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mentioned in his character. Two or three of these annimals fols lowed him generally wherever he went. When congress con firmed the sentence of the court-martial, suspending him for 1 nionths, he pointed to his dog and exclaimed, “O! that I was that animal, that I might not call man my brother.??.-Two: virs tues he possessed in an eminent degree, viz. sincerity and veracity. He was never known to deceive or desert a friend, and he: was a stranger to equivocation, even where his safety or charac: ter were at stake."
A disposition to misrepresent and blacken the Indians, in order to justify, or palliate the practice of cruel measures toward them, has particularly appeared in the case of the Moravian Indians, settled on the Muskingum, a branch of the Ohio ; who early in the last spring suffered deeply on account of what they thought, the peaceable spirit of the gospel required them. The first gam thering of those Indians into a degree of civil and religious order, was about 30 years ago. The place of their residence was then at Whihaloosing, on the Susquehanna, about 200 miles from PhiJadelphia. In a visit to that city, about the year 1756, when the province was distressed by the Indian war, they declared their particular disapprobation of war, and fixed resolution to take no part therein ; apprehending it to be displeasiig to the Great Bce ing, who, as one of them expressed it, did not make men to destroy men, but to love and assist each other. About 13 years past, these Indians meeting with difficulty, from an increase of white settiers. near them, by which spirituous liquors were brought to their towns, removed to the Muskingum; and were accompanied by some of the Moravians, wlio have long resided among them, carefully attended both to their civil and religious concerns, and never left them in the times of their greatest danger and difficultya. These Indians refused to take any part in the present war; notwith standing repeated abuses on that account from other tribes, para aicularly those parties which passed through their townis, in their way to the American frontiers, whom they sometimes dissuaded from their hostile intentions, and prevailed upon to go back to gain. They also warned the inhabitants of their danger. This: conduct being considered as obstructive to the hostile proceedings of the tribes at war, was at length made the plea for carrying them off. In the beginning of August; 178.1, the chief of the Wyondats arrived with 220 warriors; and acquainted them, that they were come to take them away, rendering for a reason, that they were a great obstruction to them in their war-path. The Wyondats, after committing many outrages, about the beginning of September forced them from their thrce towns, in all between
3 and 400 persons. After a tedious journey in the wilderness, they arrived at a branch of Sandusky creek, where the body of them were ordered to renain. Some of their principal men were sent to the British commander at Fort Detroit, who cominended them as a peaceable people, and exhorted them to reinain such ; but added, that many complaints had been made of them, and that they had given intelligence to his enemies, wherefore he had sent for them. He said, that his instructions had been ex. ceeded in the ill treatment they had received, and that he would provide for them. Thus the matter rested till the spring of 1782, when these Moravian Indians finding corn scarce and dear at Şandusky, desired liberty to return to their settlements, to fetch some of their corn, of which they had left about 200 acres standing. When it was granted, many of them went, among whom were several widows with their children. i
When the people at and about the Monongahela understood that a number of Indians was at the Moravian towns, they gave out, that the intentions of those people were to fall upon the back inhabitants, which ought to be prevented. Upon this about 160 men got together; and swimming their horses over the Ohio, Eame suddenly upon the chief Moravian town. The first person who appeared, they shot at and wounded, when coming up to him they found he was an half Indian, son to one of the Moravians by an Indian woman, who had been regularly married. They kil·led and scalped him and proceeded to the town. The Indians who were mostly in the fields pulling corn, did not run off as they might, had they been conscious of any offence; but came of their own accord into the town, at the call of the white people, who at first expressed friendship to thein, and soon after violently seized and bound them. The Indians who assist the missionaries in keeping good order among their people, and upon occasion gave public exhortations, are called Helpers. Five of the inost respectable of these, and other Indians, exhorted the younger to submission and patience ; telling them, that they thought their troubles in this world would soon be at an end, and they would be with their Saviour. They then sung and prayed together, till they were led out one after another, and inhumanly slaughtered; first the men and then the women. Two boys, who made their escape, related these particulars. One of them lay in the heap of the dead, in a house, and was scalpedbut recovering his senses, es. caped. The other hid himself under the floor; was an eye-witness of this tragie scene; and saw the blood of the slain running in a streain. These Indians, before they were bound,' were so sensible of thicir own innocence, that they informed the white
people, that more of their brethren were at another town, whe in like manner feli a sacrifice to the barbarity of the whites. The dead bodies were afterward burned with the houses. Before their death, they were obliged to show in what part of the woods they had concealed their effects, when the Wyondats took them away, Those of the third town having some intelligence of what passed, made their escape. This is a summary of the dreadful transaction, as given by the principal leader of those that remain The Pennsylvania Packet of April says of these white savages
that they killed upward of 90 (but a few making their escape) about 40 of which were warriors, the rest old women and children. About 80 horses fell into the hands of the whites, which they loaded with the plunder, the greatest part furs and skios.” It was for the sake of the plunder that the Indians were killed.
It is alledged, in vindication of this deliberate niassacre,, that 40 of these Indians were warriors preparing to attack the Ame aican frontiers : but this assertion contradicts itself; for had it been the case, they would not have brought their wives, witla the widows, and 34 children, who were slain with theny ; nor would they have suffered themselves to be thus slaughtered with out making the least resistance, or killing even one of their murderers.
