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may be, at one standing, all catched one after another; they being, as he says, like the wicked of the world, not afraid, though their fellows and companions perish in their sight. may observe, that they are not like the solitary Pike, but love to accompany one another, and march together in troops.

And the baits for this bold fish are not many: I mean, he will bite as well at some, or at any of these three, as at any or all others whatsoever; a worm, a minnow, or a little frog, of which you may find many in hay-time. And of worms; the dunghill worm called a brandling I take to be best, being well scoured in moss or fennel ; or he will bite at a worm that lies under cowdung, with a bluish head. And if you rove for a Perch with a minnow, then it is best to be alive ; you sticking your hook through his back fin; or a minnow with the hook in his upper lip, and letting him swim up and down, about mid-water, or a little lower, and you still keeping him to about that depth by a cork, which ought not to be a very little one : and the like way you are to fish for the Perch with a small frog, your hook being fastened through the skin of his leg, towards the upper part of it : and, lastly, I will give you but this advice, that you give the Perch time enough when he bites ; for there was scarce ever any angler that has given him too much.* And now I think best to rest myself; for I have almost spent my spirits with talking so long

VENATOR. Nay, good master, one fish more, for you see it rains still : and you know our angles are like money put to usury ; they may thrive, though we sit still, and do nothing but talk and enjoy one another. Come, come, the other fish, good master.

PISCATOR. But, scholar, have you nothing to mix with this discourse, which now grows both tedious and tiresome.? Shall I



* Although Perch, like Trout, delight in clear swift rivers, with pebbly, gravelly bottoms, they are often found in sandy, clayey soils : they love a moderately deep water, and frequent holes by the sides of or near little streams, and the hollows under banks.

The Perch spawns about the beginning of March : the best time of the year to angle for him is from the beginning of May till the end of June, yet you may continue to fish for him till the end of September : he is best taken in cloudy windy weather. Other baits for the Perch are, Ioaches, miller's-thumbs, sticklebacks; lob, marsh, and red

When you rove for Perch with a minnow or other small fish, use a large cork float, and lead your line about nine inches from the bottom, otherwise the bait will come to the top of the water ; but in the ordinary way of fishing, let your bait hang within about six inches from the ground.-H.

Pennant mentions a Perch that was taken in the Serpentine river, Hyde Park, that weighed nine pounds. He also mentions a very singular variety of the Perch ; the back quite hunched, and the lower part of the backbone, next the tail, strangely distorted, found in a lake called Llyn Raithlyn, in Mcrionethshire, “ They are not peculiar to this water, for Linnæus (he adds) takes notice of a similar variety found at Fahlun, in his own country. I have also heard that it is to be met with in the Thames, near Marlow.” --E. Brit. Zoology, vol. iii. p. 224, edit. 1776.

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have nothing from you, that seem to have both a good memory and a cheerful spirit ?

VENATOR. Yes, master, I will speak you a copy of verses that were made by Doctor Donne, and made to show the world that he could make soft and smooth verses, when he thought smoothness worth his labour : 8 and I love them the better, because they allude to Rivers, and Fish and Fishing. They be these :

Come, live with me, and be my love, And if mine eyes have leave to see,
And we will some new pleasures prove, I need not their light, having thee.
Of golden sands, and crystal brooks,

Let others freeze with angling reeds,
With silken lines, and silver hooks.

And cut their legs with shells and weeds, There will the river whisp'ring run, Or treacherously poor fish beset Warm'd by thy eyes more than the sun; With strangling snares or windowy net ; And there the enameld fish will stay.a

Let coarse bold hands, from slimy nest, Begging themselves they may betray.

The bedded fish in banks outwrest; When thou wilt swim in that live bath, Let curious traitors sleave silk flies, Each fish, which every channel hath, To 'witch poor wand'ring fishes' eyes.b Must amorously to thee will swim,

For thee, thou need'st no such deceit, Gladder to catch thee, than thou him.

For thou thyself art thine own bait: If thou, to be so seen, beest loath

That fish that is not catcht thereby, By sun or moon, thou dark’nest both; Is wiser far, alas, than I.c

I thank you

PISCATOR. Well remembered, honest scholar. for these choice verses ; which I have heard formerly, but had quite forgot, till they were recovered by your happy memory. Well, being I have now rested myself a little, I will make you some requital, by telling you some observations of the Eel; for it rains still : and because, as you say, our angles are as money put to use, that thrives when we play, therefore we'll sit still, and enjoy ourselves a little longer under this honeysuckle-hedge.

PISCATOR. It is agreed by most men, that the Eel is a most dainty fish : ' the Romans have esteemed her the Helena of

their feasts; and some the queen of palateChap. XII. Of

pleasure. But most men differ about their breed

ing : some say they breed by generation, as other want Scales.

fish do; and others, that they breed, as some worms do, of mud; as rats and mice, and many other living creatures, are bred in Egypt, by the sun's heat when it shines


Eel, and other Fish that

8 when he thought them fit and worth his labour.-Ist edit.
9 that the Eel is both a good and a most dainty fish.-1st edit.

