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dishonor. Whatever action we may take, let us be government ever devised by the wisdom of careful of the rights of others, but faithful to our man.” Gov. Curtin had yet to speak trusts, that we may return them to our constituents The “Wolvarines” were uninjured.”

awake for the peril and rea- Michigan. The Speaker of the House uttered substan- dy for duty. The Michitially the same sentiments. Governor Banks gan Legislature assembled January 2d. The delivered his valedictory address, January 3d. retiring Governor, 'in his Annual Message, He took open and unequivocal ground against took an imperative stand against the right secession, saying that the north never would of secession; charged the President with inpermit the keys of the continent to pass tentional misrepresentation of the principles into the hands of an enemy. He urged an at- and aims of the Republican party, and attitude of preparation for any emergency. tributed the sectional excitement to mis

Governor Andrews, the incoming Governor, representation by the Northern Democratic was even more alive to the crisis than the press of the designs of the dominant party. Legislature. In him the cause of the Union If the Personal Liberty laws are unconstitufound a worthy sentinel.

tional, repeal them; but they are not unconThe “Keystone State" stitutional,—they speak the sentiments of the Pennsylvania. was first, however, in the people,-are in accordance with the Consti

field. Her Legislature as-tution, and ought not to be repealed. Let sembled Jan, 1st, Almost immediately upon them stand! This is no time for timid coming together, Mr. Smith, of Philadelphia, and vascillating counsel, while the cry of treaoffered in the Senate a resolution and pream- son is ringing in our ears!” The Message of ble, reciting that South Carolina has passed Governor Blair, the incoming Governor, was an ordinance nullifying the laws of the United also decided in its tone against secession. States, and declaring that their allegiance to The abstract reads :the Union is dissolved; and says that Penn-“He denies that the Personal Liberty Laws have sylvania is willing to pass laws necessary for had the effect to prevent the execution of the Fugithe redress of real grievances of any sister tive Slave law, in a single instance, but whenever State, if found to exist; proclaims an ardent an appeal has been made to the courts to enforce desire to cultivate friendly relations with sis that law, it has been done in good faith. He invites ter States: avows adhesion to the doctrines of

judicial scrutiny into the legislation of the State, and Jackson's proclamation; and willing to con

is willing to abide by the result, but is not willing

that the State should be humiliated by compliance tribute men and money for the preservation

with the demand to repeal these laws, accompanied of the Union; a copy of the resolutions, au

by threats of violence and war. He concludes by thenticated under the seal of the Common

recommending that, at an early day, the Legislature wealth, to be sent to the President, and Gov.

make it manifest to our representatives in Congress ernors of States. This was referred to a Com and to the country, that Michigan is loyal to the mittee of Five, which entered, at once, upon Union, the Constitution and the laws, and will defend duty. Gov. Packer's Message was deliverd them to the uttermost, and to proffer to the President January 2d. It was proudly Union in its of the United States the whole military force of the tone--declaring secession to be rebellion. State for that purpose. which, if unsuccessful, would be punishable as Then came tidings from treason. He said that Pennsylvania was de- the forests of Maine. The voted to the Union and would follow the stars Legislature of that State and stripes through every peril, adding, in convened January 2d. Governor Washconclusion: “But before assuming the res-burne's message ably reviewed the history of ponsibilities that are foreshadowed, it is the the Slavery question, declaring that the ausolemn duty of Pennsylvania to remove every thors of the Government designed that the just cause of complaint so that she can stand institution should perish, and that the dogma before high Heaven without fear and without of its right of extension and protection was reproach; and then she was ready to devote only of recent invention. “Slavery was the her lives and fortunes to the best form of child of municipal law~localsectional, not

Maine.

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ATTITUDE

OF THE

BORDER STATES.

163

6

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national. If there is one fact that stands out would be forced to pay the taxes and do the fighting, stronger, clearer, and more indisputable than are the persons who should be heard in preference any other in our history, it is this. There is to excited politicians, many of whom, having nothe record-it cannot be blotted out-it can- thing to lose from the destruction of the Governnot be burned out -- it remains forever.” | ment, may hope to derive some gain from the ruin

of the State. Such men will naturally urge you to Adverting to the Personal Liberty laws he

pull down the pillars of this accursed Union,' said, they are designed as beneficent and ne- which their allies at the North have denominated a cessary provisions, to prevent kidnapping or

covenant with hell. The people of Maryland, if illegal removal, and to bring their line of left to themselves, would decide, with scarcely an action into entire harmony with the line of exception, that there is nothing in the present Constitutional power and obligation, laid causes of complaint to justify immediate secession; down by the United States Supreme Court, in and yet, against our judgments and solemn convicthe case of Prigg vs. the State of Pennsyl- tions of duty, we are to be precipitated into this revania. If, however, such laws are unconsti-volution, because South Carolina thinks differently.

