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arrive soon from Philadelphia. N. Greene." Fishi-kill, May 2 Yesterday was the third day our army [under Washington) has been without provision. Every department is without money and without credit. The army could not make a march of one day, as they are without every necessary as well as provisions. Officers and soldiers are exceedingly discontented. You have doubtlessheard of the premeditated revolt of the Connecticut line, happi ly discovered the day previous to that in which it was to have been put in execution. The ringleader was punished with death. Wherever I go, I hear complaints which make me dread the most fatal consequences. The distresses of our army have arrived to the greatest possible degree... Steuben;"” “ May 28. I amun der anxiety from the want of the necessary deposits of provisions in the garrison of West-Point.. This is an alarming circumstance, Were the enemy to know our situation, and make a sudden attempt; what is there to save these important posts? G. Washington.” “Aug. 12. For upward of two months more than onethird of our men (of the southern army) were entirely naked, with nothing but a breach-cloth about them, and never came out of their tents; and the rest were as ragged as wolves. Our condition was little better in the article of provision. Our beef was perfect carrion; and even bad as it was, we were frequently without any. An army thus clothed and thus fedy. may be considered in a desperate situation. However, we have struggled through it. Our supplies of provision are better, but scanty and uncertain.. Some clothing is arrived, and added to what the góvernor procured, renders- the troops pretty comfortable, and the army very contented and easy, especially as we have it now in our power to issue rum eight times a month. North Carolina hath had few other soldiers than non-jurors and disaffected, and those for different terms of service.. N. Greene," fMr. Joshua Lockwood, under the direction of governor Matthews; brought out of Charleston a large quantity of the articles which were most needed in the camp. They were furnished by some of the inhabitants, who wished to make their peace with their countrymen.j. 6. Sept. 22. When I found the supplies of money from the states, would prove so inadequate; I determined to check al} other expenees, and to think only of feeding the army. We have lately had an arrival of linens; which the clothier says are sufficio ent to make thirty thousand shirts.;: but he is so indebted to the poor people who have worked for him, and who are starving fór want of their wages, that he cannot procuré credit to get them made. Money I have none. And could he run in debt still further, it would only increase the mischief, for I see no prostor
prospect of payment. R. Morris”-“ Oct. 2. Only conceive the mortification, that even the general officers are under, when they cannot invite a French officer, a visiting friend, a travelling acquaintance, to a better repast, than stinking whisky, (hot from the still) and not always that, and a bit of beef without vegetables, will afford them, , I could give anecdotes of patriotism and distress which have scarcely ever been parallelled, never surpassed in the history of mankind; but you may rely upon it, the patience and long sufferance of this [the northern] army are almost exhausted, and that there never was so great a spirit of discontent as at this instant. It is high time for a peace. Our troops have been, and still are obliged to perform services foreign to their proper duty, without gratuity or reward, more than the soldiers of any other army--for example, the immense labours expended in doing the duties of artificers, in erecting fortifications and military works; the fatigue of building themselves barracks and huts anually ; and cutting and transporting wood for the use of all our posts and garrisons, without any expence whatever to the public. G. Iaşhington."-" Oct. 17. We were upon the point of trying our hands at how we could live without subsistence, as the superintendant was no longer able to fulfil his .contract with the victuallers of the (northern)arniy,and as they relinquished it: till fortunately for us, we met with gentlemen, who for an ad, vanced price per ration, have saved us from starvation or disbandcment by giving a credit.”-“ Oct. 24. For want of money wa -have been obliged to relinquish a contract for subsisting the army at ten pence a ration, and give thirteen pence, for the sake of three months credit.” Even in July the demand for money was so great as to raise interest to five per cent. per month. 3. On the 2d of August, Sir Guy Carleton and admiral Digby,
sent out a joint letter to gen. Washington, wherein they said * We are acquainted, Sir, by authority, that negociations for a general peace have already commenced at Paris, and that Mr.
Grenville is invested with full powers to treat with all the parties wat war, and is now at.Paris in the execution of this commission.
With respect to Mr. Laurens, we are to acquaint you, that he has been enlarged and discharged from all engagements without sany condition whatever ; after which he declared of his own ac
cord, that he considered lord Cornwallis as free from his parole. * We are further acquainted, that transports have been prepared in
England, for conveying all the American prisoners to this coun
try to be exchanged here; and we are directed to urge, by every Je consideration of humanity, the most speedy exchange." "When his news was known by the loyalists, such a scene of distress raged
through the city of New York, as is not easily described. Those in the army tore their lappels from their coats, stamped them under their feet, and exclaimed that they were ruined for every Others cried out, that they had sacrificed every thing to prove their loyalty, and were now left to shift for themselves, lost both to the friendship of their king and country. On the 7th, it was earnestly recommended in the New-York paper to the loyalists every where, to suspend their opinion on the present important occasion, and each to continue firm to the professions he had made of loyalty and zeal for the reunion of the empire, and to wait the issue. By such a conduct, is was observed, they would preserve a claim to national regard and protection, which it would be madness to forfeit; since by giving way to the suggestions of inpatience they could only disgrace themselves in the eyes of their enemies, without a shadow of advantage. .. .is
A part of the news was soon confirmed by the arrival of two cartel ships at Marblehead, with 583 Americans. By the 21st of the month a third arrived with 116 more. Your friend em. braced the opportunity of talking with several as they passed by his house. The substance of what they related follows. From the beginning of the war till they left Froton prison at Gosport, ncar upon 1400 had been committed, out of the whole only 120 died, and of these more by the small-pox than any other disorder. Before gen. Burgoyne was taken, persons were not allowed to visit or relieve them. After that event the treatment was different, and former severities were mitigated. When sick they were taken exceeding good care of; and had Americans employed to nurse them. Had not agents, clerks, &c. deducted from the king's allowance, they should have done pretty well: though having no more than criminals allowance of provision, they had a very scana ty support, beside which the provision was often exceeding bad. When the change of ministry took place, they were considered as prisoners of war, and had an allowance accordingly. They mentioned, that before they were sent off, the duke of Richmond, gen. Conway, and some other gentlemen visited them, expressed a concern for their sufferings showed them much kindness, gave them money very condescendingly shook hands with them, and said they were brethren. They related that the Rev. Mr. Wren of Portsmouth was extremely kind to them; was like a father ; procured them clothes, money, and many articles to help them, under their confinement; and frequently visited and prayed withy the sick. Mr. Laurens visited them; encouraged them to remain firm to their country's cause; and told them how he had suffered under his confinement. One of them who had been a prisoner at
New-York, to express the difference between the places, de clared that he had rather be imprisoned months in Erigland thai weeks at New-York. They stated the number of persons who came away upon the exchange at 303, the rest having made tlieie escape at different periods..
