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awaiting the new administration, beheld the The Army and Navy appropriation bills only instrument of its salvation-the tower were then considered in Committee of the of its strength. Therefore, apparently casting whole. Burnett, of Kentucky, wished to aside, even his Republicanism-apparently know whether it would be in order to make repudiating the policy of the Republican a speech showing that these appropriations leaders and of Mr. Lincoln, he struck the should not be made. He believed from the chord which afterward, and soon, became the present movements of the Army and Navy, Nation's rallying call. Mr. Lincoln went into they were to be used against a portion of the office as a Unionist, rather than as a Repub-States reeently belonging to the confederacy. lican, and Mr. Seward, like a Jove, contoll- The Chair decided against general debate, ing the thunderbolt s, directed all the terri- and was sustained by the House. This decible thunders and lightnings of the people, sion greatly displeased and disconcerted subtly but surely, against the enemies of the Southern members, who, generally, had reExecutive.

solved to "ventilate" the question of the fuThe Saturday's proceedings in the House ture use of the Army and Navy. Pryor, of of Representatives assumed a peculiar face. Virginia, determined, notwithstanding the

The Speaker laid before the decision against debate, to "indulge” himWithdrawal of South- House a communication self with “ a few remarks,” which proved of ern Members.

from the Mississippi dele- so violent a character as to compel his colgation stating that they had received official league, Mr. Clemens, to call him to order. information that their state had passed an or- Among other things he said :dinance through a Convention representing "Forts are garrisoned with

Roger A. Pryir's the severeignty of the people, by which the the avowed intention of subju

Tirade. State has withdrawn from the Federal Gov- gating and overawing soverernment all powers heretofore delegated to eign States. Even in this District, masses of mer it, and that they thought it their duty to lay cenaries are accumulating to inaugurate & Presithe fact before the House and withdraw

dent's election in blood. The Republican principle themselves from the further deliberations of of an antique liberty forbade the presence of a Com

missioner-General within the walls of Rome, but it that body. While they regret the necessity was for this country alone, with all its maxims of refor this action, they approbate it, and will republican liberty to banish those principles from the turn to her bosom to share her fortunes councils of a most detestable and wicked administrathrough all their phases,

tion. [Ironical laughter from the Republican benchMr. Jones, of Georgia, moved that the es.] Confining myself within the limits of debate, names of the Representatives of South Caro- before I conclude, I must, on this occasion, avail lina and Mississippi be stricken from the roll myself of the opportunity to give warning to the of the lIouse, and not called by the Clerk people of Virginia, that the Government is niaking hereafter. Republicans objected; and de- every warlike preparation to subject them to the manded the yeas and nays on the motion. tyranny of federal oppression by means of compulBurnett, of Kentucky, assumed that these sion and force. I would implore them, by every gentlemen have withdrawn from the House, the contest that is rapidly approaching. For my.

consideration of safety and honor, to prepare for and that it cannot be assumed that they are self, I will discharge my duties here by opposing now members of the House. Being asked if every appropriation for an Army and Navy to be emhe considered that they had resigned their ployed in this most nefarious and tyrannous warseats he answered :-“I do; and not only fare." this, but that they are out of the Union by After an understanding that the Army Apthe action of their respective States." The propriation bill should have three days allotSpeaker cut off further remarks by ruling ted for its discussion, the Navy Appropriathat the objection to the motion excluded it tion bill passed, when the House adjourned from consideration,

to Monday.

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CHAPTER IX.

PROGRESS OF THE REVOLUTION. THE SE CESSION OF MISSISSIPPI,

FLORIDA, AL A BAMA, GEORGIA AND TEXAS. THE ORDINANCES.
CONCURRENT PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONVENTIONS. SEIZURES
OF FORTS, ARSENALS, RE VENUE CUTTERS. CUSTOM-HOUSES,
MINT, ETC., ETC. DEFECTION OF SOUTHERN OFFICERS IN THE
ARMY AND NAVY

THE Mississippi State | eral Union, and shall henceforth be a free, sovereign,
Mississippi. Convention assembled at and independent State."
Jackson, Monday, January

The scond section abrogates the Article in
7th. Prior to organization a majority of the the State Constitution requiring all public
delegates assembled in caucus, and adopted officers to swear to support the Constitution
a resolution requesting the President of the of the United States. The third section con-
Convention, when elected, to appoint a com- tinues in force all State and Federal laws not
mittee to draft the Ordinance of Secession. inconsistent with the ordinance. The fourth
This early expression indicated the senti- section relates to the formation of a Southern
ments of the Convention. The Convention Confederacy, to be composed of the Seceded
assembled at noon, and, after a brief ballot- States.
ting, organized permanently by electing A.

