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agricultural agricultural products aids of nature aids to production amount of products arise bank become bills of exchange branches of production broadcloth brought to view capitalist causes chapter circumstances commercial commodities connexion consumed cost of production cost price cultivation division of labor duction economical arrangements effect employed employment engaged exchange exchangeable value exist expenses former furnished Hence human industry important increase indirect taxes individual instances investment kind laboring population loaned look manufactures ment nation natural agency natural aids obtained paid Political Economy portion price of labor principles productive capital productive laborers productive service proportion prosperity rate of interest rate of profits rate of wages received remuneration rendered result revenue style of living supply and demand supposed surplus territorial advantages tion tracts of land trade usually value of money variations vidual wants wealth wheat
Seite 40 - ... without the assistance and co-operation of many thousands, the very meanest person in a civilized country could not be provided, even according to what we very falsely imagine the easy and simple manner in which he is commonly accommodated.
Seite 302 - The subjects of every State ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible in proportion to their respective abilities ; that is, in proportion to the revenue they respectively enjoy under the protection of the State .... In the observation or neglect of this maxim, consists what is called the equality 'or inequality of taxation.
Seite 39 - ... transporting the materials from some of those workmen to others who often live in a very distant part of the country! How much commerce and navigation in particular, how many ship-builders, sailors, sailmakers, rope-makers, must have been employed in order to bring together the different drugs made use of by the dyer, which often come from the remotest corners of the world...
Seite 302 - The tax which each individual is bound to pay ought to be certain, and not arbitrary. The time of payment, the manner of payment, the quantity to be paid, ought all to be clear and plain to the contributor, and to every other person.
Seite 40 - What a variety of labour, too, is necessary in order to produce the tools of the meanest of those workmen ! to say nothing of such complicated machines as the ship of the sailor, the mill of the...
Seite 303 - Every tax ought to be so contrived as both to take out and to keep out of the pockets of the people as little as possible, over and above what it brings into the public treasury of the State.
Seite 303 - Thirdly, by the forfeitures and other penalties which those unfortunate individuals incur who attempt unsuccessfully to evade the tax, it may frequently ruin them, and thereby put an end to the benefit which the community might have received from the employment of their capitals.
Seite 41 - It is impossible to pass very quickly from one kind of work to another, that is carried on in a different place, and with quite different tools. A country weaver who cultivates a small farm must lose a good deal of time in passing from his loom to the field and from the field to his loom. When the two trades can be carried on in the same workhouse the loss of time is no doubt much less.