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REIGN OF HENRY THE SEVENTH.
he Earl of Richmond at Bosworth.–Battle of Bosworth. The Earl of Richmond
proclaimed King, under the title of Henry VII.—Henry's claims to Royalty.-
Conduct of the Parliament.-Act of Heirship to the Crown.—Henry applies to
Innocent VIII. to obtain from the Holy See an act allowing the legality of his
claims to the throne of England. - The King's tour through the Island. ---Insur-
rection in Yorkshire.-Repression of the Insurrection.—Birth of Arthur, Prince
of Wales.-Appearance of the Pretender, Lambert Simnel.—His reception in
Ireland - He lands at Furness.- Battle at Stoke.-Lambert taken prisoner.-
The Star Chamber.-Taxes decreed by Parliament.—The Affairs of Brittany.
- Declaration of Peace at Etaples.—Perkin Warbeck puts in his claim to the
Crown of England.-His designs defeated and his partizans put to death. He
escapes from prison, is retaken, and put to death.-Execution of the Earl of
Warwick.–Marriage of Prince Arthur with Katharine of Arragon.-Death of
Arthur.—Bull of Julius II. authorizing the marriage of the Infanta with Henry
Prince of Wales.-Avarice of Henry VII.-The Prince of Wales protests against
his marriage with Katharine of Arragon.-Reasons for the protest.-Henry's
character. His two ministers, Empson and Dudley.—Death of Henry VII.
CORONATION OF HENRY VIII.1509-1511.
Accession of Henry VIII.--His character.—The Royal Family.--Henry's Ministers.
-Warham.-Fox.- Howard. - Ruthal.- Herbert. — Poynings. — The King's
marriage.—His letter to the Cardinal de la Rovere.-Coronation. Alteration
of the oath of Henry.-Festivities at Westminster Hall.--Arrest and execu-
tion of Empson and Dudley.—The King's amusements. His favourites.-
Wolsey.--Literature in England at the time of Henry's accession.—Erasmus.-
-Thomas More.—Linacre.-Collet. --The Monks.—The King patronises
EUROPE AT THE ACCESSION OF HENRY VIII.--1509-1512.
Ambition of Venice. -Julius II. determined to reduce that Republic.—Defeat of the
Venetians.—The Pope's plan to expel all Foreigners from Italy.-- Julius unites
with Henry VIII. against Louis XII.-Designs of the King of England against
France.—Dorset sent to Navarre.—Deceived by Ferdinand of Arragon.—The arms
of England unsuccessful at Land and Sea.--Naval Engagement off Brest.
WAR WITH FRANCE.-1510-1512.
Henry continues to be deceived by his allies.—Letter from Leo X. to Henry,
soliciting him to enter into a league against France.—Preparations for War in
England.-Henry lands at Calais.—Battle of the Spurs.—Siege and capture of
Tournai.- War with Scotland.-Battle of Flodden Field, and death of James IV.
PEACE WITH FRANCE.-1513-1515.
Rome separates from the league.—Henry deserted by his allies.— Wolsey endeavours
to disconcert their plans.—Offers, through the medium of the Duke de Longueville,
the hand of the Princess Mary (sister to Henry VIII.) to Louis XII., King of
France.—Their Marriage.- Death of Louis XII.—The Queen's return into
England.- Her marriage with the Duke of Suffolk.—Wolsey nominated Arch-
bishop of York.-Legate a latere.—L »rd High Chancellor.–Some of his acts.-
Erasmus' opinion of Wolsey.
Accession of Francis I. to the throne of France.—His character.--He prepares to
invade Italy.-Schinner preaches a crusade in England against France.-England
refuses to listen to him.—Policy of Wolsey.— Treaty of alliance between England
and France.-Expedition of Francis I. into Italy.- Passage of the Alps.--Arrival
oi the Swiss. - Battle of Marignan
POLICY OF ENGLAND.--1515-1517.
Character of Wolsey.--Maximilian offers the Duchy of Milan to Henry.--His
reasons for refusing it.-The Emperor's plan.--Francis, on being inforined of it,
sends Bonnivet to London.—Treaty between Francis and England. - Restoration
of Tournai.-By what means Francis obtained its restitution.—Conduct of
Death of Maximilian.-Candidates for the Empire.--Intrigues employed by Henry,
Charles, and Francis, to obtain the Imperial Crown.-Crafty conduct of the
English Sovereign.-Charles is elected.-His character.-Opinion of Historians
on Henry's conduct during the election.-Motives for that Monarch's dis-
THE FIELD OF THE CLOTH OF GOLD.-1520.
Francis I. claims the execution of the treaty appointing an interview between the
two sovereigns.-Arrival of Charles V. in England.—His present to Wolsey.-
Henry embarks for Calais.—The Field of the Cloth of Gold.-Conference between
the Kings of England and France.-Tournaments and Festivals.—Plans of Henry
· P. 77
THE EXECUTION OF BUCKINGHAM.-1521.
Buckingham at the Field of the Cloth of Gold.—Reasons for Wolsey's antipathy
to the Duke.- His boundless ambition.—His visits to the Carthusian Monk,
Hopkins.—He 18 denounced, watched, and arrested.—Appears before bis
judges at Westminster Hall, and is copdemned to die on the scaffold. p. 84
HENRY AND LUTHER.--1521.