The Commissioner from South Carolina J. Barry, of Lowndes, President. A resolu- addressed the Convention, Friday. The Govtion soon passed that a Committee of Fifteen ernor issued, on Friday, a call to the military be appointed by the President with instruc-of the State to be in readiness at a moment's tions to prepare and report, as speedily as warning. The Convention formally recogpossible, an Ordinance of Secession, providing nized (January 11th) South Carolina'as sovfor the immediate withdrawal of Mississippi ereign and independent. from the Federal Union, with a view of estab

The action of the Convention created great lishing a new Confederacy, to be composed of the enthusiasm among the people. There were Seceding States.

those, however, who viewed the act as revoThis Committee, chosen Tuesday, reported lutionary and unconstitutional under the orWednesday, in secret session, the Ordinance ganic law of the State. The Convention of Secession, which was adopted, on that day, assumed supreme authority in the matterby a vote of 84 to 15. It was as follows:

adopting the ordinance, and instituting a new "The people of Mississippi, in Convention assem.

order of things without any reference to the bled, do ordain and declare, and it is hereby or

people. This most undemocratic proceeding dained and declared, as follows, to wit:

awakened much determined opposition; but, "That all the laws and ordinances by which the this opposition had to give way before the said State of Mississippi became a member of the violent tone and imperative spirit of the unFederal Union of the United States of America be, conditional secessionists. The Natchez Couand the same are hereby repealed ; and that all obli- rier, of January 10th, thus adverted to the gations on the part of said State or the people illegality of the Convention's proceedings: thereof to observe the same be withdrawn, and that The Constitution of the State is wbat we are the said State shall hereby resume the rights, func- sworn to obey. It prescribes the method of its own tions, and powers which by any of said laws and ordi- alteration. That method has not been followed, and Dances were conveyed to the Government of the said yet the Constitution will be essentially altered. UnUnited States, and is dissolved from all the obliga- questionably the people of the State can revolutiontions, restraints, and duties incurred to the said Fed-1 ize. A majority of them can call a Convention to

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194

THE SOUTI E RN REBELLION.

provide a new Constitution. But the question of This was adopted by a vote of 62 to 5. • Convention or no Convention has never been sub On the same day the Commissioners for mitted to them. It is also possible that a Conven

Alabama and South Carolina addressed the tion can be called by the Legislature without the

Convention. Judge McIntosh's resolution assent of the people, though in our opinion a very

succeeded their addresses. The Ordinance questionable proceeding; but its acts, in that case,

| of Secession passed January 10th, by a vote can be valid only when they have received the affir

of 62 to 7. It read as follows: mative vote of the people. Of the 70,000 voters of Mississippi, not 45,000 voted for members of the “We, the people of the State of Florida in ConConvention, and of these only a lean majority, or vention assembled, do solemnly ordain, publish, and one falling far below the expectations of the disu declare that the State of Florida hereby withdraws nion leaders, voted for immediate Secession can herself from the Confederacy of States existing didates."

under the name of the United States of America, Not the least remarkable facts of all that and from the existing Government of the said States; wild, irrational revolution, were the overrid- and that all political connection between her and ing of the State Constitutions and of a total

the Government of said States ought to be, and the repudiation of the voice of the people. Not

same is hereby totally annulled, and said Union of

States dissolved; and the State of Florida is hereby one of the Gulf States, first in revolution,

declared a Sovereign and independent nation; and submitted the ordinances of secession to a

that all ordinances heretofore adopted, in so far as vote of the people ! Not a single State

they create or recognize said Union are rescinded; of these which first organized the new

and all laws, or part of laws, in force in this state, “ Confederacy" allowed the people one par

in so far as they recognize or assent to said Union, ticle of authority or voice in the matter! | be and they are hereby repealed.” The Conventions decreed—as summarily, as ! This was engrossed and signed on the arbitrarily, as relentlessly as the French Cham

11th. It was followed by great popular debers of Deputies, obeying the behests of Na- | monstrations of approval in the way of gunpoleon. Napoleon's usurpations received

firing, displays of flags, illuminations, popthe sanction of the French people just as ular m

| ular meetings, &c. completely as the usurpations of the State

On the 12th, the Pensacola Navy-yard, Conventions and the “Confederate Congress"

Dry-dock, Store - houses, and, afterwards, received the sanction of the people of the Forts Barrancas and McRae, were seized by Slave States.*

order of the Governor of Florida. About Although the Florida Florida.