* As has been observed in a former note, this song is an imitation of the one by Marlowe, which the Milkmaid sung to Piscator and Venator on the Third Day. See page 79 It is printed among Donne's Poems, ed. 1635, p. 39, with the following variations :

a And there th' innamour'd fish will stay.
6 Bewitch poor fishes wandering eyes.
C Alas, is wiser far than I.

upon the overflowing of the river Nilus; or out of the putrefaction of the earth, and divers other ways. Those that deny them to breed by generation, as other fish do, ask, If any man ever saw an Eel to have a spawn or melt? And they are answered, That they may be as certain of their breeding as if they had seen spawn; for they say, that they are certain that Eels have all parts fit for generation, like other fish,* but so small as not to be easily discerned, by reason of their fatness; but that discerned they may be ; and that the He and the She Eel may be distinguished by their fins. And Rondeletius says, he has seen Eels cling together like dew-worms.

And others say, that Eels, growing old, breed other Eels out of the corruption of their own age; which, Sir Francis Bacon says, exceeds not ten years. And others say, that as pearls are made of glutinous dewdrops, which are condensed by the sun's heat in those countries, so Eels are bred of a particular dew, falling in the months of Mayor June on the banks of some particular ponds or rivers, apted by nature for that end; which in a few days are, by the sun's heat, turned into Eels : and some of the Ancients have called the Eels that are thus bred, the offspring of Jove. I have seen, in the beginning of July, in a river not far from Canterbury, some parts of it covered over with young Eels, about the thickness of a straw; and these Eels did lie on the top of that water, as thick as motes are said to be in the sun : and I have heard the like of other rivers, as, namely, in Severn, where they are called Yelvers; and in a pond, or mere near unto Staffordshire, where, about a set time in summer, such small Eels abound so much, that many of the poorer sort of people that inhabit near to it, take such Eels out of this mere with sieves or sheets; and make a kind of Eel-cake of them, and eat it like as bread. And Gesner quotes venerable Bede,t to say, that in England there is an island called Ely, by reason of the innumerable number of Eels that breed in it. But that Eels may be bred as some worms, and some kind of bees and wasps are, either of dew or out of the corruption of the earth, seems to be made probable by the barnacles and young goslings bred by the sun's

That fishes are furnished with parts fit for generation cannot be doubted, since it is a common practice to castrate them. See the method of doing it in Philos. Trans. vol. xlviii. part ii. for the year 1754, page 870.-H.

† The most universal scholar of his time : he was born at Durham about 671, and bred under St John of Beverley. It is said that Pope Sergius the First invited him to Rome; though others say he never stirred out of his cell. He was a man of great virtue, and remarkable for a sweet and engaging disposition : he died in 734, and lies

His works make eight volumes in folio. See his Life in the Biographia Britannica.-H,

buried at Durham.

heat and the rotten planks of an old ship, and hatched of trees; both which are related for truths by Du Bartas and Lobel, * and also by our learned Camden, and laborious Gerhard † in his Herbal.

It is said by Rondeletius, that those Eels that are bred in rivers that relate to or be nearer to the sea, never return to the fresh waters, as the Salmon does always desire to do, when they have once tasted the salt water ; and I do the more easily believe this, because I am certain that powdered beef is a most excellent bait to catch an Eel. And though Sir Francis Bacon will allow the Eel's life to be but ten years, yet he, in his “ History of Life and Death,” mentions a Lamprey, belonging to the Roman Emperor, to be made tame, and so kept for almost threescore years; and that such useful and pleasant observations were made of this Lamprey, that Crassus the orator, who kept her, lamented her death ; and we read in Doctor Hakewill, that Hortensius was seen to weep at the death of a Lamprey that he had kept long, and loved exceedingly. I

It is granted by all, or most men, that Eels, for about six months, that is to say, the six cold months of the year, stir not up or down, neither in the rivers, nor in the pools in which they usually are, but get into the soft earth or mud; and there many of them together bed themselves, and live without feeding upon anything, as I have told you some swallows have been observed to do in hollow trees, for those six cold months. And this the Eel and Swallow do, as not being able to endure winter weather : for Gesner quotes Albertus to say, that in the year 1125, that year's winter being more cold than usually, Eels did, by nature's instinct, get out of the water into a stack of hay in a meadow upon dry

* Matthias av Lobei, or L'Obel, an eminent physician and botanist of the sixteenth cen. tury, was a native of Lisle in Flanders. He was a disciple of Rondeletius; and being invited to London, by King James the First, published there his Historia Plantarum, and died in the year 1616. Vide Hoffmanni Lexicon Universale, art. “Matthias Lobelius.” This work is entitled Plantarını seu Stirpium Historia, and was first published at Antwerp in 1576, and republi-hed at London in 1605. He was author likewise of two other works; the former of which has for its title Balsami, Opobalsami, Carpobalsami, et Xylobalsami, cum 510 cortice, Explanatio. Lond. 1598; and the latter, Stirpium Nilustrationes. Lond. 1655.-H.

+ The person here mentioned is John Gerard, one of the first of our English botanists: he was by profession a surgeon ; and published, in 1597, an Herbal, in a large folio, dedicated to the Lord-Treasurer Burleigh; and, two years after, a Catalogue of Plants, Herbs, &c., to the number of eleven hundred, raised and naturalised by himself in a large garden near his house in Holborn. The latter is dedicated to Sir Walter Raleigh.-H.

Walton, page 119, has cited from Pliny an instance of the fondness of Antonia for a tame Lamprey. Cr. ssus was, for this his pusillanimity, reproached in the Senate of Rome by Domitius in these words: “Foolish Crassus ! you wept for your Murena," or Lamprey. “That is more," retorted Crassus, " than you did for your iwo wives.” Lord Bacon's Apothegms.-H.

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