Luther's revolt against Rome.—Henry determines to defend the Catholic Church.-
The Assertio Septem Sacramentorum.-An account of the work.-The opinions
of Erasmus, Fisher, More, and other learned men on it.-Was it really written
by Henry VIII ?- The Assertio presented by Clark to Leo X.-Henry's letter to
His Holiness.—The king has the title of “Defensor Fidei” conferred on him.-
How Henry testifies his gratitude to the Holy See.
LUTHER AND HENRY.--1521.-1522.
Luther replies to the King of England.-An account of the Monk's pamphlet.-
His insolent language to Henry.-Germany does not endeavour to repair the
insult offered to royalty in the person of the King of England.-Fisher and Sir
Thomas More undertake Henry's defence.-Character of their pamphlets.-
Luther begs Henry's -pardon.—The King's reply. .
INTRIGUES OF WOLSEY.-1521-1522.
Henry plans, under the guidance of Wolsey, a new invasion of France.—The
means adopted by him to violate his oath.-Wolsey goes to Calais to act as a
mediator between Francis and Charles.-Crafty conduct of the Minister. The
Conference broken off and War declared.—Death of Leo X.--Wolsey's intrigues
to arrive at the Papal Chair.-Election of Adrian of Utrecht.
A NEW WAR WITH FRANCE.-1522-1524.
A new League against France.-Means employed by Wolsey to raise subsidies.-
Debates in the House of Commons, in which the Minister takes a part.-More
elected Speaker of the House of Commons.-Supports the project of the Crown.-
The subsidies voted.—Warham's opposition to Wolsey.—The Clergy.-Surrey
invades France, and after a campaign of a few months is obliged to re-embark.-
Death of Adrian VI.-Wolsey's intrigues to obtain the Tiara.—Literary foun.
dations at Oxford and Ipswich.
TREATY OF THE DUKE OF BOURBON WITH ENGLAND.-1523-1524.
The Constable de Bourbon prepares to betray. France. He offers his services to
England.—Henry instructs his ambassadors to treat with that Prince.-The
Constable takes the Oath of Allegiance to the King of England.—The allies
commence their operations against France. The perilous position of Paris.-
She is rescued. The Constable besieges Marseilles.-Francis I. crosses the
Alps.-Battle of Rebec, where Bayard is mortally wounded.-Battle of Pavia.-
Francis taken prisoner.--England summons the Constable to invade France.
Reasons which prevent the Duke's entry.--Anarchy prevails among the Con-
federates.-Henry listens to the proposals of the Regent.—Peace with France.-
To what it is to be attributed.
Birth and family of Anne Boleyn.-Her childhood.-Selected as Maid of Honour
to accompany Mary, sister to Henry VIII., when she went to France.
Anne, in the service of Queen Claude, and Margaret, Duchess of Alençon.
-Her character. She returns to England.-Her intention of marrying Sir
Thomas Percy.—Henry falls in love with her, and conceives the design of
separating from Katharine of Arragon.—The King's pretended remorse.-
imparts his scruples to Wolsey.—The conduct of the Minister. Katharine of
PROJECT OF THE DIVORCE.-1527.
An intrigue concerted between Henry and the Bishop of Tarbes against Katharine.
-The Queen learns that she has been betrayed.-Wolsey's share in the matter
of the Divorce.—The Minister sent to France.—The pretext under which bis exile
is coloured.—Wolsey deceived by the King.–Fails in his negotiation of marriage
with Margaret and Renee.-Returns to England.-His interview with Henry.-
The King's book on the question of the Divorce.- His letter to his Mistress.
Did Anne yield her honour ?—Expedients adopted by Wolsey.—The poet
THE SACKING OF ROME.--1527.
Che Imperialists march on Rome.-Clement VII.— The Pope's alarm at the approach
of Bourbon.—The English urge him to defend himself.—Why? - The Constable
arrives under the walls of Rome, and encamps on Monte Mario.-Siege of the
city.-Death of Bourbon.-Sacking of Rome.-Behaviour of England towards
the Holy See.—The Plague breaks out in Rome.—Clement capitulates.—He
flies to Orvieto.-In what way he revenges himself on his enemies.
THE DECRATAL.- 1528.
Wolsey's fresh anxieties.—He consults theologians and turns towards Rome. His
agents with the Pope.-George Casale tries, but in vain, to hribe the Cardinal dei
Santi Quatri.-A double commission signed by Clement VII.-They do not give
satisfaction at London.-Intrigues recommence.—New agents sent to England.
-Edward Fox.–Gardiner.-Stafile.:- The Decretal.—The Plague in England. -
Katharine, Henry, Anne Boleyn, and Wolsey, during the epidemic.-Letters from
Anne to the Chancellor.
Arrival of Campeggio in England.—His visit to the King and Queen.--Katharine's
behaviour to the Legates.-lew intrigues on the part of Henry at Rome. -
Mission of Brian and Pierre Vannes.—Gardiner threatens the Pope with a schism
in England. The Legates proceed to the trial.—Katharine and Henry cited
before the Ecclesiastical tribunal.- Katharine declared contumacious.-Incidents
connected with the trial. The Queen appeals to the Pope.
• p. 167