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and torches on each side. After us came twelve of the general's men, with old Spar nish matchlocks, marching four in a row. After them about forty lances, and behind them as many with great swords, marching all in order. After them came abundance only with creffets by their fides, who marched up close without any order. When we came near the sultan's house, the sultan and his men met us, and we wheeled off to let them pass. The sultan had three pageants went before him : in the first pageant were four of his sons, who were about ten or eleven years old ; they had gotten abundance of finall stones, which they roguishly threw about on the people's heads : in the next were four young maidens, nieces to the sultan, being his sister's daughters; and in the third, there was three of the sultan's children, not above six years old. The sultan himself followed next, being carried in his couch, which was not like your 112dian palankin, but open, and very little and ordinary. A multitude of people came after, without any order : but as soon as he was past by, the general and Captain Swan, and all our men, closed in just behind the sultan, and so all marched together to the general's house. We came thither between ten and eleven o'clock, where the greatest part of the company were immediately dismissed; but the sultan and his children, and his nieces, and some other persons of quality, entered the general's house. They were met at the head of the stairs by the general's women, who with a great deal of refpect conducted them into the house. Captain Swan, and we that were with him, followed after. It was not long before the general caused his dancing-women to enter the room and divert the company with that pastime. I had forgot to tell you that they have none but vocal music here, by what I could learn, except only a row of a kind of bells without clappers, fixteen in number, and their weight increasing gradually from about three to ten pound weight. These are set in a row on a table in the general's house, where for seven or eight days together before the circumcifion day, they were struck each with a little stick for the biggest part of the day, making a great noise, and they ceased that morning. So these dancing-women fung themselves, and danced to their own music. After this the general's women, and the sultan's sons, and his nieces, danced. Two of the sultan's nieces were about eighteen or nineteen years old, the other two were three or four years younger. These young ladies were very richly dressed, with loose garments of silk, and small coronets on their heads. They were much fairer than any women I did ever see there, and very well featured; and
tioned. When the ladies had very well diverted themselves and the company with dancing, the general caused us to fire some sky-rockets, that were made by his and Captain Swan's order purposely for this night's solemnity; and after that the sultan and his retinue went away, with a few attendants, and we all broke up: and thus ended this day's folemnity. But the boys, being sore with their amputation, went straddling for a fortnight after.
They are not, as I said before, very curious, or strict in observing any days, or times of particular devotions, except it be Ramdam time, as we call it. The Ramdam time was then in August, as I take it, for it was shortly after our arrival here. In this time they fast all day, and about seven o'clock in the evening they spend near an hour in prayer. Towards the latter end of their prayer they loudly invoke their prophet for about a quarter of an hour, both old and young bawling out very strangely, as if they intended to fright him out of his fleepiness or neglect of them. “After their prayer is ended, they spend some time in feasting before they take their repose. Thus they do every day for a whole month at least ; for sometimes it is two or three days longer
before the Ramdam ends : for it begins at the new moon, and lasts till they see the
A main part of their religion consists in washing often, to keep themselves from
And now I am on this subject, I cannot omit a story concerning the general. He
CHAP. III. — Their coasting along the Ile of Mindanao, from a Bay on the East Side to
Of the Worms here and elsewhere. - Of Captain Swan. -Raja Laut, the General's
PHILIPPINES. about one of their Necks. — The main Part of the Crew go away with the Ship, leav. ing Captain Swan and some of his Men: several others poisoned there.
HAVING in the two last chapters given some account of the natural, civil, and religious state of Mindanao, I shall now go on with the prosecution of our affairs during our stay there.
It was in a bay on the north-east side of the island that we came to an anchor, as hath been said. We lay in this bay but one night, and part of the next day. Yet there we got speech with some of the natives, who by signs made us to understand, that the city of Mindanao was on the west side of the island. We endeavoured to per. suade one of them to go with us to be our pilot, but he would not : therefore in the afternoon we loosed from hence, steering again to the south-east, having the wind at fouth-west. When we came to the south-east end of the island Mindanao, we saw two small islands about three leagues distant from it. We might have passed between them and the main island, as we learnt since; but not knowing them, nor what dangers we might encounter there, we chose rather to sail to the eastward of them ; but meeting very strong westerly winds we got nothing forward in many days. In this time we firit saw the islands Meangis, which are about fixteen leagues distant from the Mindanao, bearing south-east. I shall have occasion to speak more of them hereafter.
