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may increase the pleasures of it should be regarded; and every action or word that is unfair, disrespectful, or that in any way may give uneasiness, should be avoided, as contrary to the immediate intention of both the players, which is to pass the time agreeably. Therefore, first, if it is agreed to play according to the strict rules, then those rules are to be exactly observed by both parties, and should not be insisted on for one side, while deviated from by the other, for this is not equitable. Secondly, if it is agreed not to observe the rules exactly, but one party demánds indulgences, he should then be as willing to allow them to the other. Thirdly, no false move should ever be made to extricate yourself out of difficulty, or to gain an advantage. There can be no pleasure in playing with a person once detected in such unfair practice. Fourthly, if your adversary is long in playing, you ought not to hurry him, or express any uneasiness at his delay. You should not sing, nor whistle, nor look at your watch, nor take up a book to read, nor make a tapping with your feet on the floor, or with your fingers on the table, nor do anything that may disturb his attention. For all these things displease; and they do not show your skill in playing, but your craftiness or your rudeness. Fifthly, you ought not to endeavor to amuse and deceive your adversary, by pretending to have made bad moves, and saying that you have now lost the game, in order to make him secure and careless, and inattentive to your schemes; for this is fraud and deceit, not skill in the game. Sixthly, you must not, when you have gained a victory, use any triumphing or insulting expression, nor show too much pleasure; but endeavor to console your adversary, and make him less dissatisfied with himself, by every kind of civil expression that may be used with truth, such as, “You understand the game better than I, but you are a little inattentive;” or, “You play too fast;” or, “You had the best of the game, but something happened to divert your thoughts, and that turned it in my favor.” Seventhly, if you are a spectator while others play, observe the most perfect silence. For, if you give advice, you offend both parties, -him against whom you give it, because it may cause the loss of his game; him in whose favor you give it, because, though it be good, and he follows it, he loses the pleasure he might have had, if you had permitted him to think until it had occurred to himself. Even after a move or moves, you must not, by replacing the pieces, show how they might have been placed better; for that displeases, and may occasion disputes and doubts about their true situation. All talking to the players lessens or diverts their attention, and is therefore unpleasing. Nor should you give the least hint to either party, by any kind of noise or motion. If you do, you are unworthy to be a spectator. If you have a mind to exercise or show your judgment, do it in playing your own game, when you have an opportunity, - not in criticizing, or meddling with, or counselling the play of others.

É. if the game is not to be played rigorously, according to the rules above mentioned, then moderate your desire of victory over your adversary, and be pleased with one over yourself. Snatch not eagerly at every advantage offered by his unskilfulness or inattention; but point out to him kindly that by such a move he places or leaves a piece in danger and unsupported ; that by another he will put his king in a perilous situation, &c. By this generous civility (so opposite to the unfairness above forbidden) you may, indeed, happen to lose the game to your opponent; but you will win what is better, his esteem, his respect, and his affection, together with the silent approbation and good-will of impartial spectators.


1. AND it came to pass, after these things, that Abraham sat in the door of his tent about the going down of the sun. 2. And behold a man, bowed with age, came from the way of the wilderness, leaning on a staff. 3. And Abraham rose and met him, and said, “Turn in, I pray thee, and wash thy feet, and tarry all night, and thou shalt arise early in the morning and go on thy way.” 4. But the man said, “Nay, for I will abide under this tree.” 5. And Abraham pressed him greatly; so he turned, and they went into the tent, and Abraham baked unleavened bread, and they did eat. 6. And when Abraham saw that the man blessed not God, he aid unto him, “Wherefore dost thou not worship the most high God, creator of heaven and earth 2" 7. And the man answered and said, “I do not worship the God thou speakest of neither do I call upon his name; for I have made to myself a god, which abideth always in my house, and provideth me with all things.” 8. And Abraham's zeal was kindled against the man, and he arose and drove him forth with blows into the wilderness. 9. And at midnight God called upon Abraham, saying, “Abraham, where is the stranger ?” 10. And Abraham answered and said, “Lord, he would not worship thee, neither would he call upon thy name; therefore I have driven him out before my face into the wilderness.” 11. And God said, “Have I borne with him these hundred ninety and eight years, and clothed him, notwithstanding his rebellion against me; and couldst not thou, that art thyself a sinner, bear with him one night?” 12. And Abraham said, “Let not the anger of the Lord wax hot against his servant; lo, I have sinned; forgive me, I pray thee.” 13. And Abraham arose, and went forth into the wilderness, and sought diligently for the man, and found him, and returned with him to the tent; and when he had entreated him kindly, he sent him away on the morrow with gifts. 14. And God spake unto Abraham, saying, “For this thy sin shall thy seed be afflicted four hundred years in a strange land. 15. “But for thy repentance will I deliver them; and they shall come forth with power and gladness of heart, and with much substance.”*

