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ionary plans of living, 447: common sense the best guide, 448, 454 : they

overlook the accommodating powers of the human system, 452.
Health, influence of religion on, Dr. Brigham's, 51--80.
Hopkins, Bishop, Primitive Church, -views of doctrine unscriptural, 227 ; on

union to a church, 228; election, 230--233 ; baptism and sponsors, 234--236 ;
confirmation, 237, 240 ; bible societies, &c. 241 ; prayer meetings, 242; revi.
vals, 243 : opposition to temperance societies, 244; his reasons examined and
refuted, 246--233.

Ioduction-true meaning of the term, 182–184.
Jefferson, Thomas, his denial, that christianity is part of the common law of

England, refuted, 15.

Jobnson, James, M. D.-change of air or philosophy of Traveling, 455 : spirit

of the work, vaunting and illiberal at times 456, 457, a book of reflections, and
impressions, 459 :-journey in Europe, 458, remarks on France and French
character, 459, 460 ; scenery on the way to Italy, &-c. 461-465, Florence and
Rome, 466, and Pompeii, 469: his views of Italy as a residence for invalids,
469, climate, 470-472. malaria, 472, 473, medicinal influence of the climate, 474,
in pulmonary affections, 475, bronchial, nervous or dyspeptic disorders, 476,

477 ; moral and religious effects of Italian residence, 479.
Kaufman, Rev. A. translation of Tholuck on John, 319–327 ; bis defects as a

translator, 319.
Leigh, Hon. B. W. speech in defense of slavery in U. S. Senate noticed, 124.
Life, future-Natural evidence of, furnished by analogy drawn from facts in sci-

ence-solution 586, rarefaction, 556, natural decomposition, 560, light and
heat, 562, electricity, galvanism, and magnetism, 566, chimical attraction,568,
gravitation, 569, vegetation, animal organization, 570, animal life, 571, organs
of sensation, 572, Personal Identity, suspended animation, spectral illusions,

573.
Logic-100 much neglected, 400.
Manual labor in colleges considered, 404-407.
Maryland, progress of this state towards becoming a free state, statistics, 166–168.
Mathematics and science necessary in colleges, 398, 399.
Memoirs, best method of writing, 41.
Mendon Association, 170,

and Hopkinsianisnı ; letter to Conductors of Christian Spectator, and re-
marks, 327.
Miscellaneous Notices, 669.
Mitchell, Hon. Stephen Mix, LL. D.-Sketch of the life and character of, 205 :

birth and ancestry, 206, 207, education, 207, tutor in Yale College, reproof of
Dwight, 208 :-professional life, 209; a statesman, 209, 210, aid in securing to
Connecticut the Western reserve 211; original letter on this subject, 211 note ;
influence as to Mr. Madison's commercial resolutions 1794, 212—character as
a statesman, confidence in him, 213, wide and liberal views, 214, quick dis-
cernment of character &c. moderation and firmness, 215, sterling integrity;
social and private character, 217–220; intellectual character, 221 ; moral and
religious character, 222--225.
Mortality, comparative, of free black and other classes, 169.
Natural Evidence of a future life--object of the work, 557; character, 576.
Orders of the Ministry, Bishop Hopkins views examined, 266--276.
Phrenology, chances for its truth, 53--55, note.
Physical Theory of another life, 643--663. Outline of the work-conditions of

corporeity, 646: prerogatives of the spiritual body, 647 points of advantage,
648'; probability of happiness or misery, 649 : his three conjectures as to ibe
theater of action, 650 : Objections to the theory, 652; singular notions as to
the intermediate state, 656 : excellencies of the work, 659; extracts, 660.

Philip, Robert, Young Man's Closet Library, 669.
Piety-proper standard and aim of, 663 ; practicability of high attainments in

individuals, 664, in the church, 666.
Polity, ecclesiastical, Bishop Hopkins' views of, 260—bis arguments examined,

266--276.
Power, meaning of according to West, &c. 174, 175.
Prayer, modes and forms discussed, 253--260.

meetings, Bishop Hopkins views of them, 242.
Providence particular, doctrine of, 1--12: evident from God's general providence,

2, from his word, 3, from history,sacred, 4-civil, 5 : objections answered,

7--10: practical bearings of the doctrine 10--12.
Puritan, The, by John Oldbug, Esquire,528--556, character of the work, 538.-542.
Revivals, Bishop Hopkins' views of them, 243.
Rev. iv. 6--11. description of the cherubim, 379.
Reform sure and only safe way of, 155.
Rice, Rev. John, H. D. D.-sketch of his life, 22.-43 : character, 27; as a

preacher, 38; as a writer, 39 ; his views on slavery, 39, 40; Reflections, 41.
Ridicule and sarcasm in the pulpit, how far lawful, 533.
Special agency of the Holy Spirit-meaning, 65--68 : objections refuted, 68--72 :

Effects or incidents, 73-78.
Slavery, Prof. Dew's defence of, 119.

