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could have resolved itself out at its pleasure and | Louisiana was admitted, she would never have gone over to the enemy. Our fortresses in Boston been admitted. I tell you, sir, if any such doctrine Harbor, which we had manned, built, and filled with had been asserted, her people would never have munitions and guns, they might have withdrawn been permitted to take possession of the swamps from and surrendered to the enemy, and turned our of Louisiana. They will not willingly consent that own guns upon us. This is the consequence of this she should hold the mouths of the Mississippi, doctrine. But, again, take it in time of peace. Ap- and thus control the commerce that goes out into ply the doctrine to Pennsylvania, that she, by a sim- the Gulf. How has it been with Texas? The ple resolution of her people, can withdraw from the Federal Government admitted Texas at a time when United States. She could cut off all the mail routes she had a sparse population, and there were many going across Pennsylvania, and we could not go debts against her treasury, and her credit was imfrom Virginia to New York without going across a paired and broken. We took her, as one of the foreign country. So, too, with Illinois ; if this States, into this Confederacy. The result of her andoctrine is correct, we of the North-West could nexation brought the Mexican war, which cost is be cut off entirely from the East ; and especi- 40,000 lives and nearly $100,000,000. Now, when we ally if the Union is to be broken up, we could have made her a good State, built fortifications, paid not go to New York except by leave of Illinois, or her debts and raised her to a position of a State in without going through the State of Kentucky; and this Confederacy, with prospects as glorions, peryou propose to make that a foreign jurisdiction.haps more so than any other Southern State, Apply this doctrine further. How is it with Florida, is she now, in a single hour or moment of pasa little State of the Gulf that has 50,000 white in- sion, to resolve herself out of the Union and become habitants--almost as many as some of the counties a foreign power? Suppose we had paid $200,000,000 in the State where I live? We purchased this penin- for Cuba, and acquired her, with all her fortifica. sula, and paid for it, to get rid of the foreign juris- tions, she could now go out, and turn our own guns diction over it-also to get possession of the Key, against us? What is all our great boasted nationand command the entrance to the Gulf. We paid ality? Is it a farce and a delusion? Gentlemen $35,000,000 to take the Seminoles off from it, and sometimes complain that the Republican party are now these 50,000 people, whom the good people of disposed to do injustice to the citizens of the South, the United States permitted to go there and settle and to their social institutions especially. But what their territories—they had hardly population enough has been the history of the Government since it was to be admitted as a State, but we have admitted formed under the Constitution? We have acquired them to full fellowship--and Florida now attempts, Florida, Lousiana, Texas and the Territory from by mere resolution of her people gathered together, Mexico. We have surrendered a part of Maine, and to resolve herself out of the Union, and take all those given up our claim to a large part of Oregon. Florfortresses, which we have spent thousands of dollars | ida cost us $40,000,000. It has been given up to the to make, with all our own guns, and turn them social institutions of the South. We purchased against us. How is it with Louisiana? The Govern- Louisiana Territory, and two-thirds of the good land ment of the United States upon wise national princi- has been given up to the social institutions of the ples of great national policy, purchased from the South. The annexation of Texas, the war with MexEmperor of France, or the first Consul, the Territory ico, and the acquisition of all those territories from of Louisiana, at an expense of $15,000,000. We pur- Mexico, may be regarded as one transaction. Now chased it to obtain possession of the great valley of I ask you, gentlemen, in all fairness and candor, to the Mississippi, and above all things, to hold the say whether we have not surrendered to your mouth of that River which controls all its commerce, social institutions, your full share, comparing the and discharges it upon the high seas of the world. number of persons who are employed in your Now, can it be contended here that because the peo- system of labor, with the free white citizens of the ple of whom the Federal Government has permitted United States? When you speak of injustice, it is to go in there, and occupy its lands, and permitted without foundation. You have had your full share, to be introduced into the family of this reunion, that and more than your share, of the Territories we have she, in a moment of passion aud excitement, by the acquired from the beginning up to this hour. I am mere resolution of her citizens, can resolve herself sick and tired of hearing gentlemen stand up here outside of the confederacy, declare that she is a and complain of the injustice done to this institution foreign power, and take with her the control of of the South. There is no foundation for it in our the mouths of the Mississippi. I tell you, Mr. Presi- history-none whatever. *** What do we deny to dent, and I tell the Senator from Louisiana, that if you that we do not deny to ourselves? What single any such doctrine had been understood when right have I in New Mexico that you have not? You






say this law excludes your social institution. So itnently kind and candid; and, if it failed to excludes our banking institutions and our manufac- make any impression on the points at issue, turing corporations. Your social institution is a its circulation among the people served to kind of close corporation, existing under the laws of strengthen the confident and determined your States, not existing by the common law of the spirit of the vast mass of Northern people. country. We deny you no right which we do not It unquestionably had the endorsement of deny onrselves. * * * If we acquire Territory, you four-fifths of the voters in the North-western are asking too much when you ask us to convert it