The 4th day of July we got into a deep bay, four leagues north-west from the two small islands before mentioned. But the night before, in a violent' tornado, our bark being unable to bear any longer, bore away, which put us in some pain for fear she was overset, as we had like to have been ourselves. We anchored on the south-west side of the bay, in fifteen fathoms water, about a cable's length from shore. Here we were forced to shelter ourselves from the violence of the weather, which was so boisterous with rains and tornados and a strong westerly wind, that we were very glad to find this place to anchor in, being the only shelter on this fide from the west winds.
This bay is not above two miles wide at the mouth, but farther in it is three leagues wide, and seven fathoms deep, running north-north-west. There is a good depth of water about four or five leagues in, but rocky foul ground for about two leagues in from the mouth on both sides of the bay, except only in that place where we lay. About three leagues in from the mouth, on the eastern side, there are fair sandy bays, and very good anchoring in four, five and six fathoms. The land on the east side is high, mountainous and woody, yet very well watered with small brooks, and there is one river large enough for canoes to enter. On the west side of the bay the land is of a mean height with a large savannah bordering on the sea, and stretching from the mouth of the bay a great way to the westward.
This savannah abounds with long grass, and it is plentifully stocked with deer. The adjacent woods are a covert for them in the heat of the day; but mornings and evenings they feed in the open plains as thick as in our parks in England. I never saw any where such plenty of wild deer, though I have met with them in several parts of America, both in the north and south seas.
The deer live here pretty peaceably and unmolested, for there are no inhabitants on that side of the bay. We visited this savannah every morning, and killed as many deer as we pleafed, sometimes fixteen or eighteen in a day; and we did eat nothing but venison all the time we stayed there.
We saw a great many plantations by the sides of the mountains, on the east side of the bay, and we went to one of them, in hopes to learn of the inhabitants whereabouts the city was, that we might not over-fail in the night, but they fled from us.
We lay here till the twelfth day before the winds abated of their fury, and then we failed from hence, directing our course to the westward. In the morning we had a land-wind at north. At eleven o'clock the sea breeze came at west just in our teeth, but it being fair weather we kept on our way, turning and taking the advantage of the land-breezes by night and the sea-breezes by day.
Being now past the south-east part of the island we coasted down on the south side, and we saw abundance of canoes a fishing, and now and then a small village. Neither were these inhabitants afraid of us, as the former, but came aboard ; yet we could not understand them nor they us but by figns: and when we mentioned the word Mindanao they would point towards it.
The 18th day of July we arrived before the river of Mindanao, the mouth of which lies in latitude 6 degrees 22 minutes north, and is laid in 231 degrees 12 minutes longitude west, from the Lizard in England. We anchored right against the river in fifteen fathom water, clear hard sand; about two miles from the shore, and three or four miles from a small island that lay without us to the southward. We fired seven or nine guns, I remember not well which, and were answered again with three from the shore, for which we gave one again. Immediately after our coming to an anchor, Raja Laut and one of the Sultan's fons came off in a canoe, being rowed with ten oars, and demanded in Spanish what we were, and from whence we came ? Mr. Smith (he who was taken prisoner at Leon in Mexico) answered in the same language that we were English, and that we had been a great while out of England. They told us that we were wel. come, and asked us a great many questions about England; especially concerning our East India merchants, and whether we were sent by them to settle a factory here? Mr. Smith told them that we came hither only to buy provision. They seemed a little discontented when they understood that we were not come to settle among them; for they had heard of our arrival on the east side of the island a great while before, and entertained hopes that we were sent purposely out of England hither to settle a trade with them, which it should seem they are very desirous of: for Captain Goodlud had been here not long before to treat with them about it ; and when he went away told them, as they said, that in short time they might expect an ambassador from England to make a full bargain with them.
Indeed, upon mature thoughts, I should think we could not have done better than to have complied with the desire they seemed to have of our settling here ; and to have taken up our quarters among them. For as thereby we might better have consulted our own profit and satisfaction, than by the other loose roving way of life ; so it might probably have proved of public benefit to our nation, and been a means of introducing an English settlement and trade, not only here, but through several of the fpice-islands which lie in its neighbourhood.