Dr. Rice's views, 39, 40.

Prof. Andrews on, 160-southern in theory and practice, 161, as a sys-
tem, 161--165.

question, present state of, 112.
Smith T. Southwood, M. D. his illustrations of divine government, 80--112.
Soul, an inquiry concerning, 276.-292.
Sprague, Rev. William B., D. D.-Hints designed to regulate christian intercourse,

292, defect as to final impression, 309.
Ticknor, Caleb, M. D—Philosophy of living, 439.
Temperance Societies-opposed by Bishop Hopkins, grounds, of objection ex-

amined and refuted, 244.-253.
Theology, Natural-iis importanco, 179, the argument of design not strictly in.

ductive, 182--184, but surer and safer, 184, 185—design and nature of the ar-
gument from, 182, conclusive in its application, 187 : Examples in the mate-
rial world, 190.-195, in the intellectual, 196; ultimate design of God, with
regard to man, 200; its character, 203—true position, 204.
Tholuck ou John, its excellencies as a commentary, 234, contrasted with Kuinoel,

325, 326.
Thoughts—importance of precision or condensation in, 400.
Tyndale William,-sketch of his life, 618; Birth, early studies, 620, ordination,
first attempts at translation of the new testament in English, specimen, 621 :
persecuted, Aees to Germany, 625 : translates and publishes the testament in
English, 626 : efforts made to suppress its circulation, 627 ; effect, 629 :
his tracts, 630 : chaplain to the English merchants at Antwerp, efforts made
to get him to England 631, his noble sentiments 632--634, his life at Antwerp,
635, is betrayed, 636, imprisoned, and put to death, 636, comparison of his

testament with Wiclif's, 039.
Wesley, John—“on the Witness of the Spirit,” 353--368—his character, 355,

the doctrine of his discourse—a real impression-felt before the commenco-
ment of holiness, its divinity can be instantaneously demonstrated-identical
except in its office with the views of the Quakers, 356-367 : Evil tendency
of the doctrine, unwarrantable fancy of mysticism, extravagant and wild in its
principle, 388, destroys healthy action of christians, by creating intemperate
demand for excitement, 363, spasmodic religion, 365, declension and insensi.
bility, 366.
West, Dr. Stephen,-father of the divine-efficiency scheme, his views, 172, 173.
Winslow, on civil and social duties, 151--160.
Wordsworth and bis poetry, 127--151.
Worship-modes and forms of, examined, 258.- 260.

THE

QUARTERLY

CHRISTIAN SPECTATOR.

VOLUME VIII.-NUMBER I.

MARCH, 1836.

ART. I.-THE DOCTRINE OF A PARTICULAR PROVIDENCE.

To a thoughtful, and especially to a thoughtful and serious mind, the world in which we live is one of deep and solemn interest. Like a bright and beautiful abode, into which, for the first time, we have just entered, every thing in it is fitted to remind us of some invisible agent, who bas produced the effects that we witness, and to impress us with the presence of some mighty but unseen power, which is every where acting around us. Above are the hosts of heaven, walking in majesty and splendor, or fixed as radiant points of the glory of Him who made them, kindling up the day, adorning the night, and ever rolling onward summer and winter, seed-time and harvest. Around us are the varied aspects of animal and physical being; the inineral kingdom, with its forms of beauty and its fitness for use; the brute creation, in air, and earth, and seas, sporting in conscious enjoyment, or providing for their various wants; the fruits of the earth, supplying us with our daily food, and the flowers of the field, robed in their garments of brightness and beauty, 10 perpetuate their kinds and minister to our delight. In all these departments of nature,-in ourselves, in everything, changes are ever going forward, which no created power could produce, and in which no visible band is seen; and on every side, events are constantly transpiring, which set at nought our calculations, defeat our plans, and desy our control. And what is the power wbich is thus at work around us? whose the hand ibat rolls onward these changes, and guides them all to the best final results? Tie atheist, (if there be such an unthinking monster,) may talk of chance, and the fatalist, or the necessities of things; but they both prate in unmeaning language. Infidel science may tell us of physical causes; but the last possible causes which the analysis of science can reach, are themselves effects of some antecedent Vol. VIII.