A few acts of Congress shall be now related. " I
On the 13th of May, the minister of France was admitted to a public audience, and after addressing congress in a speecli; delivered to them a letter from his most Christian majesty, informing them of the birth of his son the Dauphin. A suitable answer was given to the Chevalier de la Luzerne." They then', ordered a letter to be written to the commander in chief; and to the commander in the southern department, informing them of the said event, and directed that it should be published in both armies with proper demonstrations of joy. The secretary for foreign affairs was also to inform the governors and presis dents of the respective states, that the people of each state might partake in the joy.-When the minister had withdrawn, the birth of the Dauphin was announced to the public by a discharge of cannon and a feu-de-joie of musketry. In the afternoon à dinner was provided by congress for the Ghevalier and his suit; and the evening was closed with a brillant display of fire-works in the state-house yard. The official notification of the Daus phin's birth was received in all places of the United States, with every mark of joy and token of respect to their great and genetous ally, and to the French nation. '. in * On the 20th of June it was concluded, that the device for an armorial achievement and reverse for the great seal for the United States in congress assembled should be as follows--ARMSPaleways of thirteen picces, argent and gules ; a chief, azure ; the escutcheon on the breast of the American eagle displayed, proper, holding in his dexter talon an olive-branch, and in his sinister a bundle of thirteen arrows, all proper, and in his béak a scrollinscribed with this motto- Epluribus Unum.".For the CREST-Over the head of the eagle, which appears above the escutcheon, a glory, Or; breaking through a cloud, proper, and surrounding thirteen stars forming a constellation, argent, on an azuré field.--REVERSE--A pyramid unfinished. In the zenith an eye in a triangle, surrounded with a glory, proper. Over the eye, these words-“ Anouit Cæptis.” On the base of the pyramid the numerical letters MDCCLXXVI. And underneath the following motto-" Novus Ordo Secloium.”
(Sept. 14.1 They resolved that the 'suni of four millions of dolkars, exclusive of the money which Mr. Adams may obtain by
the loan now negociating in Holland, be borrowed in Europe on the faith of the United States. Nine days after, they resolved, that Dr. Franklin should be informed, that notwithstanding the contents of the letters of the 25th of June, it is the direction of congress, that he use his utmost endeavors to effect the afore said loan.
ii . On the 4th of October, they resolved unanimously, that they would inviolably adhere to the treaty of alliance with his most Christian majesty, and conclude neither a separate peace not truce with Great-Britain ; nor enter into the discussion of any overtures for pacification, but in confidence and in concert with bis 'most Christian majesty. • We pass on to the southward as far as Georgia, with some ac count of which may last letter closed. · The British garrison at Savannah consisted of about 1000 reguTars, beside a considerable number of militia, and was under the command of brigadier Clarke. This superiority of force did not prevent gen. Wayne's appearing often before the British lines and insulting their picquets. Three different attempts were made to surprise an advanced party of the Americans without succeed ing. About the same time the American goverior with his council removed from Augusta to Ebenezer. Soon after his arrival he issued a procłaniation offering to every British or Hessian sol dier, who should desert from Savannalı, 200 acres of land and sorne stock; which had the desired effect in a certain degree.
On the 21st of May, col. Brown, at the head of a considerable party, marched out of the garrison of Savannah, with the appa rent intention of attacking the Americans. Wayne, by a bold ma næuvre, got between Brown and the garrison, attacked him at twelve o'clock at night, and routed his whole party. The van guard of the Americans, consisting of 60 horse and 40 infantry, was ded on by col. White, of the cavalry, and capt. Parker, of the in fantry, to a spirited charge; in which 40 of Brown's men were killed or wounded, about 20 taken prisoners, and the remainder obliged to shelter themselves in the swamps under cover of the night. The advantage was gained by the liberal use of the sword and bayonet. Orders had been previously given to depend en tirely on these weapons; and to secure a punctual compliance, the Hints were taken out of the musketry of the infantry. The Americans had only five privates killed and two wounded.---Though Brown proved unsuccessful, yet gen. Greene reckons him one of the best officers belonging to the British troops. .. .
On the 24th of June, a large body of Creek Indians, headed by a number of their most celebrated chiefs and warriors, and a Bet