States. to Slave Territory. It is impossible that we can have peace upon any such doctrine as that. You

No further proceedings of this week's (the must allow the Free Territories to remain free. We 4th) session particularly related to the “queswill not interfere with your institution where it ex- / tion of questions.” It was understood that ists, Sir, that is peace. I repeat, that non-interfe- Mr. Benjamin, of Louisiana, would address rence by the General Government or by the Free the Senate' on Monday, January 1st. All State meu, with Slavery in the States, and non-inter- looked forward with interest to that speech, ference by the General Government or by the Slave

as Mr. B. would unquestionably define the holders, against freedom in the Territories, is peace. course which the united Southern States were

Mr. Doolittle was frequently interrupted by to pursue.
Mr. Benjamin of Louisiana, Wigfall of Texas, The Committee of Thir-

The Committee of and Brown of Mississippi-all of whose in-ty-three having adjourned

Thirty-three. quiries he answered with decision and candor. December 21st to Decem

Mr. Brown made a brief ber 27th, accomplished little during their Mr. Brown's Reply. reply, declaring that North- sessions of Thursday and Friday, December

ern Senators would over- 27th-28th. On Thursday the propositions look the main point at issue. We claim that of Mr. Rust [See page 103,] were urged to a there is property in slaves, and they deny it. vote, and were rejected by 12 to 15. On Until we can settle on some basis this ques- Friday the Committee considered Mr. Adams' tion, it is idle to talk of peace. He claimed proposition. It proposed an amendment to that the doctrine of non-recognition of prop- the Constitution prohibiting Congress from erty in slaves was a new doctrine. He said passing a law interfering with slavery in the the South had $400,000,000 in this kind of States where it exists. It was agreed to by property. Is it to be supposed that the South nearly an unanimous vote, the several diswould consent to live under a Government sents considering that the Constitution aloutlawing this kind of property? Can mil ready gives that security. Hons at the South consent to live under a The Committee of ThirGovernment as outlaws, only recognized when teen sat three hours on

Thirteen. the Government wants tribute? If the Gov- Monday, December 24th, ernment continue to outlaw the South, there when most significant propositions were subis only two ways-separate in peace or by mitted by Mr. Seward : force. He said the South could not take less First, No amendment shall be made to the Conthan justice, and asked no more. They re-stitution which will authorize, or give to Congress cognized the right of the Government to pro any power to abolish or interfere, in any State, with tect the property of the North, but the North the domestic institutions thereof, including that of would not recognize the right of protection

persons held to service or labor by the laws of such

State." to the property of the South. If they persisted in the idea that the Government would

This was carried by the following vote:

' YEAS.-Messrs. Powell, Hunter, Crittenden, not recognize property in slaves, and protect

Seward, Douglas, Collamer, Wade, Bigler, Rice, it, then, standing in the high presence of and

Doolittle, and Grimes. before Almighty God, he declared the Union

NAYS.Messrs. Davis and Toombs. could not last ninety days.

Second, The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 shall be This day's proceedings did not bring the so amended as to secure to the alleged fugitive a discordant elements into closer harmony. trial by jury." The spirit of Mr. Doolittle's speech was emi Mr. Douglas proposed to amend by insert

The Committee of


ing “in the State from which the fugitive es- tutional and Federal relations as any other species caped.” This was carried, and then the of property so recognized ; and, like other properwhole proposition was voted down by the ty, shall not be subject to be divested or impaired Democrats, all the Republicans sustaining it. by the local law of any other State, either in escape This was lost as follows:

thereto, or by the transit or sojourn of the owner “YEAS.—Messrs. Grimes, Seward, Wade, Doolittle,

therein. And in no case whatever shall such proCollamer, and Crittenden--6.

perty be subject to be divested or impaired by any

legislative act of the United States, or any of the "NAYS.--Messrs. Powell, Hunter, Toombs, Doug

Territories thereof." las, Davis, Bigler, and Rice-7." The Southern men voted adversely upon

On Wednesday the Committee rejected the the ground that, though it was not openly

Toombs and Davis resolutions. Subsequentassigned, this proposition would affect their ly, Mr. Seward offered the following on belaws imprisoning colored seamen.

half of the Republican members : It will be seen that the extremists would Resolved, That under the fourth section of the not sustain the propositions intended to meet fourth article of the Constitution, Congress should the very cases they had specifically charged pass an efficient law for the punishment of all peragainst the North.

