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nounced as if written Skedius, Skeria, &c.; and c before n in the Latin prænomen Cneus or Cnaus is mute; so in Cnopus, Cnosus, &c. and before t in Cteatus, and g before n in Gniduspronounced Nopus, Nosus, Teatus, and Nidus.
13. At the beginning of Greek words we frequently find the uncombinable consonants MN, TM, &c, as Mnemosyne, Mnesidamus, Mneus, Mnesteus, Tmolus, &c. These are to be pronounced with the first consonant mute, as if written Nemosyne, Nesidamus, Neus, Nesteus, Molus, &c, in the same manner as we pronounce the words Bdellium, Pneumatic, Gn mon, Mnemo, nics, &c, without the initial consonant. The same may be ob, served of the Ć hard like K, when it comes before T ; as Ctesiphon, Ctesippus, &c. Some of these words we see sometimes written with an e or i after the first consonant, as Menesteus, Timolus, &c, and then the initial consonant is pronounced.
14. Ph, followed by a consonant, is mute, as Phthia, Phthiotis, pronounced Thia, Thistis, in the same manner as the natu, ralised Greek word Phthisick and Tisick.
15. Ps:-p is mute also in this combination, as in Psyche, Psammetichus, &c. pronounced Syke, Sammeticus, &c.
16. P1, p is mute in words beginning with these letters when followed by a vowel, as Ptolemy, Pterilas, &c. pronounced Tolemy, Terilas, &c.; but when followed by 1, the t is heard, as in Tleptolemus : for though we have no words of our own with these initial consonants, we have many words that end with them, and they are certainly pronounced. The same may be observed of the z in Zmilaces.
17. The letters S, X, and Z, require but little observation, being generally pronounced as in pure English words. It may however be remarked, that s, at the end of words, preceded by any of the vowels but e, has its pure hissing sound; as mas, dis, os, mus, &c.-but when e precedes, it goes into the sound of z; as pes, Thersites, vates, &c. It may also be observed, that when it ends a word preceded by r or n, it has the sound of z. Thus the letter s in mens, Mars, mors, &c. has the same sound as in English words hens, stars, wars, &c. X,
when beginning a word or syllable, is pronounced like z;, as Xerxes, Xenophon, &c. are pronounced Zerkzes, Zenophon, &c. Z is uniformly pronounced as in English words : thus the z. in Zeno and Zeugma is pronounced as we hear it in zeal,
Rules for ascertaining the English Quantity of Greek and Latin
18. It may at first be observed, that in words of two sylla. bles, with but one consonant in the middle, whatever be the quantity of the vowel in the first syllable in Greek or Latin, we always make it long in English: thus Crates the philosopher, and crates a hurdle; decus honour, and dedo to give ; ovo to triumph, and ovum an egg ; Numa the legislator, and Numen the divinity, have the first vowel always sounded equally long by an English speaker, although in Latin the first vowel in the first word of each of these pairs is short,
19. On the contrary, words of three syllables, with the ac. cent on the first and with but one consonant after the first syle lable, have that syllable pronounced short, let the Greek or Latin quantity be what it will : thus regulus and remora, mimicus and minium, are heard with the first vowel short in English pron nunciation, though the two first words of each pair have their first syllables long in Latin; and the u in fumigo and fugito is pronounced long in both words, though in Latin the last u is short. This rule is never broken but when the first syllable is followed by e or i, followed by another vowel: in this case the vowel in the first syllable is long, except that vowel be i : thus lamia, genius, Libya, doceo, cupio, have the accent on the first syllable, and this syllable is pronounced long in every word bug Libya, though in the original it is equally short in all.
20. It must have frequently occurred to those who instruct youth, that though the quantity of the accented syllable of long proper names has been easily conveyed, yet that the quantity of
the preceding unaccented syllables has occasioned some em barrassment. An appeal to the laws of our own language would soon have removed the perplexity, and enabled us to pronounce the initial unaccented syllables with as much decision as the others. Thus every accented antepenultimate vowel but u, even when followed by one consonant only, is, in our pronunciation of Latin, as well as in English, short: thus fabula, separo, diligo, nobilis, cucumis, have the first vowels pronounced as in the English words, capital, celebrale, simony, solitude, luculent, in direct opposition to the Latin quantity, which makes every antepenultimate vowel in all these words but the last long; and this we pronounce long, though short in Latin. But if a semi-consonant diphthong succeed, then every such vowel is long but i in our pronunciation of both languages; and Euganeus, Eugenia, filius, folium, dubia, have the Towel in the antepenultimate syllable pronounced exactly as in the English words satiate, menial, delirious, notorious, penurious; though they are all short in Latin but the i, which we pronounce short, though in the Latin it is long.
