secretary Dix had
Louisiana authorities by her commander, pertains to a free and independent State.
"We further declare and ordain, that all rights sent a special agent to New Orleans to reacquired and vested under the Constitution of the lieve Captain Breshwood of the command. United States, or any act of Congress, or treaty, or At the appearance of this agent, Captain under law of this State not incompatible with this Breshwood refused to obey orders, and transOrdinance, shall remain in force and have the same ferred his vessel as stated. The revenue effect as though this Ordinance had not passed." cutter Cass, at Mobile, commanded by Cap
The following resolution was annexed : tain J. J. Morrison, a Georgian, was, on the “We, the people of Louisiana, recognize the right same day, transferred to the State authorities of free navigation of the Mississippi River and tribu- of Alabama, to save it from the special orders taries by all friendly States bordering thereon. We of the determined Dix. Although these vesalso recognize the right of the ingress and egress of sels were under charge of the Treasury Dethe mouths of the Mississippi by all friendly States partment, the War Department had the offiand powers; and hereby declare our willingness to cering of them. Mr. Floyd had chosen the
proper men for the act of treason at the met at Austin, Jan. 28th. proper time.
The Ordinance of Secession
Texas. These transactions were but preliminary to was passed February 1st, by the seizure of the United States Custom- a vote of 166 to 7. The document read as house, Mint, and Sub-treasury, in New Or- follows: leans. These buildings and contents were "An Ordinance to Dissolve the Union between the State taken possession of February 1st, by order of of Texas and the other States under the Compad the Governor, acting by advice of the Con styled the Constitution of the United States of vention. The Mint and Sub-treasury con America. tained $511,000 in specie, subject to call of "Seo. 1. Whereas, the Federal Government has the Federal Government. General Dix had, failed to accomplish the purposes of the compact of on January 25th, given Adams's Express an Union between these States, in giving protection order for $350,000 of $389,000 then at the either to the persons of our people upon an exposed Mint. The Express, on applying for the frontier, or to the property of our citizens; and coin, was put off with evasive answers by the whereas, the action of the Northern States is violaofficer in charge, and, on the 1st, was in- tive of the compact between the States and the formed that the State had seized the money. recent developments in federal affairs make it evi
guarantees of the Constitution; and, whereas, the Howell Cobb here proved that he, too, was a
dent that the power of the Federal Government is “benefactor to Southern independence”-hav
sought to be made a weapon with which to strike ing, like his friend Floyd, so far studied con- down the interests and property of the people of tingencies, that the right men were placed in Texas and her sister Slaveholding States, instead of the right place to “ do the nice thing" at the permitting it to be, as was intended-our shield right time.
against outrage and aggression-therefore, we, the The forts seized, January 11th-12th, com- people of the State of Texas by delegates in the prised the fine structures at the main mouth Convention assembled, do declare and ordain that of the Mississippi-St. Philips and Jackson; the Ordinance adopted by our Convention of delethe fort at the Lake Ponchartrain entrance-gates on the fourth (4th) day of July, A.D. 1845, and Pike; and Fort Macomb, at Chef Menteur. afterwards ratified by us, under which the Republic The works at Ship Island, upon which Gov- of Texas was admitted into the Union with other
States, and became a party to the compact styled ernment had spent a large sum of money, "The Constitution of the United States of America' were also cleared of Federal workmen. It be, and is hereby repealed and annulled. was to this incomplete structure that Mr.
