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fecting the defences of Fort Pickens from the land Feb. 9.--A Provisional Constitution is adopted by and Pensacola side is being pushed forward with the Southern Congress at Montgomery, as a basis for great vigor by Lieut. Slemmer who, it would appear, a Provisional Government. The United States Conis determined to hold out to the last.
stitution is used, with slight variation. Jefferson Jan. 23.—The Georgia delegation withdraws from Davis, of Mississippi, elected President, and Alex
ander H. Stephens, of Georgia, Vice-President of Congress.
the “ Confederate States of North America." -Hon. Emerson Etheridge, of Tennessee, makes a speech in the United States House of Representa
Feb. 11.--Mr. Lincoln, President-elect, starts for tives, declaring secession to be rebellion, which the Washington, via Indianapolis, Cincinnatti, Columbus, government must suppress.
Pittsburg, Cleveland, Buffalo, Albany, New York Jan. 24.-The Arsenal at Augusta, Georgia, seized more. He was the guest of all these cities, by action
City, Trenton, Philadelphia, Harrisburg and Baltiby the State authorities.
of the authorities and State Legislatures. His jour. Jan. 25.--The Rhode Island State Legislature re- ney was by speciál trains, and was one grand ovation peals its Personal Liberty law.
at all stopping points. -The Louisiana State Convention passes an ordi
Feb. 12.-Reports from Tennessee indicate that nance of secession. Yeas, 113 ; nays, 17.
the State has voted, by over 20,000 majority, against
a State Convention, Jan. 26.--- Alabama State Convention adjourned to March 4th,
Feb. 17.-A dispatch from Washington says but
little hope is entertained of any beneficial result Jan. 28.-Texas State Convention meets at Austin. from the Peace Convention. The Northern Com
Jan. 30.—The Legislature of North Carolina sub- missioners are persistent in their refusal to agree to mits the question of holding a Convention to a vote the Southern demands. of the people, February 28th.
Feb. 17.--A dispatch from Montgomery, Ala., says -Ex Secretary Floyd indicted by the Grand Jury ern Confederacy, from Jackson to Montgomery was
the trip of Mr. Davis, President-elect of the Southof Washington on two counts; Ist, for malfeasance; 2d, for conspiracy with Bailey and Russell, to defraud one continued oration. He made twenty-five speeches
on the route, to the gathered crowds. Arrived at the government.
Montgomery and was welcomed by the military and Jan. 30.-The Revenue Cutters Cass and MeClelland a vast concourse of citizens. betrayed by their commanders—the last named by
Feb. 18.--Jefferson Davis inaugurated, with im Capt. Breshwood into the hands of the Louisiana State authorities, the first by Capt. J. J. Morrison, posing ceremonies, President of the Confederate
States of America. into the hands of the Alabama authorities. Secre. tary Dix's Special agent hąd authority to shoot down Feb. 19.--Mr. Lincoln receives a magnificent the first man who attempted to haul down the Ame- reception in New York city. Two hundred thousand rican flag, but he did not succeed in gaining posses- people turns out to swell the throng on the streets. sion of either vessel.
He held a Levee at the City Hall February 20th. Feb. 1.--The United States Mint and Custom Feb. 22.-Mr. Lincoln leaves Harrisburg abhouse in New Orleans seized by the State authori- ruptly and secretly, by night, for Washington-havties.
ing evidences of a plot in Baltimore to create a riot - Texas Convention passes ordinance of Seces- upon his appearance on the 23d, as set down in the sion--yeas 166, nays 7.
published programme of his progress. Arrives at
the Capitol early on the morning of the 23d. Feb. 4.--The Virginia Conference, or, as it is called, the “ Peace Convention," assembles in Wash
Feb. 25.—It is ascertained that Brigadier-Gen. iugton. It is composed of five delegates from each Twiggs, commanding in the Department of Texas, State, appointed by the Governors, to consider some has betrayed his command and turned over all the plan of adjustment. Most of the Northern, and all posts, United States property in arms, munitions, of the Border States, are represented.
horses, and equipments, &c., to the Texan State au
thorities. - The Congress, or Conference, of Southern seceded States, meets at Montgomery.
Feb. 20— March 3.--Extensive preparations for
the inauguration of Mr. Lincoln. The Military, under Feb. 5.-Ex-President Tyler, of Virginia, elected command of Generals Scott and Wool, is to be disPresident of the Peace Convention.
tributed throughout the city. Mr. Buchanan lends Feb. 8.-Colonel Hayne departs for Charleston, his influence to a happy and peaceful introduction unable to obtain any recognition from the Federal of his successor to office. Government.