one hundred armed men from Alabama and State Convention assem

Florida appeared at the Yard on the mornbled January 3d, it was

ing of the 12th, and demanded of Commannot until January 11th that the Ordinance of

der Armstrong the peaceable surrender of Secession passed. On the 7th, as preliminary

the posts. This was complied with, and the to the act, Judge McIntosh introduced the

troops with their arms and baggage were following :

transferred to a United States vessel of war "Whereas, All hope of preserving the Union upon

for transportation North. The entire proterms consistent with the safety and honor of the

perty of the Government at Pensacola thus Slaveholding States has been finally dissipated by the recent indications of the strength of the Anti

passed into the possession of the revolutionSlavery sentiment of the Free States; therefore. lists—the fort on Santa Rosa Island alone

Be it resolved by the people of Florida, in Convention excepted. This surrender was justified by assembled, That it is undoubtedly the right of the sev. | officer Armstrong, at his Court Martial trial eral States of the Union to withdraw from the said a few weeks subsequently, by the fact of his Union at such time and for such cause as in the opin- leading officers, Capt. Renshaw, and Comion of the people of such State, acting in their sov. mander Farrand, cooperating with the revoereign capacity, may be just and proper; and, in the lutionists. They were Mr. Floyd's chosen opinion of this Convention, the existing causes are

agents for the act. such as to compel Florida to proceed to exercise that

[The Court, we may here say, dismissed the right."

officer for the surrender. Beyond question * See Chap. X. “ The People Overruled."

| he could have held possession until, at least,

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ALABAMA'S ORDINANCE

OF SECESSION.

195

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a portion of the property in the Yard and United States by many of the States and people of Forts had been secured. Lieut. Slemmer, a

the Northern section, is a political wrong of so inNorthern man, in temporary command at sulting and menacing a character as to justify the Fort McRae, discovering the treachery, re- people in the State of Alabama in the adoption of solved not to surrender. He hurriedly ar- prompt and decided measures for their future

peace and security. ranged to evacuate McRae, and proceeded,

“Therefore, be it declared and ordained by the with his company of eighty men, to Fort people of the State of Alabama, in Convention asPickens, on Santa Rosa Island, a very heavy sembled, that the State of Alabama now withdraws fortification, with a double tier of casemates. itself from the Union known as the United States of Aided by the marines from the Sloop of War America, and henceforth ceases to be one of the said Wyandotte, he immediately began to prepare United States, and is, and of right ought to be, a sovfor an expected assault on the land side of ereign independent State. the fort, where it was comparatively defense

“SEC. 2. And be it further declared by the people less. His reply to the demand to deliver up of the State of Alabama, in Convention assembled, the fort was :-“I have orders from my Gov- that all powers over the Territories of said State, ernment to defend this fort, and I shall do so

and over the people thereof, heretofore delegated to

the Government of the United States of America, be, to the last extremity.” Slemmer soon ob

and they are hereby withdrawn from the said Govtained most of the artillerymen from Fort ernment and are hereby resumed and vested in the Barrancas, and secured a few of the loyal people of the State of Alabama. men from the Navy-yard, who disdained to

And as it is the desire and purpose of the people accede to the infamous "parole" given by of Alabama to meet the Slaveholding States of the their officers. Working night and day, he South who approve of such a purpose, in order to was soon able to keep at bay the “ combined frame a provisional or a permanent government forces sent by the revolutionists to take the upon the principles of the Government of the United fort. Flag officer, Capt. Renshaw, and Com- States; be it also resolved by the people of Alamander Farrand, were both deeply impli- bama, in Convention assembled, that the people of cated in the surrender. They both were in the States of Delaware, Virginia, Maryland, North league with the conspirators, and really be- Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Georgia

, Missis

sippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentrayed the post into their hands. Their

tucky and Missouri, be, and they are hereby invited names are embalmed in the “ black roll” to meet the people of the State of Alabama by their of the Government, whose honor they be- Delegates in Convention, on the 4th day of February trayed.]

next, in Montgomery, in the State of Alabama, for The Alabama State Con- the purpose of consultation with each other, as to Alabama. vention assembled at Mont- the most effectual mode of securing connected har

gomery, Monday, January, monious action in whatever measures may be 7th. On the 8th, the South Carolina Com- deemed most desirable for the common peace and missioners addressed the Convention. A security. Committee of Thirteen was appointed on that And be it further Resolved, that the President of day, to consider the action proper for the this Convention be and he is hereby instructed to State. Secret Sessions were resolved upon.

transmit forthwith, a copy of the foregoing preamThe Ordinance was reported, January 11th, ble, ordinance and resolutions to the Governors of and passed by a vote of 61 to 39. The in

the several States named in the said resolutions.