sons engaged in the armed invasion of any State Mr. Toombs' resolutions were then called from another by combinations of individuals, and up,

and four of them voted upon, Mr. Doug- punishing all persons in complicity therewith on las refusing to go upon the record. They their acts of complicity were committed in the Fed

trial and conviction in the State and District where were then postponed till Wednesday, Mr.

eral Courts." Toombs and the ultras resisting any delay, for the transparent object of using the

Mr. Toombs proposed to amend by incluaction of the Committee to operate upon the ding “insurrections,” and Mr. Douglas, by pending elections for the Southern Conven- inserting his sedition law of last session, after tions. Mr. Davis offered the following reso

which the resolution was voted down. lutions, which went over with the others : Mr. Douglas explained thắt he declined

" That it shall be declared by amendment of the voting on the Toombs and Davis resolutions, Constitution that property in Slaves, recognized as on Monday, because he had presented amendsuch by the local law of any of the States of the ments to the Constitution, in due form, corUnion, shall stand on the same footing in all Consti-'ering the same points.



THE evacuation of Fort | indifferent work, the walls of which are only aboat Major Anderson's true position.

Moultrie, by Major Ander- fourteen feet high, and that we have, within one hun

son, on the night of Dec. dred and sixty yards of our walls, sand hills which 26th, quite took the country by surprise. His command our work, and which afford admirable sites great peril—the steady refusal of the Presi- for batteries, and the finest covers for sharp-shooters, dent to allow the dispatch of reinforcements and that beside this, there are numerous houses, -excited the most painful apprehensions

some of them within pistol-shot, you will at once see throughout the entire North for his safety. that, if attacked in force, headed by any one but

a simpleton, there is scarce a possibility of our being An occasional note like the following, dated December 24th, came from the gallant to come to our succor.

able to hold out long enough to enable our friends commander to intensify the feeling in his

** Trusting that God will not desert us in our hour behalf:

of trial, I am sincerely yours. "When I inform you that my garrison consists of

“ ROBERT ANDERSON, only sixty effective men, and that we are in a very

* Major 1st Artillery, &c."




The desertion of this untenable post for the In the mutterings of an excited populacefastness of Fort Sumter, which lay like a vast in the gathering of soldiery-in the resolution monster on the bosom of the waters far out of inquiry (see page 112], Major Anderson in the harbor, was a step certainly never con- detected the evidence of an early occupation templated by the South Carolina authorities of Fort Sumter, if not of an actual assault nor by the President. Anderson's last instruc- upon Fort Moultrie. If Sumter were occu

tions from the War Depart- pied by an enemy, Moultrie would not be Anderson's last In

ment-as averred by the tenable for five hours. It was, in fact, the structions.

President in his correspon- key to the harbor, which, if properly garrisdence with the South Carolina Commissioners oned, would defy the assault of any force for -were as follows:

months. Noting carefully the daily, almost • Verbal instructions to Major Anderson, First Ar. hourly, gathering strength of the revolution

tillery, commanding Fort Moultrie, S. C.” ists; seeing, upon all sides, unconcealed prep

“ You are aware of the great anxiety of the Secre- arations for large military movements; looktary of War that a collision of the troops with the ing wistfully, but in vain, for succor from people of this state shall be avoided, and of his reinforcements, it would have been a base studied determination to pursue a course with refer- betrayal of trust for him to have remained in ence to the military force and forts of this harbor, Moultrie when Sumter offered him the shelter which shall guard against such a collision. He has, of its kindly walls. therefore, carefully abstained from increasing the

A correspondent from force at this point, or taking any measures which Washington, under date

The Occupation a might add to the present excited state of the public of December 29th, said:

Military Necessity. mind, or which would throw any doubt on the confidence he feels that South Carolina will not attempt forts of Charleston. He held and occupied

“Major Anderson had command of all the by violence to obtain possession of the public works, them at his discretion. Before he went to or interfere with their occupancy.

** But as the counsel and acts of rash and impul- his command last Autumn he was here, and sive persons may possibly disappoint these expecta- was depressed at the position he felt he was tions of the Government, he deems it proper that about to occupy. But his views of duty were you should be prepared with instructions to meet so wholly those of a soldier. His business was unhappy & contingency. He has, therefore, directed to defend his position, and the fact that he me, verbally, to give you such instructions. intended to do it was what depressed him.