Soon after the death of these Indians, about 500 men, proba bly encouraged by this easy conquest, and in hope of plundet, assembled at the Old Mingos on the west side of the Ohiv; and being equipped on horseback, set out for Sandusky, where the remaining part of the Moravian Indians resided, in order to de. stroy that settlement, and other Indian towns in those parts; but the Wyondats, and other. Indians, having some knowledge of their approach, and being enraged at the massacre, met them near Sandusky, when an engagement ensued, in which some of the white people were killed, and several taken prisoners, among whom was the commander, col. Crawford, and his son-in-law. The colonel they burnt to death in a most cruel manner; the other, with more prisoners, they tomahawked. The-cruelty exercised on the colonel and the death of the prisoners, was utdoubtedly owing in the main to the murder of the peaceable Moravian Indians.*
General Washington, in August, established honorary badges of distinction, to be conferred on the non-commissioned offieers
* The above account in extracted from fome Otfervations on the lituation, disposition and character of the Indian Darives on the American continent, by that late moft excellent philanthropit of the quaker perfuafion, Anthony Benszet, of Philadelphia. The American papers told a differcat hory, fuch 8 was calculated to çxculpate their own people.
and soldiers of the army, who had served three years with bravery, fidelity and good conduct; and upon every one who had or should perform any singularly meritorious action. The candidate for the reward annexed to such action, was to set forth the particular fact to the commander in chief, accompanied with incontestible proof. Upon granting it, the name and regiment of the person, with the action so certified, were to be enrolled int a book of merit, kept in the orderly office. Men who hrave meritted the last distinctions, are to be suffered to pass all guards and sentinels, which a non-commissioned officer is suffered to pass, Military operations being suspended, tlie opportunity has been inproved for perfecting the discipline of the army * The court of Versailles ordered that the corps under count de Rochambeau should go to the West-Indies, in case the evacua tion of New-York or Charleston should take place. In expectation that the latter would happen, the French legion iparched from Richmond in Virginia, and the French army under the count from Williamsburgh, to the northward, in the beginning of July. Toward the last of October, they proceeded to the eastern states under the pretext of taking winter quarters there : but in fact with the design of embarking on board the French squadron of 1.5. sail of the line and 4 frigates (which arrived under the command of the marquis de Vandreuil in the lower harbor of Boston, on the 10th of August) whenever the evacuation, on which the ultimate movement depended, should be sufficient. Jy ascertained. • When Rochambeau was about leaving Williamsburgh, the city and corporation presented him with a polite and affectionate ad. dress. His answer closed with~"* I feel an additional satisfaca tion in having fought in Virginia, under the auspices of a Vira ginia general, whose glory, equally celebrated in both hemispheres, shines with particular lustre in his native country." - The count arrived at gen. Washington's head-quarters on the 14th of September. Soon after, the French army joined the American; and was reviewed by the commander in chief on the 20th. Affection, esteem, and cordiality, were equally visible in the countenances of the French officers and of the Americans. The four divisions of the French army arrived at Boston in the first week of December, under the conimand of the Baron Viomenil, who is ordered to the West-Indies instead of count de Rocham beau: the count returns to France. On the 11th, gov. Hancock and the council gave a public dinner to the general and field officers, the marquis de Vandreuil and the principal officers in the fleet, The Magnišique, a 74 gun ship, one of the feet, hav, ing been lost by accident in the harbor of Boston, Congress, desirous of testifying the sense they entertained of liis most Christian majesty's generous exertions in behalf of the United States, resolved on the 3d of September, to present the America, a 74 gun ship, to the Chevalier de la Luzerne for the service of the French king. The fleet sailed with the army, on the 29th of December.
On the 20th of December, the celebrated Charleston frigate, commanded by capt. Joiner, and (according to the New-York account) carrying 28 forty-two pounders mounted on her main deck, and on the quarter deck-and forecastle 12 twelve pounders, and 450 men, was taken by the British Quebec of 32 guns, and Diomede of 44, after a chase of 18 hours and a half from off the Delaware.
The demand for bibles being great and the price high, in consequence of the war, Mr. Aitken, a printer at Philadelphia, un. dertook and finished an American edition of the holy scriptures in English, the first of the kind. Congress, on the first of last September, recommended it to their two chaplains (the Rev, Dr. White, * an episcopalian, and the Rev. Mr. Duffield, a pres byterian) to examine the execution of the work, and if approx ed, to give it the sanction of their judgment and weight of their recommendation. They reported in favor of it, that they were of opinion that it was executed with great accuracy as to the sense, and with as few grammatical and typographical errors as could be expected in a work of such magnitude. Whereupon Congress passed a resolve on the 12th of September, highly approving the pious and laudable undertaking of Mr. Aitken, and recommending his edition of the Bible to the inhabitants of the United States. Notwithstanding this recommendation, should the war close in a short time, imported bibles will be sold so much cheaper, and on that account be so universally bought, that Mr. Aitken will be a considerable loser by the great expence which necessarily attended his undertaking,
This town of Roxbury has given each of the three years men whom they enlisted for the army in 1781 and 1782, a bounty of not less than fifty-six pounds five shillings sterling, hard money. The bounties given by the towns in the Massachusetts for similar purposes for the last of these years, will average £. 64 45. 9d. sterling in cash, on every such recruit. The enormity of the sum has proved a heavy burden to numbers who have shared in the expence. ' * Since ordained a bishop according to the rites, and by the bands of the ! bihops, of the church of England.