“Done by the people of Alabama, in Convention strument, as engrossed, read :

assembled at Montgomery, this eleventh day of Jan“ An Ordinance to dissolve the Union between the State ary, eighteen hundred and sixty-one."

af Alabama and other States united under the compact antl style of the United States of America.

Prior to the assembling of the Convention, Whereas, The election of Abraham Lincoln and

the Arsenal below Mobile, and Fort Morgan, Hannibal Hamlin to the offices of President and Vice commanding the channel to Mobile bay, were President of the United States of America, by a sec. seized (January 4th) by order of Governor tional party, avowedly hostile to the domestic institu- Moore. In the arsenal were 20,000 stand of tions, and peace and security of the people of the arms, 1,500 barrels of powder, and a large State of Alabama, following upon the heels of many stock of munitions, equipments, body arms, and dangerous infractions of the Constitution of the &c., all very providently transferred by Mr.

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66

Floyd, from the manufacturing depots in the the compact of government entitled the Constitution North, to be ready for seizure. Fort Morgan, of the United States. a fine fortification, costing the government,

“We, the people of the State of Georgia in Con. in its construction, over one and a quarter vention assembled, do declare and ordain, and it is millions of dollars, was held by a mere guard, hereby declared and ordained, that the Ordinances which surrendered, upon demand, to a force adopted by the people of the State of Georgia in of two hundred men.

Convention in 1788, whereby the Constitution of the It was very fully

United States was assented to, ratified and adopted, mounted with new and superior guns,

and well stocked with all the materiel of war, in Assembly ratifying and adopting amendments to the

and also all acts and parts of acts of the General the way of munitions and stores.

said Constitution, are hereby repealed, rescinded [Although somewhat anticipating the chro- and abrogated. nological allotment of this chapter, we shall, in " And we do further declare and ordain that the order to group the "original seven” seceded union now subsisting between the State of Georgia States, in a consecutive narrative of their and other States, under the name of the United action, here advert to the proceedings of the States, is hereby dissolved, and that the State of Conventions of Georgia, Louisiana and Texas.] Georgia is in full possession and exercise of all those

The Georgia Convention rights of sovereignty which belong and appertain to Georgia. assembled at Milledgeville

a free and independent State." Wednesday, January 16th. A motion to postpone the operation of the George W. Crawford was elected permanent Ordinance to the 3d of March was lost by President. After organization a Committee about thirty majority. A resolution was was named, to wait upon Mr. Orr, Commis- further adopted continuing in force the Fedesioner from South Carolina, and Mr. Shorter,ral laws of revenue, and the postal system, Commissioner from Alabama, to request them Georgia, like South Carolina, being quite to communicate their mission. These gentle willing to “ suffer” the General Government's men delivered addresses before the Conven- / " tyranny" as far as to allow it to lose money tion, Thursday, in advocacy of immediate in carrying its revolutionary mails. Previous secession and the formation of a Southern to the passage of the Secession Ordinance, a Confederacy. Friday, the session was in se- resolution was introduced by a Mr. Martin, a cret. A test vote was had by the introduc-“co-operationist,” calling on the Governor tion of a resolution, declaring the right and for information concerning the nature and necessity for secession from the Federal circumstances of the popular vote for deleUnion, which was carried by a majority of gates. It was represented by Mr. Martin that thirty-five. Herschell V. Johnson introduced, the vote was accompanied by extraordinary as a substitute for this resolution, others, look- and unusual impediments to a popular and ing to cooperation and a Convention of South- unrestricted expression of opinion—that ern States at Atlanta, in February. This sub- numbers of Unionists and Co-operationists stitute was rejected by a stronger vote than were both infamously and illegally treated. was given for the original resolution. During The resolution, of course, raised a storm. It the very anxious and exciting debate which was scarcely to be expected that men elected followed, Mr. A. H. Stephens, seeing how by violence and “stuffed” boxes, would subfully determined the Convention was on se- mit to an exposition of their own infamy, or cession, advised that it be immediate. This would acknowledge the arbitrary course being advice really gave his “conservative" influ- pursued to place the State at the entire ence to the immediate action party, led by disposition of Mr. Toombs and his violent Messrs. Toombs and Howell Cobb, The coadjutors. Ordinance of Secession was introduced Satur A substitute for the Ordinance, in a series day morning, and passed at two p. m., by a of resolutions drawn up by Herschel V. Johnvote of 208 to 89—Messrs. A. H. Stephens son, was offered by Benjamin Hill, Esq., & and Herschell V. Johnson voting in the leading and influential " Conservative.” The negative. The Ordinance read as follows: purport of the resolutions was :

“Declaring " An Ordinance to dissolve the Union between the State the State of Georgia in danger-first, from

of Georgia and other States united with her under the aggressions of the North, and secondly.

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