“ You are carefully to avoid every act which He felt the delicacy of his situation, and he would needlessly tend to provoke aggression, and knew the weakness of his command. He for that reason you are not, without necessity, to found himself at Fort Moultrie, threatened take up any position which could be construed into with an attack. He besought the Executive the assumption of a hostile attitude ; but you are to for more troops. General Scott, over and hold possession of the forts in the harbor, and if attacked, you are to defend yourself to the last extremity. The over again, urged that they be sent. The smallness of your force will not permit you, perhaps, President refused. Major Anderson went on to occupy more than one of the three forts, but an strengthening his position while, at the same attack on, or attempt to take possession of either time, he urged forward the completion of of them, will be regarded as an act of hostility, and Fort Sumter, the mounting of its heavy ordyou may then put your command into either of them nance, &c. This was done as promptly as which you may deem most proper to increase its possible by Captain Foster of the Engineers. power of resistance. You are also authorized to take When the engineering labors of Captain similar steps whenever you have tangible evidence of a Foster were completed, he reported the fact design to proceed to a hostile act.

to Major Anderson. Without any special “D. P. BUTLER,

orders or suggestions from the President, the “ Assistant Adjutant-General.

Secretary of War or the Commander-in-chief, "FONT MOULTRIE, S.C., Dec. 11, 1860."

Major Anderson, looking upon his position ** This is in conformity to my instructions to Major from an exclusively military point of view, Buell.

JOHN B. FLOYD, seeing the weakness of Fort Moultrie and the “Secretary of War." strength of Fort Sumter, did precisely that

thing which, as a military man, he was com- rapidly relieved of their heavy cargoes. The pelled to do, and which he could not avoid small-boats pulled away after everything doing without inflicting a stain upon his needful, which it was possible to transport, military reputation. He left the weaker for had been recovered. By daylight the entire the stronger position. As a military act its force was within the walls of the great water propriety admits of not the slightest question fortress, excepting Capt. Foster and eight among military men. As a political question, men, left to dismantle the big guns bearing or an act of policy, in reference to the diffi- on Sumter, by burning their carriages. This culties between South Carolina and the duty Capt. Foster proceeded to perform. At United States, Major Anderson had nothing an early hour, Thursday morning, the smoke to do with either, and acted with no refer- from the burning carriages gave the Charlesence to either. He simply discharged his tonians their first intimation of an extraordiduty as a wise and gallant soldier.”

nary occurrence. The alarm immediately This statement presents a correct view of spread, and the people thronged the wharves the circumstances, and justly gives to the and battery looking out upon the harbor. commander the entire credit of the move- The military were ordered under arms. Evement, so applauded by friends, so execrated rything betokened a crisis in the affairs of the by foes. If merely a military act it neverthe-“ sovereign" State. It was at first supposed less was potent with political results. The that a reinforcement had arrived—then it little vessels which, in their night duty be- was reported that the garrison had evacuatween Moultrie and Sumter, bore to the fast- ted the harbor, after destroying the fort. ness the men and munitions that were to Some laborers, however, arrived at the hold it for their country against conspirators, wharves, direct from Sullivan's Island, and held the fate of a Republic on their slender communicated the truth to the thoroughly exdecks; and the soldier who ordered the trans- asperated people and the anxious authorities. fer became an instrument in the hand of The Convention immediately came together, destiny, of leading the Crusade against the in secret session, scarcely waiting for the forGoths who sought to sack the citadel of the mality of a breakfast. It gave orders for the Republic, and scatter its glories to the four military disposition necessary in a moment winds of Heaven. He proved a worthy of danger. Governor Pickens was out on leader.

duty, gathering the masses of men into solWhen informed by Capt. dierly consistency. The battery was filled Particulas of the Evacuation.

Foster of the readiness of with troops, ready for any service. When

Sumter for occupancy, the news arrived of the course pursued by AnderMajor secured three vessels as transports. son, Governor Pickens sent off a note to inIt was given out that the service required quire by what authority the evacuation was was to remove the families, furniture, &c., of made, and what was the object of the morethe garrison to a place of safety at Fort John- ment. Anderson replied, stating that it was son. Besides the vessels, several row-boats a military step for which he alone was rewere brought into requisition, to be manned sponsible—that it was an act of defence only. by the soldiers. At an early hour Wednes. While these messages were on their way, day (Dec. 26th), the order was given for the Captain Foster appeared in the streets of evacuation. Not a soldier of the garrison Charleston to repeat the facts of the case to knew the destination, but all were zealous all inquirers. Intense indignation was exfor duty. The vessels were rapidly loaded pressed at the coup de main, but no violence from the landing-place with all the personal was offered to the officer. Having imparted effects of the officers and men, with muni- the information as authorized by Major Antions, provisions, and with the women and derson, he returned to Fort Moultrie to retain children of the post. They then stood out its possession and await the action of the toward Fort Johnson, on James Island, but authorities. It was thus retained to throw brought up at Sumter, where, by the aid of upon the State the responsibility of its seizthe workmen in the fort, the vessels were ure from a United States garrison.

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