For the islands Meangis, which I mentioned in the beginning of this chapter, lie within twenty leagues of Mindanao. These are three small islands that abound with gold and cloves, if I may credit my author, Prince Jeoly, who was born on one of them, and was at that time a fave in the city of Mindanao. He might have been purchased by us of his master for a small matter (as he was afterwards by Mr. Moody, who came hither to trade, and laded a ship with clove-bark), and by transporting him home to his own country, we might have gotten a trade there. But of Prince Jeoly I shall speak more hereafter. These islands are as yet probably unknown to the Dutch, who, as I said before, endeavour to engross all the spice into their own hands.
There was another opportunity offered us here of settling on another spice-island that was very well inhabited : for the inhabitants fearing the Dutch, and understand. ing that the English were settling at Mindanao, their Sultan fent his nephew to Minda
nao while we were there to invite us thither. Captain Swan conferred with him about it divers times, and I do believe he had some inclination to accept the offer, and I am sure most of the men were for it; but this never came to a head, for want of a true understanding between Captain Swan and his men, as may be declared hereafter.
Beside the benefit which might accrue from this trade with Meangis, and other the fpice.islands, the Philippine islands themselves, by a little care and industry, might have afforded us a very beneficial trade, and all these trades might have been managed from Mindanao, by settling there first. For that island lieth very convenient for trading either to the spice-islands, or to the rest of the Philippine islands ; since as its soil is much of the same nature with either of them, so it lies as it were in the centre of the gold and spice trade in these parts; the islands north of Mindanao abounding most in gold, and those south of Meangis in spice.
As the island Mindanao lies very convenient for trade so considering its distance, the way thither may not be over long and tiresome. The course that I would choose should be to set out of England about the latter end of August, and to pass round Terra del Fuego, and so stretching over towards new Holland, coast it along that fhore till I came near to Mindanao, or first I would coast down near the American fhore, as far as I found convenient, and then direct my course accordingly for the island. By this I should avoid coming near any of the Dutch settlements, and be sure to meet always with a constant brisk easterly trade-wind, after I was once past Terra del Fuego. Whereas in passing about the Cape of Good Hope, after you are shot over the East Indian occean and are to come to the islands, you must pass through the Streights of Malacca or Sandy, or else some other streights east from Java, where you will be sure to meet with contrary winds, go on which side of the equator you please; and this would require ordinarily feven or eight months for the voyage, but The other I should hope to perform in fix or seven at most. In your return from thence also you must observe the same rule as the Spaniards do in going from Manila to Acapulco; only as they run towards the north pole for variable winds, so you must run to the southward, till you meet with a wind that will carry you over to Terra del Fuego. There are places enough to touch at for refreshment, either going or coming. You may touch going thither on either side of Terra Patagonia, or, if you please, at the Gallapagoes Islands, where there is refreshment enough; and returning you may probably touch fomewhere on New Holland, and so make some profitable discovery in these places without going out of your way. And to speak my thoughts freely, I believe it is owing to the neglect of this easy way that all that vast tract of Terra Australis which bounds the South Sea is yet undiscovered : those that cross that sea seeming to design some business on the Peruvian or Mexican coast, and so leaving that at a distance. To confirm which, I shall add what Captain Davis told me lately, that after his departure from us at the haven of Ria Lexa, (as is mentioned in the eight chapter,) he went after several traverses to the Gallapagoes, and that standing thence southward for wind, to bring him about Terra del Fuego, in the latitude of twenty-seven south, about five-hundred leagues from Copayapo, on the coast of Chili, he saw a small fandy island just by him ; and that they saw to the westward of it a long tract of pretty high land, tending away towards the north. west out of sight. This might probably be the coast of Terra Australis Incognita.
But to return to Mindanao : as to the capacity we were then in, of settling ourselves at Mindanao, although we were not sent out of any such defign of settling, yet we were as well provided or better, considering all circumstances, than if we had. For there was scarce any useful trade but some or other of us understood it. We had fawyers, carpenters, joiners, brickmakers, bricklayers, shoemakers, tailors, &c.