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bastard son of Salisbury) that fell at Ferrybridge. The carl of Salisbury, Warwick's father, was beheaded at Pomfret.
In the same old play a son is introduced who has killed his father, and afterwards a father who has killed his son. King Henry, who is on the stage, says not a word till they have both appeared, and spoken;
he then pronounces a speech of seven lines. But in Shakspeare's play (p. 290.) this fpeech is enlarged, and two speeches formed on it; the first of which the king speaks after the son has appeared, and the other after the entry of the father.
In our author's play, (p. 322,) after Edward's marriage with Lady Grey, his brothers enter, and converse on that event. The king, queen, &c. then join them, and Ed. ward asks Clarence how he approves his choice. In the elder play there is no previous dialogue between Glofter and Clarence ; but the scene opens with the entry of the king, &c. who defires the opinion of his brothers on his recent marriage.
In our author's play (p. 311,) the following line is found :
“ And fet the murderous Machiavel to school." This line in The true Tragedie of Richarde duke of Yorke, &C. food thus :
“ And fet the aspiring Cataline to school." Cataline was the person that would naturally occur to Peele or Greene, as the most splendid clasical example of inordinate ambition; but Shakspeare, who was more converfant with English books, subitituted Machiavel, whose name was in such frequent use in his time that it became a specifick term for a consummate politician * ; and accordingly he makes his host in The Merry Wives of Windfor, when he means to boast of his own shrewdness, exclaim, “ Am I subtle? am I a Machiavel?”
Many other variations beside those already mentioned might be pointed out; but that I may not weary the reader, I will only refer in a note to the most striking diversities that
4 Ser p. 104, R. S. of this volume.
are found between Shakspeare's Second and Third Part of King Henry VI. and the elder dramas printed in quarto S.
The supposition of imperfect or fpurious copies cannot account for such numerous variations in the circumstances of these pieces ; (not to insist at present on the language in which they are clothed ;) so that we are compelled (as I have already observed) to maintain, either that Shakspeare wrote truo plays on the story which forms his Second part of King Henry VI. a hafty sketch, and an entirely diftinct and more finished performance; or else we must acknowledge that he formed that piece on a foundation laid by another writer, that is, upon the quarto copy of The Firfi Part of the Cone tention of the Houses of Yorke and Lancaster, &c.—And the same argument precisely applies to The Third Part of King Henry VI. which is founded on The true Tragedie of Richard duke of Yorke, &c. printed in quarto, 1600.
Let us now advert to the Resemblances that are foundin these pieces as exhibited in the folio, to passages in our author's undisputed plays; and also to the Inconfiftencies that may be traced between them; and, if I do not deceive myself, both the one and the other will add confiderable fupport to the foregoing observations.
In our author's genuine plays, he frequently borrows from himself, the fame thoughts being found in nearly the same expressions in different pieces. In The Second and Third Part of King Henry VI. as in his other dramas, these coincidencies with his other works may be found •; and this was one of the circumstances that once weighed much in my mind, and convinced me of their authenticity. But a collation of these plays with the old pieces on which they are founded, has sewn me the fallacy by which I was de
s See p. 127, n. 2 ; p. 137, n. 1; p. 139, n. 3; p. 140, 0.8; p. 154, n. * ; p. 170, n. 2 ; p. 174, n. 5 ; p. 178, 0. 2; p. 199, n. 8; p. 201, n. 2; p. 205, n. 6; p. 227, n. 7 ; p. 231, n. 4; p. 242, n. 9, and n. * ; p. 255, n. 6; p. 265, 0.7; p. 267, n. 2; p. 268, n. 7 ; p. 272, n. 9; p. 274, n. 2; p. 275, 0.4; p. 278, n. 4; P 283, n. 8, P. 286, n. 4; P: 29o, nu si P: 311, n. 9; p. 321, n.4; p. 328, n. 8, and n.9; p. 350, n. 8.
• See p. 127, n.7; p. 131, n. 77 p. 193, n. i; p. 197, n.* p. 206, n. 8; p. 227, n. 7 ; p.256, 0.9; p. 287, n. 8 ; p. 300, n. 6; p. 358, n. 8; and p: 363, n.g.
ceived; for the passages of these two parts of K. Henry VI. which correspond with others in our author's undisputed plays, exift only in the folio copy, and not in the quarte; in other words, in those parts of these new-modelled pieces, which were of Shakspeare's writing, and not in the originals by another hand, on which he worked. This, I believe, will be found invariably the case, except in three instances.
The first is, “ You have no children, butchers ;" which is, it must be acknowledged, in The true Tragedie of Richarde duke of Yorke, &c. 1600; (as well as in The Third Part of King Henry VI.) and is also introduced with a flight variation in Macberb?.