“ That all the powers which, by the said compact, Floyd ordered the forty-six heavy guns from were delegated by Texas to the General Governthe Alleghany Arsenal. [See page 115.] ment are resumed. That Texas is of right absolved Louisiana, by these several “ appropriations," from all restraints and obligations incurred by said became possessed of property which cost the compact, and is a separate Sovereign State, and General Government over seven millions dol- that her citizens and people are absolved from all lars. When we add to this the original pur- allegiance to the United States or the Government chase money of millions paid Napoleon I. for thereof. the Territory, and also add the seven millions
“Sec. 2. The Ordinance shall be submitted to the paid annually, for many years, by the coun- people of Texas for their ratification or rejection, by try, as a duty on sugar almost expressly to 1861; and unless rejected by a majority of the votes
the qualified voters, on the 23d day of February, “protect” Louisiana sugar planters, and give cast, shall take effect and be in force on and after them a monopoly in the market-we may the 20 day of March, A.D. 1861. Provided, that in safely conclude that whatever grievances the representative district of El Paso, said election Louisiana may have suffered in the Union, may be held on the 18th day of February, 1861. they did not prevent her from fattening out “Done by the people of the State of Texas, in of the National Treasury,
Convention assembled, at Austin, the 1st day of FebThe Texas State Convention of Delegates ruary, A.D. 1861."
A CHAPTER OF INCIDENTALS. PEN PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE CHIEF CONSPIRATORS.
ACTIVE MEANS EMPLOYED TO SUPPRESS UNION SENTIMENT IN THE SOUTH, A FEW FIGURES FOR CONTEMPLATION.
It is certain so great a conspiracy as that In Mississippi, Jefferson conceived, for years, by the discontented spir- Davis, United States Senaits of the South, rever could have been car- tor, was, at once, the Janus ried out with any degree of success, had it not and the Jupiter Tonans of the revolution. enlisted, as directors, men of consummate tal- Less insolent than Toombs, he was scarcely ents for the peculiar work. Great emergen- less devoted to the idea of Southern indecies produce great men, history informs us; pendence. Sagacious, calm, watchful and the adage is verified in the story of the second worldly-wise, holding the sentiment of his American Revolution, whose gigantic dimen- State as in the hollow of his hand, he drew sious created, or evoked, leaders possessed of the people and their representatives into his all the qualifications necessary to direct it. schemes as silently, yet resistlessly, as the
The revolution in each state found a mas- deep-sea current which drives the waters of ter-spirit, who controlled its wild elements the ocean against wind and tide until they completely, and, by the supremacy of its impe- are subdued to its control. In habits unosrious will, gave it all the features necessary to tentatious, in demeanor courteous, in converimmediate success, or requisite for ultimate sation impressive, with industry, tact and aims. We will photograph a few of those courage equal to any circumstances, he was chiefs who brought on the crisis, and who qualified for the supreme authority with pilotted the States to the destined goal of a which he became invested—a supremacy Southern Confederacy.
which he doubtless determined upon when In Georgia, the directing the idea of a purely Slave Confederacy was Toombs. Will of her destiny was conceived. United States Senator Ro In
Louisiana, United bert Toombs--a man combining, in equal de States Senator, John Sli Slidell. grees, price, self-confidence, ambition, and dell, was the directing impatience of control. Able as a debater, spirit. Mr. Benjamin, though more generally shrewd in intrigue, tireless in the pursuit of recognized as the representative of the senan object, he, at an early day, became the re-timent of his State in the Senate, was too cognized leader of those who plotted for a dis- honest, candid and disinterested to lead the solution of the Union and the formation of van of revolution. Slidell was the man. As new Union, to be composed only of Slave sly and subtle as the snake in his own cane States. Howell Cobb, Crawford, Iverson,- brakes, he wormed himself into the counsels all had to give way before his imperious of Mr. Buchanan to such a degree as to win sway. When the uprising came, it was his the sobriquet of “wet-nurse to the Adminwand which commanded it. Legislature, istration.” Then he plotted and intrigued Convention, and People, obeyed it with mili- with the genius of Lucifer. When stroking tary alacrity and precision. Georgia was his the vestments of the Executive he was only own, to order and control as he would. She feeling for the spot where to strike when the had no wish or will that was not embodied moment came to throw off his friendly mask. in one word—Toombs. Ominous word! When Louisiana hesitated, he had but to,