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veniences, have their value estimated by the proportion of food consumed while we are employed in procuring them. 3. A small people, with a large territory, may subsist on the productions of nature, with no other labor than of gathering the vegetables and catching the animals. 4. A large people, with a small territory, finds these insufficient, and, to subsist, must labor the earth to make it produce greater quantities of vegetable food suitable for the nourishment of men, and of the animals they intend to eat. 5. From this labor arises a great increase of vegetable and animal food, and of materials for clothing, as flax, wool, silk, &c. The superfluity of these is wealth. With this wealth we pay for the labor employed in building our houses, cities, &c., which are, therefore, only subsistence thus metamorphosed. 6. Manufactures are only another shape into which so much provisions and subsistence are turned as were equal in value to the manufactures produced. This appears, from hence, that the manufacturer does not, in fact, obtain from the employer for his labor more than a mere subsistence, including raiment, fuel and shelter : all which derive their value from the provisions consumed in procuring them. 7. The produce of the earth, thus converted into manufactures, may be more easily carried to distant markets than before such conversion. 8. Fair commerce is where equal values are exchanged for equal, the expense of transport included. Thus, if it costs A in England as much labor and charge to raise a bushel of wheat as it costs B in France to produce four gallons of wine, then are four gallons of wine the fair exchange for a bushel of wheat, A and B meeting at half distance with their commodities to make the exchange. The advantage of this fair commerce is that each party increases the number of his enjoyments, having, instead of wheat alone, or wine alone, the use of both wheat and wine. 9. Where the labor and expense of producing both commodities are known to both parties, bargains will generally be fair and equal. Where they are known to one party only, bargains will often be unequal, knowledge taking its advantage of ignoIrance. 10. Thus he that carries one thousand bushels of wheat abroad to sell may not probably obtain so great a profit thereon as if he had first turned the wheat into manufactures, by subsisting therewith the workmen while producing those manufactures: since there are many expediting and facilitating methods
of working not generally known; and strangers to the manufactures, though they know pretty well the expense of raising wheat, are unacquainted with those short methods of working, and thence, being apt to suppose more labor employed in the manufactures than there really is, are more easily imposed on in their value, and induced to allow more for them than they are honestly worth.
11. Thus the advantage of having manufactures in a country does not consist, as is commonly supposed, in their highly advancing the value of rough materials, of which they are formed; since, though sixpenny-worth of flax may be worth twenty shillings when worked into lace, yet the very cause of its being worth twenty shillings is, that, besides the flax, it has cost nineteen shillings and sixpence in subsistence to the manufacturer. But the advantage of manufactures is, that under their shape rovisions may be more easily carried to a foreign market, and . their means our traders may more easily cheat strangers. Few, where it is not made, are judges of the value of lace. The importer may demand forty, and perhaps get thirty shillings, for that which cost him but twenty.
12. Finally, there seem to be but three ways for a nation to acquire wealth. The first is by war, as the Romans did, by plundering their conquered neighbors. This is robbery. The second by commerce, which is generally cheating. The third by agriculture, the only homest way, wherein man receives a real increase of the seed thrown into the ground, in a kind of continual miracle, wrought by the hand of God, in his favor, as a reward for his innocent life and his virtuous industry.
April 4, 1769.
|From the Pennsylvania Gazette, April 8, 1736.]