1

cause,-a cause which cannot be physical. Philosophy may conjecture, and tradition allude to, an over-ruling providence ; but the experience of heathen antiquity shows us, that they could never inspire the assurance of its certainty. Tradition and pliilosophy do indeed afford a very strong presumptive argument of its truth. But it is only from revelation, that we know, with the clearness of demonstration and the confidence of faith, that God is present in all his works, administering with perfect wisdom and goodness all the affairs of bis wide dominion ; extending bis watchful care to every being and every event, from the rolling of worlds through space, to the falling of the sparrow on earth, from the glorious scheine of redeeming grace, to the numbering of the very hairs of our heads.

This is the doctrine of God's PARTICULAR PROVIDENCE ; some evidences and illustrations of which, it is our design to present. And,

1. That God exercises a PARTICULAR PROVIDENCE in all the affairs of the world, is evident from his GENERAL providence. That God exercises a general providence over all his works, is not denied even by infidels and deists, or by the writer (see Edinburgh Review, vol. xi. pp. 356, 357,) who has been bold enough to declare the doctrine of a particular providence "untrue," " ridiculous," " degrading," and even dangerous. And if it were denied by thein, their denial would be useless. For, laying aside the declarations of scripture, and meeting them on their own grounds, the truth of the doctrine may be proved by the same argunients that prove the divine existence. It is necessarily implied in the very idea of an infinitely perfect being; for nothing is plainer than that such a being cannot, will not be, indifferent to what is going on in a world of his own creation. And as bis wisdom and power enable hirn to conduct all things to the best ends, so bis goodness is an unchanging pledge that he will do it. The most beedless and wicked man will usually take some care of his property; and is it possible, or even supposable, that a being, whose wisdom and goodness are infinite, will take no care of bis ? Never ! A God without some kind of providence, is a contradiction in terms; for nothing is more evident than that the very character of God requires that he care for his works. But precisely the same reasons that influence the Deity to exercise any providence whatever, are also reasons for extending that providence to all beings and all events ; for, so far as it overlooks any being or event, so far it is incomplete, and of course inconsistent with the idea of an infinitely perfect being. Indeed, the very idea of a general providence, which is not at the same time particular, is absurd, or rather, impossible. That an individual in general is an extensive reader, while in particular he never opens a book ;

that in general he is a lawyer or a physician of extensive practice, while he never attends to a single particular cause, or prescribes for any particular patient ; that in general he is inmensely rich, while in particular he is not the owner of a single farthing; any or all of these things we may as well assert, as to admit the general providence of God, while we deny its extension to every being and event of the universe. A general providence, in fact, is constituted only by a series of particular acts on the part of the providential power. As, when we say of the law of gravitation, that it is universal and general, we intend to assert, that it extends to every particle of matter, so that every body tends invariably to its own proper center of gravity; so when we speak of a general providence, we mean, (if we have any meaning) that it extends to every being and every event ; that is, that it is a particular providence.

11. That God exercises a PARTICULAR PROVIDENCE over all his works, is also evident from the plain declarations of his word. There is this remarkable difference between the sacred history and all others, that while they seldom go for ibeir causes higher than the passions of men and the powers of nature, this always carries our thoughts up to the first great cause, and points us to God, as the author and governor of all things. The entire history of the bible is one continued display of the superintending providence of God. The sword, the pestilence, and the famine, are spoken of as sent by him. The winds and the lightings go forth at his bidding, and the stars are guided by his hand. The Psalmist abounds with references to God's particular providence. “ The eyes of all wait on thee, and thou givest them their meat in due

Thou satisfiest the wants of every living thing. The Lord prepareth rain for the earth; he canseth the grass to grow for the cattle, and herbs for the use of man. He sendeth the springs into the valleys; he watereth the bills from his chambers. He appointeth the moon for seasons, and the sun knoweth his going down." In Proverbs it is said: “The lot is cast into the lap, but the whole disposing thereof is of the Lord ;” and that though “ a man's heart deviseth his way, the Lord directeth bis steps.” Paul tells us, that " he hath made of one blood all the nations of the earth, and hath appointed beforehand the bounds of their habitations ;” and that “in him we live, and move, and have our being.” In the evangelists we are explicitly taught, that he clothes the lilies of the field with their garments of beauty, and feeds the ravens when they cry; that not a sparrow falls to the ground without his notice; that even the hairs of our heads are all numbered by him; and that by him our lives are continued, and all our wants are constantly supplied. These are but a few of the many passages and assertions by which we are clearly taught, that

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