21. The same rule of quantity takes place in those syllables which have the secondary accent; for as we pronounce lamentation, demonstration, diminution, domination, lucubration, with every vowel in the first syllable short but u, so we pronounce the same vowels in the same manner in lamentatio, demonstratio, diminutio, dominatio, and lucubratio : but if a semi-consonant diphthong succeed the secondary accent, as in Ariovistus, Heliodorus, Gabinianus, Herodianus, and Volusianus, every vowel preceding the diphthong is long but i; just as we should pronounce these vowels in the English words amiability, mediatorial, propitiation, excoriation, centuriator, &c. For the nature of the secondary accent, see Principles prefixed to the Critical · Pronouncing Dictionary, No. 544.
22. But to reduce these rules into a smaller compass, that they may be more easily comprehended and remembered, it may be observed, that as we always shorten every antepenul. timate vowel with the primary accent but u, unless followed by
a semi-consonant diphthong, though this antepenultimate vowel is often long in Greek and Latin, as Æschylus, Æschines, &c.; and the antepenultimate i, even though be followed by such a diphthong; as Eleusinia, Ocrisia, &c.-so we shorten the first syllable of Æsculapius, Ænobarbus, &c. because the first sylla. ble of both these words has the secondary accent: but we pronounce the same vowels long in Ethiopia, Agialeus, Hali. artus, &c. because this accent is followed by a semi-consonant diphthong.
23. This rule sometimes holds good where a mute and liquid intervene, and determines the first syllable of Adrian, Adriatic, &c. to be long like ay, and not short like add: and it is on this analogical division of the words, so little understood or attended to, that a perfect and a consistent pronunciation of them depends. It is this analogy that deterinines the first u to be long in stupidus, and the y short in clypea, though both are short in the Latin ; and the o in the first syllable of Coriolanus, which is short in Latin, to be long in English.
24. The necessity of attending to the quantity of the vowel in the accented syllable has sometimes produced a division of words in the following vocabulary that does not seem to convey the actual pronunciation. Thus the words Sulpitius, Anicium, Artemisium, &c. being divided into Sulpit' i-us, A-nic'i-um, Ar-te-mis'i-um, &c. we fancy the syllable after the accent de. prived of a consonant closely united with it in sound, and which, from such a union, derives an aspirated sound equivalent to sh. But as the sound of t, c, or s, in this situation, is so generally understood, it was thought more eligible to divide the words in this manner, than into Sul-pi'ti-us, A-ni'ci-un, Ar-temi'si-um, as in the latter mode the i wants its shortening consonant, and might, by some speakers, be pronounced, as it generally is in Scotland, like ee. The same may be observed of and g when they end a syllable, and are followed by e or i, as in Ac-e-ra'tus, Ac-i-da' li-a, Tig-el-li'nis, Teg'y-ra, &c. where the c and g ending a syllable, we at first sight think them to have their hard sound; but, by observing the succeeding vowel,
we soon perceive them to be soft, and only made to end a syl. lable in order to determine the shortness of the vowel which precedes,
25. The general rule therefore of quantity indicated by the syllabication adopted in the vocabulary is, that when a consonant ends a syllable the vowel is always short, whether the accent be on it or not; and that when a vowel ends a syllable with the accent on it, it is always long: that the vowel u, when it ends a syllable, is long whether the accent be on it or not, and that the vowel i (3) (4) when it ends a syllable without the accent, is pronounced like e ; but if the syllable be final, it has its long open sound as if the accent were on it: and the same may be observed of the letter y,
Rules for placing the Accent of Greek and Latin Proper Names.
26. Words of two syllables, either Greek or Latin, whatever be the quantity in the original, have, in English pronunciation, the accent on the first syllable: and if a single consonant come between two vowels, the consonant goes to the last syllable, and the vowel in the first is long ; as Cate, Ceres, Comus, &c. See Principles of English Pronunciation prefixed to the Critical Pronouncing Dictionary. No. 503, and the word Drama.
27. Polysyllables, adopted whole from the Greek or Latin into English, have generally the accent of the Latin : that is, if the penultimate be long the accent is on it, as Severus, Democedes, &c. į if short, the accent is on the antepenultimate, as Demosthenes, Aristophanes, Posthumus, &c, See Introduction.
23. When Greek or Latin Proper Names are anglicised, either by an alteration of the letters, or by cutting off the latter syllables, the accent of the original, as in appellatives under the same predicament, is transferred nearer to the beginning of the word. Thus Proserpina has the accent on the second