The men who have embarked in this tutional, repeal them; allow no stain on the faith and devotion of the State to the Con- scheme to convene the Legislature will spare no stitution and the rights of the States. As to rations in the event of the assembling of the Legis

pains to carry their point. The whole plan of opethe concessions demanded by the South, he lature is, as I have been informed, already marked said:

out, the list of Ambassadors who are to visit the "The concessions, for the most part, which are

other States is agreed on, and the resolutions which now demanded from the Free States, as the terms they hope will be passed by the Legislature, fully upon which the people of this coantry are to be committing this State to Secession, are said to be allowed to govern themselves, under the Constitu- already prepared.” ' tion, are wholly inadmissible, not merely that they

Hon. Henry Winter Davis, Member of the are objectionable in themselves, but because they United States House of Representatives, from have been made such terms. To grant them would Baltimore, published an Address to his conbe to establish a precedent of incalculable mischief stituents, January 2d. It was a powerful apand danger, through which would be wrought, at no distant period, a practical subversion of the Consti- peal against the calling of the Legislature. tution, and a transfer of the government from the He also opposed the calling of the proposed hands of the many to the power of the few."

“Border State Convention,” to assemble in Of secession he said :

Baltimore. Every project which was extra" There is no such right in the Constitution; the constitutional was, therefore, unconstitutional, President cannot permit it; Congress cannot grant The whole people, and all the States must act it; the States cannot concede it, and only by the to give a Convention validity. He still hoped people of the States, through a change of the Con- for settlement by compromise. stitution, can it be conferred. The laws, then, must The Virginia Legislature be executed, or this, the best, because the freest and assembled, in extra session, Virginia. most benificent government that the world has ever January 7th. Gov. Letchseen, is destroyed. He gave the State's pledge to support the secession; he proposed that all Constitutional

er's message was condemnatory of immediate cause of the Union, with all its power, re- remedies be exhausted before committing the sources and moral strength.

State to the step of withdrawing from the Governor Hicks, under Union. His scheme of settlement was thus Maryland.

date of January 6th, pub stated :-
lished an address to the

“He opposes a State Convention at this time, and citizens of Maryland, setting forth his reasons suggests, first, that a Commission of two of the most for refusing to convene the Legislature. discreet statesmen visit the Legislatures of the Among other things he said :

States which have passed Personal Liberty bills and “ That Maryland is a conservative Southern State insist on their unconditional repeal, except the New all know who know anything of her people or her England States ; second, we must have proper and history. The business and agricultural classes effective guarantees for the protection of Slavery in planters, merchants, mechanics, and laboring men— the District of Columbia ; third, our equality in the those who have a real stake in the community, who States and Territories must be fully recognized, and

the rights of person and property adequately pro- should be restored-in which wealth would tected and secured ; that we must be permitted to crown every owner of slaves-in which manpass through the Free States and Territories unmo- ufactures and commerce would teem from her lested, and if a slave be abducted the State where it shores and upon her streams-while Washis lost must pay its value ; fourth, like guarantees ington, deserted as a capital, would give its that the transmission of slaves between the Slaveholding States by land or water shall not be inter- magnificent buildings to be “ consecrated to fered with ; fifth, the passage and enforcement of

the Genius of Southern Institutions." The right laws for the punishment of such persons in the

wise counsels of Amos Kendall, the clear Free States as organize, or aid and abet in any mode logic and sturdy faith of John Minor Botts, whatsoever, in organizing companies with a view to the rights and wishes of the Union men from assail the Slaveholding States, and to incite the beyond the Blue Ridge and along the Potoslaves to insurrection ; sixth, the General Govern- mac—all were as powerless before the baleful ment to be deprived of the power of appointing to breath of Floyd, Mason and Henry A. Wise, local offices in the Slaveholding States persons hos- as the guide over the wide desert before the tile to their institutions or inimical to their rights." fierce sirocco. If the State became a battle

Notwithstanding this “moderate view" of field, and her fair estates were laid desolate, the Governor, the Legislature, like new con- she courted her fate by the willing abasement verts, was rife for hasty action. Prior to its of her degenerate leaders before the wheels assemblage, a bill calling a convention, Feb- of South Carolina's chariot of fire. ruary 18th, had been prepared, and was in

The Tennessee Legislatroduced as one of the first measures of the ture came together Jan Tennessee. session. Also, the question of military de- uary 7th. The Governor's fense was quickly referred to a Special Com- message advised that the question of calling mittee. A resolution to appropriate ten mil a Convention be submitted to the people

. lions of dollars for defense was referred with He thought the remedy for present evils to little opposition to the same committee, which, exist only in constitutional amendments. In it was understood, would report affirmatively event of their non-passage, Tennessee, he asin two or three days. A joint resolution was serted, must maintain her equality in, or inintroduced on the 9th to appoint a commis- dependence out of, the Union. He recomsion to the President to represent that, “in mended the organization of the State military, the judgment of the General Assembly of and the immediate purchase of arms. The Virginia any additional display of military Central and Eastern sections of the State, it power in the North will jeopardise the tran- was certain, were truly loyal to the Union, quility of the Republic; and that the evac- but it soon became apparent that a few men uation of Fort Sumter is the first step that were to lead the State into the vortex of disshould be taken to restore harmony and union, against the will of her best citizens. peace.”

