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evil, &c. Each of these, therefore, must be separated by a short pause; and all of them, forming only one compound nominative case, must, according to Rule 11. be separated by a short pause from the verb. A similar

pause occurs in the following sentence between the portions separated by commas.

He went into the cavern, found the instruments, hewed down the trees, and in one day put the vessels in a condition for sailing.

Telemachus. Rule VIII. Several adjectives belonging to one substantive, must be separated from each other by a pause.

EXAMPLE. A polite, active, and supple behaviour, is necessary to succeed in life.

In case the substantive precede the adjectives, it must be separated from them by another pause.

A behaviour, polite, active, and supple, is necessary to succeed in life.

Rule IX. Several adverbs belonging to one verb, or several verbs belonging in the same manner to one adverb, are separated by a pause; and in the first case, if the verb precede the adverbs, another pause must intervene between them.

EXAMPLES. To love, wisely, rationally, and prudently is, in the opinion of lovers, not to love at all.

To eat, drink, and sleep moderately, is greatly conducive to health.

Rule X. Whatever words are put absolutely, forming what may be called the ablative absolute, must be separated from the rest by a short pause.

EXAMPLES. If a man borrow ought of his neighbor, and it be hurt or die, the owner thereof not being with it, he shall surely make it good.

Old Testament. Here the owner thereof not being with it, is the phrase called the ablative absolute; and this, like a parenthesis, must be separated from the rest of the sentence by a short pause on each side.

God, from the mount of Sinai, whose gray top
Shall tremble, he descending, will himself
In thunder, lightning, and loud trumpets' sound

Ordain them laws. Milton. Here, he descending, neither governs nor is governed by any other part of the sentence, and is said to be in the ablative absolute; and this independence musi be marked by a short pause before and after the clause.

Rule XI. Two nouns in apposition, provided either be accompanied by dependent words, must be separated by a pause.

When first thy sire, to send on earth
Virtue, bis darling child, designed;
To thee he gave the heavenly birth

And bade thee form ber infant mind. Gray. Here the word Virtue, and the following member, may be said to be in apposition, and must be divided by a short pause.

Hence, where two titles are applied to the same person, and the latter consists of several terms, a short pause is necessary between them; as, Paul, the apostle of the Gentiles; George, king of Great Britain, France, and Ireland.

RULE XII. Who and which, when in the nominative case, and the pronoun thai, when used for who or which, require a short pause before them.

EXAMPLES. A man can never be obliged to submit to any power, unless be can be satisfied, who is the person, who has a right to exercise it.

You'll rue the time,
That clogs me with this answer. Shakspeare.
Nothing they but dust can show,

Or bones, that hasten to be so. Cowley.
Saints, that taught, and led the way to Heaven. Tickel.
Rule XIII. When that is used as a conjunction, it
ought always to be preceded by a short pause,

EXAMPLES. I must therefore desire the reader tn remember, that by the pleasures of the imagination, I mean only such pleasures as arise originally from sight. Spectator.

Rule XIV. Prepositions and conjunctions are more united with the words they precede than with those they follow ; and consequently, if it be necessary to pause, the preposition and conjunction ought to be clussed with the succeeding words, and not with the preceding.


I will not let thee go, except thou bless me. Here the conjunction except, naturally associates itself with the latter part of the sentence, and requires a short pause before it.

This let him know,
Lest, wilfully transgressing, he pretend

Surprisal. Millon. In this example, the conjunction lest is very properly separated from the preceding words by a short pause at know, and as the parenthetic words wilfully trangressing come between the conjunction, and the pronoun to which it belongs, the conjunction has very properly a pause

both before and after it. People expect in a small essay, that a point of humour should be worked up, in all its parts, and a subject touched upon, in its most essential articles, without the repetitions, tautologies, and enlargements, that are indulged to longer labours. Spect. No. 124. In this sentence the preposition up is separated from in, because it enters into the composition of the verb work, as to work up forms one complex verb; the same may be observed of the preposition upon, in the next clause of the sentence. An exception to this rule will be found in the following.

Rule XV. When words are placed either in opposition to, or in opposition with each other, the words so placed require to be distinguished by a pause.

EXAMPLES. The pleasures of the imagination, taken in their full extent, are not so gross as tuose of sense, nor so refined as those of the understanding

In this example we shall find all writers and printers agree in placing but one point between the four contrasted

parts, and this point is at sense : here it must be owned, is the principal pause; but a short pause likewise at gross, and another at refined, convey more forcibly and distinctly every part of the sentence.

The necessity of distinguishing opposite or contrasted parts in a sentence, will sometinies oblige us to separate words that are the most intimately united.

EXAMPLES. To suppose the zodiac and planets to be efficient of, and antecedent to, i bomselves, would be absurd. Bentley. Here the prepositions of and to are in opposition to each other, and both connected intimately with the word themselves; but this connexion does not preclude the necessity of a pause after each, to show their distinct and specific relation to their governing words, and their equal relation to the word themselves. Indeed, the words of and to, in this sentence, are emphatical, from that exactness and precision, which the argument seems to require.

It is objected by readers of history, that the battles in those narrations are scarce ever to be understood. This misfortune is to be ascribed to the ignorance of historians, in the methods of drawing up, changing the forms of a battalia, and the enemy retreating from, as well as approaching to, the charge. Spectator, No. 428.

The pretexts were, his having invaded and overcome many states that were in alliance with, and under the protection of Rome.

Goldsmith's Rom. Hist. Though a pause seems admissible both after from and to in this sentence, yet the opposition between these propositions seems as much marked by emphasis as by rest: and in examples of this kind it seems necessary to pause a smaller time after the last preposition than after the first.

Rule XVI. When a sentence consists of two parts, connected by a conjunction, these parts must be separated by a pause.

EXAMPLES. Innocence confers tranquillity on the mind, and leaves it open to every pleasing sensation.

1 Sometimes the two parts commence with corresponding conjunctions, as in the following sentence.

As we cannot discern the shadow moving along the dial-plate, so the advances we make in knowledge are only perceivable by the distance gone over. A sentence of this sort, where the first part depends on the latter for sense, is called a Direct Period.

Sometimes the latter conjunction is understood.


As in my speculations I have endeavoured to extinguish passion and prejudice, I am still desirous of doing some good in this particular.

Here the word so, answering to as, is implied by the sense, and the pause of course falls at the comma.

Where the first part forms sense, but is modified by the last, it is called an Inverted Periud.


Many things are believed, though they exceed the capacity of our wits.

Where the first part is independent of the second, they constitute a Loose Sentence.

EXAMPLE. Persons of good taste expect to be pleased, at the same time they are informed; and think that the best sense always deserves the best language.


INFLECTIONS OF THE VOICE. Besides the pauses wbich indicate a greater or less separation of the parts of a sentence and its conclusion, there are certain inflexions of voice accompanying these pauses, which are equally necessary to the sense; these

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