REVOLUTIONARY SOCIETIES IN THE SOUTHERN STATES.
POSITION OF TEE CHURCHES.
ORGANIZATIONS known as “ Minute Men," “The Association is pledged to put down “Defense Committees," "Brotherhood" and all negro preachings, prayer-meetings, and "Vigilance” and “Southern Rights” Asso- all congregations of negroes that may be conciations, &c., &c., are occasionally referred to sidered unlawful by the patrol.” in the news of the day; but the public gene That the officers “have full power to derally is not aware of the extent of these or- cide all cases that may be brought before ganizations, nor of the very important part them, and their decisions shall be final and they have played in carrying out the scheme conclusive.” of secession. Their active formation com " That the patrol companies have the menced immediately after the Presidential power to correct and punish all slaves, free election, though they had existed for some negroes, mulattoes and mastizoes as they may
time previous. That of the deem proper." The Minute Men. “Minute Men,” in partic It will scarcely be credited by foreigners
ular, was instrumental in that such an organization could exist in any disseminating extreme views for many months other than a disorganized state of society, prior to the election. This body was, avow- where courts were powerless, and where vioedly, organized for home protection against lence was the rule; but, that they did exist insurrections, but, in reality, had for its ob- throughout all the Gulf States and South ject the arrest and punishment of white Carolina during the fall and winter of 1860" emissaries” who might be regarded as sus- 1861, is attested by the almost innumerable picious characters—which meant, of any per- and authenticated accounts of atrocities and son obnoxious to any Southern man. With- outrages perpetrated on Northern men and out ceremony or law, the "Men" proceeded women, as well as on free negroes. If the to their work, and the occasional accounts, story ever is told, of the men being hung, tarwhich would find their way to the press, of red and feathered, whipped, driven off, it will outrages and lynch law perpetrated on white excite a feeling of incredulity. persons of Northern birth, proved that they When Mr. Iverson stated
Men hanging from were the self-constituted guardians of South in the Senate " that a Sen
Trees. ern society whose bare suspicions it was dan- ator from Texas had told gerous to incur. Something of their self-ar- him that a great many of these free debaters rogated powers and duties may be inferred were hanging from the trees of that country," from the news given on pages 47-48, regu- he simply stated a well-accredited fact; and, lating the operations of a “Vigilance Associ- that the speaker was not candid enough to ation," from which we may report:
confess, from his own personal knowledge, * The patrol have power to arrest all sus- that, in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, picious white persons, and bring them before the same sight might be witnessed, proves the Executive Committee for trial.”
him to have been capable of a feeling of shame.
We have personal know- | was certain one hundred men had been hung ledge of a well-to-do small in his section of the State, and in Georgia
planter in the vicinity of adjoining, during six weeks prior to his esEufaula, Alabama, who, after actually having cape in December. The story of that hunhad to assist in the hanging of six men-five dred men never will be chronicled. This sinmechanics and one preacher, all of Northern gle incident will illustrate one phase of the birth-was compelled to flee from the ven- rebellion which has received only slight atgeance of the very committee on which he tention, but which, nevertheless, has an imserved, and escaped to the North, leaving all portant relation to it; for the committees” his possessions behind him. He was a Con- that committed these atrocities ere long benecticut man, but had resided in the South came the inquisition, whose fearful power all for some years; and, having acquired real Union men were made to feel. As a conseestate, became the owner of several slaves. quence, Unionists were soon awed not only When the excitement ran high, during Oc- into silence, but into co-operation as a matter tober, he was "spotted,” and joined the of personal safety. Minute Men to avert suspicion and escape In fact, these half secret organizations were outrage. But, the Post-office being carefully one of the most powerful instruments of watched, and all correspondence to any “sus-forcing action and subduing opposition; and, pected" person being read by the Postmaster when the whole truth becomes recorded, we or a Committee appointed for the service, he think it will be found that the "Minute was "holed.” A letter from a female rela- Men” and “Vigilance Associations" were the tive in Connecticut, reminding him of his left arm of the entire movement--doing what promise to free his negroes, abjure the curse the right arm (the leaders) were unable to of slavery and come home, at once, in the effect. Violence toward suspected persons Committee's eyes, convicted him, and only was one of their prescribed functions. To by the aid of a faithful negro woman did he control elections—to pack conventions-- to escape. She flew from a neighboring plan- order and direct public meetings—to dictate tation, through the woods, at night, to tell resolutions and project schemes of action, him that arrangements were making before eventually became their primary objects. his friend's residence for his execution, and “Precipitation” owed everything to them. that the Minute Men would be upon him at Secession found in them its most certain comidnight. To be assured of the entire truth adjutor. of the story, he returned with the woman to But another organization had an existence find the rope pendant from a sycamore bough in the Southern States, which had an imporbefore his friend's porch. On the porch he tant influence upon public sentiments, particrecognized several of his old confederates, ularly in Louisiana, Kentaking refreshments prior to their night's tucky, and Virginia. We work. Watching his opportunity, ho had refer to the secret society, the nerve to steal up to the tree and to cut the “Knights of the Golden Circle." This the noose from the rope, then passing to the order came into existence in 1858, following road fence where the horses of the “Com- upon and growing out of the "Order of the mittee" were secured, he appropriated the Lone Star"--a recent society having for its finest one and struck out for the Georgia object the seizure and annexation of Cuba line. At Macon he sold the horse for money and Nicaragua—thus to spread the area of enough to bear him to Connecticut, and, Slave Territory, and to perpetuate Southern passing through New York, committed his predominance in the National Congress. The story to us, exhibiting the noose as the only descent of Lopez on Cuba was the first step trophy of his Southern services.