Governor Dennison of It would appear that the Legislature was Ohio addressed the Legisfully up to the revolutionary point. Could lature of that State, Janthat body have acted on the question, so wila uary 8th. His position was one of stern was its zeal for the repudiation of its ancient purpose to sustain the cause of the Constituhonor that the ordinance of secession would tion and the Union. In his message he have received its engrossing seal by January uttered these words :10th. Treason, and the infamous programme

“We desire most ardently the restoration of affecof treason,,were betrayed in almost every act tion and harmony to all its parts. We desire that considered by the Legislature. The Northern every citizen of the whole country may look to this and Western members were almost powerless grateful respect and attachment. But we cannot

Government with no other sentiments but those of before the effrontery and madness of the yield, even to kind feelings, the cause of the Constimembers from the Southern and Eastern sec- tution, the true glory of the country, and the great tions of the State. The glitter of a New Do- trust which we hold in our hands for succeeding minion was before their eyes, in which the ages. If the Constitution cannot be maintained prestige and renown of the Old Dominion without meeting these scenes of commotion and con

Ohio.

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States, have found place upon our statute books, let ism as in her soil and exhaustless resources, them be removed. If prejudice and alienation to- With a free white population exceeding that of ward any of our fellow-countrymen has fastened South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, upon our minds, let it be dismissed and forgotten. and Louisiana all together, her position was Let us be just to ourselves and each other, allowing only second in importance to that of the neither threats to drive us from what we deem to be our duty, nor pride of opinion prevent us from cor- great Middle States.* recting wherein we may have erred."

Gov. Yates, the incoming Governor, of Illi He recommended a complete reconstruc- nois

, in his Message of the 14th, made the tion of the military system and that the most following points of policy: That an irreliberal encouragement be given for the for- pressible conflict' did exist between the Slave mation of volunteer companies in all branches and the Free States, but it does not necesof the army service. “Speaking not merely sarily disturb the relations of the States : for himself

, but reflecting what he assumes to that secession is revolution which the whole be the voice of the whole people of Illinois, power of the Government must be exerted to irrespective of party, as it reaches him from suppress: that the great North and West all quarters, he adopts the sentiments of Pre- will never allow the free navigation of Missident Jackson—“The Federal Union : it sissippi river to be impeded, &c., &c. The

Governor referred to Mr. Douglas as true to must be preserved "-to which sentiments he trusts the Legislature will give emphatic ex

the Constitution, and avowed his conviction pression at an early day.” With such ex

that the people, without distinction of party, pression, Illinois, the " Prairie State," has were ready to defend the Union against any

and all efforts to break it up. proved that she was as rich in her patriot

CHAPTER VI.

PROGRESS

OF

THE REVOLUTION IN SOUTH CAROLINA.

Μ Ε Ν Τ OF THE CONVENTION.

ADJOURN

Oaths.

The South Carolina Convention continued Commissioners were elected to the several its organic labors; but we need not refer in States proposing to form a Confederacy, to detail to the various ordinances and laws put advance the scheme of consolidation. Their upon her statute books. It will only be names were as follows:-To Florida, L. W. necessary to take cognizance of the legislation Spratt; to Alabama, N. P. Calhoun ; to Misaffecting the status of the revolution. An sissippi, Armistead Burt; to Arkansas, A. C.

ordinance, signed December Spain; to Georgia, James L. Orr; to Texas, 31st, prescribed the oaths John McQueen. These persons left almost

of abjuration and of alle- immediately for their sevegiance as follows:

ral fields of duty. The Steps to form a Con

federacy. “ Ist. I solemnly swear or affirm that I do re- Committee's report and resnounce and forever abjure allegiance and fidelity to olution, under which they acted, suggested every prince, potentate, State, or sovereignty what that the Constitution of the United States be soever, except the State of South Carolina.

submitted as the basis of the provisional con“ 2d. I do swear or affirm that I will bear faithful and true allegiance to the State of South Carolina so * For interesting tables of the comparative populong as I may continue a citizen thereof."

lation of the States, see pages 27-28.

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