* * The above parable was published by Lord Kames, in his “Sketches of the History of Man,” with the following remark in relation to it : “It was communicated to me by Dr. Franklin, of Philadelphia, a man who makes a great figure in the learned world, and who would still make a greater figure for benevolence and candor, were virtue as much regarded in this declining age as knowledge.” An absurd charge of plagiarism was brought against Franklin because of this parable, published without his knowledge, and for which he had never claimed originality. In a letter dated November 2, 1789, to Benjamin Waughan, he says : “The truth is, that I never published the parable, and never claimed more credit from it than what related to the style, and the addition of the concluding threatening and promise. The publishing of it by Lord Kames, without my consent, deprived me of a good deal of amusement, which I used to take in reading it by heart out of any Bible, and obtaining the remarks of the scripturians upon it, which were sometimes very diverting : not but that it is in itself, on account of the importance of its moral, well worth being made known to all mankind.” The substance of the story is as old as the day of the Persian poet Saadi. It is also related

by Jeremy Taylor.


1. IN those days there was no worker of iron in all the land. And the merchants of Midian passed by with their camels, bearing spices, and myrrh, and balm, and wares of iron. 2. And Reuben bought an axe of the Ishmaelite merchants, which he prized highly, for there was none in his father's house. 3. And Simeon said unto Reuben his brother, “Lend me, I pray thee, thine axe.” But he refused, and would not. 4. And Levi also said unto him, “My brother, lend me, I pray thee, thine axe;” and he refused him also. 5. Then came Judah unto Reuben, and entreated him, saying, “Lo, thou lovest me, and I have always loved thee; do not refuse me the use of thine axe.” 6. But Reuben turned from him, and refused him likewise. 7. Now it came to pass that Reuben hewed timber on the bank of the river, and his axe fell therein, and he could by no means find it. 8. But Simeon, Levi and Judah, had sent a messenger after the Ishmaelites with money, and had bought for themselves each an axe. 9. Then came Reuben unto Simeon, and said, “Lo, I have lost mine axe, and my work is unfinished; lend me thine, I pray thee.” 10. And Simeon answered him, saying, “Thou wouldst not lend me thine axe, therefore will I not lend thee mine.” 11. Then he went unto Levi, and said unto him, “My brother, thou knowest my loss and my necessity; lend me, I pray thee, thine axe.” 12. And Levi reproached him, saying, “Thou wouldst not lend me thine axe when I desired it; but I will be better than thou, and will lend thee mine.” 13. And Reuben was grieved at the rebuke of Levi, and, being ashamed, turned from him, and took not the axe, but sought his brother Judah. 14. And, as he drew near, Judah beheld his countenance as it were covered with grief and shame; and he prevented him, saying, “My brother, I know thy loss; but why should it trouble thee ? Lo, have I not an axe that will serve both thee and me? Take it, I pray thee, and use it as thine own.” 15. And Reuben fell on his neck, and kissed him, with tears, saying, “Thy kindness is great, but thy goodness in forgiving me is greater. Thou art indeed my brother, and whilst I live will I surely love thee.”

16. And Judah said, “Let us also love our other brethren; behold, are we not all of one blood 2 ” 17. And Joseph saw these things, and reported them to his father Jacob. 18. And Jacob said, “Reuben did wrong, but he repented; Simeon also did wrong; and Levi was not altogether blameless. 19. “But the heart of Judah is princely. Judah hath the Soul of a king. His father's children shall bow down before him, and he shall rule over his brethren.”


You may remember, my dear friend, that when we lately spent that happy day in the delightful garden and sweet society of the Moulin Joly, I stopped a little in one of our walks, and stayed some time behind the company. We had been shown numberless skeletons of a kind of little fly, called an ephemera, whose successive generations, we were told, were bred and expired within the day. I happened to see a living company of them on a leaf, who appeared to be engaged in conversation. You know I understand all the inferior animal tongues. My too great application to the study of them is the best excuse I can give for the little progress I have made in your charming language. I listened, through curiosity, to the discourse of these little creatures; but, as they, in their national vivacity, spoke three or four together, I could make but little of their conversation. I found, however, by some broken expressions that I heard now and then, they were disputing warmly on the merits of two foreign musicians, one a cousin, the other a moscheto; in which dispute they spent their time, seemingly as regardless of the shortness of life as if they had been sure of living a month. Happy people! thought I; you are certainly under a wise, just, and mild government, since you have no public grievances to complain of, nor any subject of contention but the perfections and imperfections of foreign music. I turned my head from them to an old gray-headed one, who was single on another leaf, and talking to himself. Being amused with his soliloquy, I put it down in writing, in hopes it will likewise amuse her to

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