of the settled programme. That having failHaving had previous relations with him, ed, the descent of Walker in Nicaragua was we knew of his perfect integrity, and, assured the next step. Its failure, and the death of of the “representative” nature of his experi- General Quitman, the recognized leader of ence, have repeated it. He stated that he the filibusters—though Mr. Soule, Mr. Pierce's
The K.G. C.'s.
minister to Spain, was understood to be the through George Bickley, to the other degrees. acting president of the Order—brought the He swears in this degree to obtain all the organization into a weak condition. Out of neophytes he can to support his colleagues, it sprung the “ Knights of the Golden Circle,” | the Knights of the Columbian Star, in all whose leader was a ci-devant minister, pro- efforts for office, to conquer Mexico and fessor, editor, politician, named Geo. W. L. “Southernize” its institutions, to drive all Bickley—a “smart” but unprincipled person, free Negroes into Mexico, there to be enwell fitted by temperament and ambition for slaved, and to reduce the peon population of the direction of perfidious projects.
Mexico to Slavery, dividing them as chattels The design of conquering Mexico, and among members of the Order, and to recogthere to create a powerful Slave empire which nize for the present monarchical institutions, should eventually absorh Nicaragua, was the as tending to strong government. Moreover, ostensible features of the organization; but, after the conquest of Mexico, he is to contend beneath that were other designs as rank with for the exclusion of every Roman Catholic treason and wickedness as the brain of its from office and from the priesthood, and to audacious and unprincipled leader could con- support a system of passports, enforced by the ceive. A revelation made by a member of penalty of death. IIe again swears to a the Order, through the columns of the Louis- scheme of government which, from its utter ville Journal, placed the public in possession want of resemblance to any American idea we of as much of the secrets of the organization give entire :as members of the lower degree were allowed
“ 13th. The successor to George Bickley must be to know. The substance of that statement, over thirty years of age, of Southern birth, liberally the truth of which is now verified by the acts educated, Knight of the Columbian Star, sound of of the order in Kentucky was as follows:
body and mind, and married, and Protestant. He
shall swear to carry out this policy, and to extend Every applicant for adThe Secrets of the
Slavery over the whole of Central America, if in his Order.
