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this manner, except the Eel. And it has been observed, that when the spawner has weakened herself by doing that natural office, that two or three melters have helped her from off the weeds, by bearing her up on both sides, and guarding her into the deep.* And you may note, that though this may seem a curiosity not worth observing, yet others have judged it worth their time and costs to make glass hives, and order them in such a manner as to see how bees have bred and made their honeycombs, and how they have obeyed their king, and governed their commonwealth. But it is thought that all Carps are not bred by generation ; but that some breed other ways, as some Pikes do.
The physicians make the galls and stones in the heads of Carps to be very medicinable. But it is not to be doubted but that in Italy they make great profit of the spawn of Carps, by selling it to the Jews, who make it into red caviare ; the Jews not being by their law admitted to eat of caviare made of the Sturgeon, that being a fish that wants scales, and, as may appear in Leviticus xi., by them reputed to be unclean.
Much more might be said out of him, and out of Aristotle, which Dubravius often quotes in his “ Discourse of Fishes : " but it might rather perplex than satisfy you ; and therefore I shall rather choose to direct you how to catch, than spend more time in discoursing either of the nature or the breeding of this Carp, or of any more circumstances concerning him. But yet I shall remember you of what I told you before, that he is a very subtile fish, and hard to be caught.
And my first direction is, that if you will fish for a Carp, you must put on a very large measure of patience, especially to fish for a river Carp : I have known a very good fisher angle diligently four or six hours in a day, for three or four days together, for a river Carp, and not have a bite. And you are to note, that, in some ponds, it is as hard to catch a Carp as in a river ; that is to say, where they have store of feed, and the water is of a clayish colour. But you are to remember that I have told you there is no rule without an exception; and therefore being possest with that hope and patience which I wish to all fishers, especially to the Carp-angler, I shall tell you with what bait to fish for him. younge frye afterwardes will shoote in thither as into a sanctuary from daunger of devouringe.
“ The carpe will not satt where store of tenches be, ne get brede where store of roches be, nor the senche ever fatt where the carpe ys, because he will sucke the tenche without measure."-Lansdowne MS. No. 101, art. 9.
* This account of the Carp is taken from Taverner's Experiments on Fish, 4to, 1600. Vide p. 132, note.
But first you are to know, that it must be either early or late ; and let me tell you, that in hot weather, for he will seldom bite in cold, you cannot be too early or too late at it. And some have been so curious as to say, the tenth of April is a fatal day for Carps.
The Carp bites either at worms or at paste : and of worms I think the bluish marsh or meadow worm is best; but possibly another worm, not too big, may do as well, and so may a green gentle : and as for pastes, there are almost as many sorts as there are medicines for the toothache; but doubtless sweet pastes are best ; I mean, pastes made with honey or with sugar : which, that you may the better beguile this crafty fish, should be thrown into the pond or place in which you fish for him, some hours, or longer, before you undertake your trial of skill with the angle-rod ; and doubtless, if it be thrown into the water a day or two before, at several times, and in small pellets, you are the likelier, when you fish for the Carp, to obtain your desired sport. Or, in a large pond, to draw them to any certain place, that they may the better and with more hope be fished for, you are to throw into it, in some certain place, either grains, or blood mixt with cow-dung or with bran ; or any garbage, as chicken's guts or the like ; and then, some of your small sweet pellets with which you purpose to angle : and these small pellets being a few of them also thrown in as you are angling, will be the better.
And your paste must be thus made : take the flesh of a rabbit, or cat, cut small ; and bean-flour ; and if that may not be easily got, get other flour; and then, mix these together, and put to them either sugar, or honey, which I think better : and then beat these together in a mortar, or sometimes work them in your hands, your hands being very clean; and then make it into a ball, or two, or three, as you like best, for your use : but you must work or pound it so long in the mortar, as to make it so tough as to hang upon your hook without washing from it, yet not too hard : or, that you may the better keep it on your hook, you may knead with your paste a little, and not too much, white or yellowish wool. And if you would have this paste keep all the year, for
other fish, then mix with it virgin-wax and clarified honey, and work them together with your hands, before the fire; then make these into balls, and they will keep all the year.
And if you fish for a Carp with gentles, then put upon your hook a small piece of scarlet about this bigness it being soaked