AN ancient sage of the law* says, – the king can do no wrong; for if he doeth wrong he is not the king.f And, in another place, — when the king doth justice he is God’s vicar, but when he doth unjustly he is the agent of the devil. The politeness of the latter times has given a softer turn to the expression. It is now said, the king can do no wrong, but his ministers may. In allusion to this, the Parliament of 1741 declared they made war against the king for the king's service. But his majesty affirmed that such a distinction was absurd ; though, by the way, his own creed contained a greater absurdity, for he believed he had an authority from God to oppress the subjects, whom by the same authority he was obliged to cherish and defend. Aristotle calls all princes tyrants, from the moment they set up an interest different from that of their subjects; and this is the only definition he gives us of tyranny. Our own countrymen, before cited, and the sagacious Greek, both agree on this point, that a governor who acts contrary to the ends of government loses the title bestowed on him at his institution. It would be highly improper to give the same name to things of different qualities, or that produce different effects; matter, while it communicates heat, is generally called fire, but when the flames are extinguished the appellation is changed. Sometimes, indeed, the same sound serves to express things of a contrary nature; but that only denotes a defect, or poverty in the language. A wicked prince imagines that the crown receives a new lustre from absolute power, whereas every step he takes to obtain it is a forfeiture of the crown. His conduct is as foolish as it is detestable; he aims at glory and power, and treads the path that leads to dishonor and contempt; he is a plague to his country, and deceives himself. During the inglorious reigns of the Stuarts (except a part of Queen Anne's) it was a perpetual struggle between them and the people; those endeavoring to subvert, and these bravely opposing the subverters of liberty. What were the consequences 2 One lost his life on the scaffold, another was banished. The memory of all of them stinks in the nostrils of every true lover of his country; and their history stains with indelible blots the English annals. The reign of Queen Elizabeth furnishes a beautiful contrast. All her views centred in one object, which was the public good. She made it her study to gain the love of her subjects, not by flattery or little soothing arts, but by rendering them substantial favors. It was far from her policy to encroach on their privileges; she augmented and secured them. And it is remarked to her eternal honor that the acts presented to her for her royal approbation (forty or fifty of a session of Parliament) were signed without any examining further than the titles. This wise and good queen only reigned for her peo
* Bracton de leg. Angl. An author of great weight, contemporary with Henry III. + Rex non facit injuriam, quisi facit injuriam, non est rex. f Dum facit justitiam vicarius est regis aeterni minister autere diaboli dum declinet ad injuriam. #:
ple, and knew that it was absurd to imagine they would promote anything contrary to their own interests, which she so studiously endeavored to advance. On the other hand, when this queen asked money of the Parliament, they frequently gave her more than she demanded, and never inquired how it was disposed of, except for form's sake, being fully convinced she would not employ it but for the general welfare. Happy princess, happy people ! what harmony, what mutual confidence Seconded by the hearts and purses of her subjects, she crushed the exorbitant power of Spain, which threatened destruction to England and chains to all Europe. That monarchy has ever since pined under the stroke, so that now, when we send a manof-war or two to the West Indies, it puts her into such a panic fright, that if the galleons can steal home she sings Te Deum as for a victory. This is a true picture of governments; its reverse is tyranny.
MORALS OF CHESS.
PLAYING at chess is the most ancient and most universal game known among men; for its original is beyond the memory of history, and it has, for numberless ages, been the amusement of all the civilized nations of Asia, the Persians, the Indians, and the Chinese. Europe has had it above a thousand years; the Spaniards have spread it over their part of America; and it has lately begun to make its appearance in the United States. It is so interesting in itself as not to need the view of gain to induce engaging in it, and thence it is seldom played for money. Those, therefore, who have leisure for such diversions, cannot find one that is more innocent ; and the following piece, written with a view to correct (among a few young friends) some little improprieties in the practice of it, shows at the same time that it may, in its effects on the mind, be not merely innocent, but advantageous to the vanquished as well as the victor:
The game of chess is not merely an idle amusement. Several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired or strengthened by it, so as to become habits, ready on all occasions. For life is a kind of chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and evil events, that are in some degree the effects of prudence or the want of it. By playing at chess, then, we may learn, I. Foresight, which looks a little into futurity, and considers the consequences that may attend an action; for it is continually occurring to the player, “If I move this piece, what will be the advantage of my new situation ? What use can my adversary make of it to annoy me ! What other moves can I make to support it, and to defend myself from his attacks 2 ” II. Circumspection, which surveys the whole chess-board or scene of action; the relations of the several pieces and situations, the dangers they are respectively exposed to, the several possibilities of their aiding each other, the probabilities that the adversary may make this or that move, and attack this or the other piece, and what different means can be used to avoid his stroke, or turn its consequences against him. III. Caution, not to make our moves too hastily. This habit is best acquired by observing strictly the laws of the game; such as, “If you touch a piece, you must move it somewhere; if you set it down, you must let it stand;” and it is therefore best that these rules should be observed, as the game thereby becomes more the image of human life, and particularly of war; in which, if you have incautiously put yourself into a bad and dangerous position, you cannot obtain your enemy's leave to withdraw your troops, and place them more securely, but you must abide all the consequences of your rashness. And, lastly, we learn by chess the habit of not being discouraged by present appearances in the state of our affairs, the habit of hoping for a favorable change, and that of persevering in the search of resources. The game is so full of events, there is such a variety of turns in it, the fortune of it is so subject to sudden vicissitudes, and one so frequently, after long contemplation, discovers the means of extricating one's self from a supposed insurmountable difficulty, that one is encouraged to continue the contest to the last, in hopes of victory by our own skill, or at least of getting a stale mate, by the negligence of our adversary. And, whoever considers, what in chess he often sees instances of that particular pieces of success are apt to produce presumption, and its consequent inattention, by which the losses may be recovered, will learn not to be too much discouraged by the present success of his adversary, nor to despair of final good fortune upon every little check he receives in the pursuit of it. That we may therefore be induced more frequently to choose this beneficial amusement, in preference to others which are not attended with the same advantages, every circumstance which