mission is first sworn to power. He shall try to acquire Cuba and control
secrecy, under the penalty the Gulf of Mexico. No one else will I sustain. But of death, and then the design of the Order is for such a one, who must be proposed by the Cabirevealed. If he assents to its propriety, and net ministers and elected by all Knights of the Star, is an American born and a slaveowner, or or a majority of them, I will sustain here, there, or can produce proof that he is imbued with elsewhere. When the Knights cross the Rio Grande Southern sentiments, and is a Protestant, he I will do all I can to send in recruits for the army, is admitted as a soldier of the Order, and in- and if I should ever cease to be an active worker for formed of its signs, passwords and organ- character of the organization, and I promise never
the Star, I will keep secret what I know of the real ization. On the recommendation of the
to confer this degree in any other way than in the chiefs of the Order he is admitted to the sec
way I have here received it, and I will forward to ond degree; informed that the stores and George Bickley, or to the Governor-General of this ammunition for the army are collected at State, the name and fees of every candidate whom I Monterey, and acquainted with the names of shall initiate as Governor. In witness, I do volunthe officers to whom he is to look for pay. tarily, here and in these presence, sign my name and He is also supposed to be on active service, address.” and the President has, we perceive, suni This apparently novel moned all Kentuckian members to attend a scheme, to the Southern Turbulent elements of
Society in the south. rendezvous, where they will be drilled and mind, was considered feasiorganized by regular instructors, and whence ble and sure of consummation. Immense they are, for the present, to control the Ken-numbers of men in all the Slave States are tucky elections in favor of Southern men. If without possessions of any kind. Arrogant influential enough, he is next admitted to the in temper, disinclined to manual labor, selfish third degree, the council of the Order, which, from association with their “ peculiar instituunder the presidency of Mr. George Bickley, tions," they are unfitted for the position of the future monarch, regulates the affairs of poor men. Their one leading, never-forgotten the Order without communication, except desire, is to become the proprietors of estates,
the owners of slaves. Any scheme which did | The declaration closed with the following not promise these would not for a day survive announcement :in the Slave States. Hence, all fillibuster " While, as yet, no particular mode of relief is beleaders gave the promise to their men of land fore us on which to express an opinion, we are conand slaves. Like the horde of adventurers strained, before separating to our several homes, to who followed the fortunes of Pizarro and Cor- declare to our brethren and fellow-citizens, before
mankind and before our God, that we hold ourselves tez- the unpropertied whites of the Slave States were eager for any enterprise which subject to the call of proper authority in defense gave promise of dominion over soil and men. Alabama, and of her right, as a sovereignty, to with
of the sovereignty and independence of the State of This organization grew into large propor- draw from this Union, and to make any arrangement tions in Kentucky, Arkansas, and Louisiana, which her people, in constitutional assemblies, may during the years 1859–1860. When it be- deem best, for securing their rights. And in this came evident that a great political crisis was
declaration we heartily, deliberately, unanimously, and at hand, its leaders made the conquest of solemnly UNITE." Mexico the ultimate object of the order and
The Presbyterian Synod (Old School) of the dissolution of the Union its immediate South Carolina, led the opinion of that object. Its lodges became headquarters for
State. Resolutions were introduced (Nov. conspirators against the Constitution, while 29th) looking to repudiation of the General their last manifestation was to enter the field (Church) Assembly, and the formation of as an organized military body, thoroughly
a Southern Assembly. The preamble set equipped and already disciplined for the forth that the election of Abraham Lincoln field. Kentucky, in particular, was made to had evidenced a spirit of hostility to "our feel the weight of their influence, though they
social institutions; and we have reason to had, eventually, to retire before the loyal believe this sentiment is openly or covertly spirit of the large mass of property holders entertained, in a greater or less degree, by and intelligent residents of the State.
all Ecclesiastical bodies at the North; and
Whereas, the act of 1813 (which makes it the Along with the “Minute Men," and“ Vigil- duty of all members of the Presbyterian ance Associations,” the “Knights” must re- Church to use all efforts for the Abolition of tire to obscurity when the constituted author- Slavery) still remains upon the statute book ities are able to punish all offenders; but, un- of the Old School Presbyterian General Astil such time, the lawless and irresponsible sembly, and they have refused to repeal it,” horde, who are ever ready for excitement, they, therefore, demand a must, to a greater or less extent, afflict South
separation, and the organern society with their dreadful visitations.
ization of a Southern AsThe Churches of the South were not, as a sembly. These resolutions were disposed of general thing, behind the most revolutionary by a reference to a committee of nine, which in sentiment. The long-standing discord- reported, Dec. 3d. The final clause of the ance between themselves and their brother Report, as adopted unanimously, read :Churches of the North, of a like denomina- * * * "The Synod has no besitation, there. tion, had made them ripe for revolt. Ola fore, in expressing the belief that the people of South School Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists Carolina are now solemnly called on to imitate their and Episcopalians entered, at an early mo- Revolutionary forefathers, and stand up for their ment, into the secession movement, by official rights. We have an humble and abiding confidence, action, and contributed greatly to spread the
that that God, whose truth we represent in this consentiment for disunion and separate State and people to put their trust in God, and go forward
flict, will be with us, and exhorting our Churches action,
in the solemn path of duty which his Providence In November the Alabama The Baptists.
opens before them, we, Ministers and Elders of the State Convention of Baptists Presbyterian Church in South Carolina Synod as
unanimously passed a de- sembled, would give them our benediction, and the claration, setting forth that the Union had ' assurance that we shall fervently and unceasingly “failed, in · important particulars, to an- implore for them the care and protection of Almighty swer the purposes for which it was created.” | God.”
The Old School