Another inftance is found in K. John. That king, when charged with the death of his nephew, alks,
“ Think you, I bear the shears of destiny?
“ Have I commandment on the pulse of life?" which bears a striking resemblance to the words of Cardinal Beaufort in The firft part of the Contention of the two houses, &c. which Shakspeare has introduced in his Second Pari of King Henry VI.
Died he not in his bed? “ Can I make men live whe'r they will or no?" The third instance is found in The true Tragedie of Richarde duke of Yorke, &c. In that piece are the following lines, which Shakspeare adopted with a very night variation, and inserted in his Third Part of King Henry VI.: «
doves will peck in rescue of their brood. “ Unreasonable creatures feed their young; “ And though man's face be fearful to their eyes, “ Yet, in protection of their tender ones, “ Who hath not seen them even with those same wings “ Which they have sometime used in fearful flight, " Make war with him that climb'd unto their nett,
“Offering their own lives in their young's defence ?" So, in our author's Macbeth:
the poor wren-
“ Her young ones in the nest, against the owl."
But whoever recollects the various thoughts that Shak. speare has borrowed from preceding writers, will not be surprised that in a similar situation, in Macbeth, and King John, he should have used the expressions of an old dramatist, with whose writings he had been particularly conversant; expressions too, which he had before embodied. in former plays: nor can, I think, these three instances much diminish the force of the foregoing observation. That it may have its full weight, I have in the present edition distinguished by asterisks all the lines in The Second and Third Part of King Henry VI. of which there is no trace in the old quarto plays, and which therefore I suppose to have been written by Shakspeare. Though this has not been effected without much trouble, yet, if it shall tend to settle this long agitated question, I shall not consider my labour as wholly thrown away.
Perhaps a fimilar coincidency in The First Part of King Henry VI. may be urged in oppofition to my hypothesis relative to that play.“ Lean famine, quartering steel, and climbing fire,” are in that piece called the attendants on the brave lord Talbot; as in Shakspeare's King Henry V. “ famine, sword, and fire, are leath'd in like hounds, crouching under the martial Henry for employment.”. If this image had procceded from ous author's imagination, this coincidency might perhaps countenance the suppofition that he had some hand at least in that scene of The First Part of King Henry VI. where these attendants on war are personified. But that is not the case;. for the fact is, that Shakspeare was furnished with this imagery by a pasfage in Holinfhed, as the author of the old play of King Henry VI. was by Hall's Chronicle: “ The Goddesse of warre, called Bellonas--hath these three hand-maides ever of neceflitie attendynge on her; bloud, fyre, and famine 8."
In our present inquiry, it is undoubtedly a very striking circumstance that almost all the passages in The Second and Third Part of King Henry VI. which resemble others in Shakspeare's undisputed plays, are not found in the original pieces in quarto, but in his Rifacimento published in
* Hall's Chron. Henry VI, fol. xxixo
folio. As these Resemblances to his other plays, and a pecu liar Shakspearian phraseology, ascertain a considerable portion of these disputed dramas to be the production of Shakspeare, so on the other hand certain passages which are discordant (in matters of fact) from his other plays, are proved by this Discordancy, not to have been composed by him; and these discordant passages, being found in the original quarto plays, prove that those pieces were composed by another writer.
Thus, in The Third Part of King Henry VI. (p. 303,) Şir John Grey is said to have lost his life in quarrel of the house of York ;” and king Edward stating the claim of his widow, whom he afterwards married, mentions, that his lands after the battle of Saint Albans (February 17, 1460-1) “were seized on by the conqueror.” Whereas in fact they were seized on by Edward himself after the battle of Towton, (in which he was conqueror,) March 29, 1461. The conqueror at the second battle of Saint Albans, the battle here meant, was Queen Margaret. This ftatement was taken from the old quarto play; and, from carelessness was adopted by Shakspeare without any material alteration. But at a subsequent period when he wrote his King Richard III. he was under a necessity of carefully examining the English chronicles; and in that play, Aa I. sc. iii. he has represented this matter truly as it was :
“ In all which time, you, and your husband Grey,
“ In Margaret's battle at Saint Albans Nain ?"
An equally decisive circumstance is furnished by the same play. In The Third Part of King Henry VI. (p. 320.) Warwick proposes to marry his eldest daughter (Isabella) to Edward prince of Wales, and the proposal is accepted by Edward; and in a subsequent scene Clarence says, he will marry the younger daughter (Anne). In these particulars Shakspeare has implicitly followed the elder drama. But the fact is, that the prince of Wales married Anne the younger daughter of the earl of Warwick, and the duke of Ff 2